Military Cultures in Peace and Stability Operations

Afghanistan and Lebanon
Author: Chiara Ruffa
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 0812295048
Category: History
Page: 204
View: 2630
As of September 2017, the United Nations alone deployed 110,000 uniformed personnel from 122 countries in fifteen peacekeeping operations worldwide. Soldiers in these missions are important actors who not only have considerable responsibility for implementing peace and stability operations but also have a concomitant influence on their goals and impact. Yet we know surprisingly little about the factors that prompt soldiers' behavior. Despite being deployed on the same mission under similar conditions, various national contingents display significant, systematic differences in their actions on the ground. In Military Cultures in Peace and Stability Operations, Chiara Ruffa challenges the widely held assumption that military contingents, regardless of their origins, implement mandates in a similar manner. She argues instead that military culture—the set of attitudes, values, and beliefs instilled into an army and transmitted across generations of those in uniform —influences how soldiers behave at the tactical level. When soldiers are abroad, they are usually deployed as units, and when a military unit deploys, its military culture goes with it. By investigating where military culture comes from, Ruffa demonstrates why military units conduct themselves the way they do. Between 2007 and 2014, Ruffa was embedded in French and Italian units deployed under comparable circumstances in two different kinds of peace and stability operations: the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon and the NATO mission in Afghanistan. Based on hundreds of interviews, she finds that while French units prioritized patrolling and the display of high levels of protection and force—such as body armor and weaponry—Italian units placed greater emphasis on delivering humanitarian aid. She concludes that civil-military relations and societal beliefs about the use of force in the units' home country have an impact on the military culture overseas, soldiers' perceptions and behavior, and, ultimately, consequences for their ability to keep the peace.

The Use of Force in UN Peace Operations

Author: Trevor Findlay,Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780198292821
Category: Law
Page: 486
View: 2092
One of the most vexing issues that has faced the international community since the end of the Cold War has been the use of force by the United Nations peacekeeping forces. UN intervention in civil wars, as in Somalia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Rwanda, has thrown into stark relief the difficulty of peacekeepers operating in situations where consent to their presence and activities is fragile or incomplete and where there is little peace to keep. Complex questions arise in these circumstances. When and how should peacekeepers use force to protect themselves, to protect their mission, or, most troublingly, to ensure compliance by recalcitrant parties with peace accords? Is a peace enforcement role for peacekeepers possible or is this simply war by another name? Is there a grey zone between peacekeeping and peace enforcement? Trevor Findlay reveals the history of the use of force by UN peacekeepers from Sinai in the 1950s to Haiti in the 1990s. He untangles the arguments about the use of force in peace operations and sets these within the broader context of military doctrine and practice. Drawing on these insights the author examines proposals for future conduct of UN operations, including the formulation of UN peacekeeping doctrine and the establishment of a UN rapid reaction force.

Towards a Theory of United Nations Peacekeeping

Author: A.B. Fetherston
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 134923642X
Category: Political Science
Page: 292
View: 7390
'At a time when peacekeepers are struggling to fulfil increasingly demanding mandates and UN peacekeeping is in danger of losing the distinct character that won it the 1988 Nobel Peace Prize, this important book argues for a clear theoretical redefinition within a conflict resolution framework and examines the practical implications for training. This is a valuable and original contribution to the peacekeeping literature.' - Dr. Oliver Ramsbotham, Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford 'Both for the 'blue helmets' on the ground, and for the diplomats at UN headquarters, conflict resolution skills are essential for conducting peacekeeping operations. Betts Fetherstone's excellent study points the way forward to a synthesis between conflict management and peacekeeping?' - Hugh Miall, Research Fellow, European Programme, Royal Institute of International Affairs The prevailing over-taxed ad hoc system of peacekeeping does not meet the growing demands posed by the post-Cold War world. This volume argues that peacekeeping needs to be placed on firm conceptual footing directly congruent with its peaceful third party role. The implications of this conceptualisation of peacekeeping for practice are then discussed. Training is cited as a key means of translating conceptual understanding into practice. Without this foundation work, UN has little chance of changing its existing, and largely ineffective, system of conflict management. At a time when peacekeepers are struggling to fulfil increasingly demanding mandates and UN peacekeeping is in danger of losing the distinct character that won it the 1988 Nobel Peace Prize, this important book argues for a clear theoretical redefinition within a conflict resolution framework and examines the practical implications for training. This is a valuable and original contribution to the peacekeeping literature.

A Business of Some Heat

The United Nations Force in Cyprus Before and During the 1974 Turkish Invasion
Author: Francis Henn
Publisher: Casemate Publishers
ISBN: 184415081X
Category: History
Page: 550
View: 8803
Cyprus, long troubled by inter-communal strife, exploded onto the world stage with the Athens-inspired coup and the subsequent Turkish invasion. This led to partition on the island, a situation complicated by the Yom Kippur War. This book examines the role of the UN as it attempts to maintain peace in Cyprus.

Peace Operations Between War and Peace

Author: Erwin A. Schmidl
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113530002X
Category: History
Page: 184
View: 3706
Peace operations entail a special form of co-operation between nation-states and international organization, but tend to be most difficult for the soldiers, police and civilian officials on the ground. This volume highlights the latter role with case studies of Srebrenica and Somalia.

Social Sciences and the Military

An Interdisciplinary Overview
Author: Giuseppe Caforio
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134223625
Category: History
Page: 320
View: 7839
This innovative book presents the reader with a clear international view of interdisciplinary and intradisciplinary approaches to military and conflict-resolution studies. In this first title on its subject, leading expert Giuseppe Caforio offers a thorough analysis of the new aspects and trends of the social sciences in studying the military. Since the end of the Cold War, military operations other than war, crisis-response operations, the fight against terrorism, and hi-tech warfare have posed for the militaries of all countries a new set of human and social challenges and problems of an intensity that had never been seen in peacetime. Sociology, social psychology, anthropology and the science of conflict are grappling with these issues, common to all armed forces, with a new fervour. This new book offers an update on the state-of-the-art on this theme and defines the latest study and research trends in the field. Social Sciences and the Military contains essays by some of the most highly regarded scholars on the subject and will be essential reading for all students of civil-military relations, conflict resolution and military studies in general.

European Approaches to United Nations Peacekeeping

Towards a Stronger Re-Engagement?
Author: Joachim A. Koops,Giulia Tercovich
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781138503328
Category: Peacekeeping forces
Page: 226
View: 6304
This edited volume provides a comprehensive analysis of European approaches to United Nations peacekeeping by assessing past practice, present obstacles and future potentials related to nine core European countries� contributions to blue helmet operations. By providing in-depth case studies on Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Norway, Sweden, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom, this book offers an evaluation of European approaches as well as a wide range of facilitating and constraining factors related to the above mentioned countries� future involvement in UN peacekeeping. The book places particular emphasis on the recent involvement of European countries in the UN operation in Mali (MINUSMA) and explores to what extent this experience might lead to further marked increases of European supplies of troops and capabilities and thus a broader �European return� to UN peacekeeping. Each chapter offers an up-to-date case study on key countries� policies, challenges and opportunities for a stronger re-engagement in UN Peacekeeping It provides a comprehensive analysis of the main challenges and concrete ways ahead for overcoming institutional, political, financial and military obstacles (both at European capitals and within the UN system) on the path towards a stronger re-engagement of European troop contributing countries in the field of UN Peacekeeping. Furthermore, each chapter includes a set of policy-relevant recommendations for future ways ahead. The chapters in this book were originally published in International Peacekeeping.

The Myth of the Democratic Peacekeeper

Civil-Military Relations and the United Nations
Author: Arturo C. Sotomayor
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 1421412136
Category: History
Page: 255
View: 4253
The Myth of the Democratic Peacekeeper reevaluates how United Nations peacekeeping missions reform (or fail to reform) their participating members. It investigates how such missions affect military organizations and civil-military relations as countries transition to a more democratic system. Two-thirds of the UN’s peacekeepers come from developing nations, many of which are transitioning to democracy as well. The assumption is that these "blue helmet" peacekeepers learn not only to appreciate democratic principles through their mission work but also to develop an international outlook and new ideas about conflict prevention. Arturo C. Sotomayor debunks this myth, arguing that democratic practices don’t just "rub off" on UN peacekeepers. So what, if any, benefit accrues to these troops from emerging democracies? In this richly detailed study of a decade’s worth of research (2001–2010) on Argentine, Brazilian, and Uruguayan peacekeeping participation, Sotomayor draws upon international socialization theory and civil-military relations to understand how peacekeeping efforts impact participating armed forces. He asks three questions: Does peacekeeping reform military organizations? Can peacekeeping socialize soldiers to become more liberalized and civilianized? Does peacekeeping improve defense and foreign policy integration? His evaluation of the three countries’ involvement in the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti reinforces his final analysis—that successful democratic transitions must include a military organization open to change and a civilian leadership that exercises its oversight responsibilities. The Myth of the Democratic Peacekeeper contributes to international relations theory and to substantive issues in civil-military relations and comparative politics. It provides a novel argument about how peacekeeping works and further insight into how international factors affect domestic politics as well as how international institutions affect democratizing efforts.

Unintended Consequences of Peacekeeping Operations

Author: Chiyuki Aoi,Cedric De Coning,Ramesh Chandra Thakur
Publisher: United Nations Univ
Category: Political Science
Page: 292
View: 953

United Nations Peacekeeping

An ACUNS Teaching Text
Author: Thomas George Weiss,Jarat Chopra
Publisher: N.A
Category: Arbitration (International law)
Page: 69
View: 4832

Long walk of peace

towards a culture of prevention
Author: UNESCO
Publisher: UNESCO Publishing
ISBN: 9231002708
Page: 234
View: 2683

War and Peace and War

The Rise and Fall of Empires
Author: Peter Turchin
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 9781101126912
Category: History
Page: 416
View: 6837
Like Jared Diamond in Guns, Germs, and Steel, Peter Turchin in War and Peace and War uses his expertise in evolutionary biology to make a highly original argument about the rise and fall of empires. Turchin argues that the key to the formation of an empire is a society’s capacity for collective action. He demonstrates that high levels of cooperation are found where people have to band together to fight off a common enemy, and that this kind of cooperation led to the formation of the Roman and Russian empires, and the United States. But as empires grow, the rich get richer and the poor get poorer, conflict replaces cooperation, and dissolution inevitably follows. Eloquently argued and rich with historical examples, War and Peace and War offers a bold new theory about the course of world history.

Documents on the Law of UN Peace Operations

Author: Bruce Oswald,Helen Durham,Adrian Bates
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 019102452X
Category: Law
Page: 624
View: 8589
United Nations peacekeepers currently play a crucial role in international responses to threats to peace and security across the globe. Since 1948 the UN has been involved in over 60 peacekeeping operations. However in the current environment of complex and rapidly changing threats to peace, there has been a dramatic increase in the use of UN peacekeepers to deal with situations of instability. In 2009 alone over 100,000 individuals are deployed on such missions. This situation has resulted in a range of new and pressing challenges to the legal framework applicable during such collective international action. This book provides, for the first time, a comprehensive account of the legal framework regulating this area of collective international action. The book contains key documents in the areas of privileges and immunities, human rights law, international humanitarian law, and international criminal law. Types of documents featured include foundational treaties, international rules and regulations, memoranda, judgments of the International Court of Justice, and some mission specific documents. Before each document a prefatory note is included, outlining the historical development of the document as well as its relevance to UN peace operations. To further assist scholars and practitioners in their work, the work concludes with a guide on undertaking further legal research on the laws relevant to peace operations, a list of all UN peace operations and relevant enabling resolutions, and a suggested approach to interpreting Security Council mandates. From scholars and students to policy makers, representatives in the military, police and humanitarian organisations - this book will be an invaluable resource in the development of a better understanding of the legal framework surrounding the establishment, management, and conduct of peace operations that are mandated and controlled by the UN.

The Oxford Handbook of United Nations Peacekeeping Operations

Author: Joachim Koops,Norrie MacQueen,Thierry Tardy,Paul D. Williams
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019150954X
Category: Political Science
Page: 800
View: 8552
The Oxford Handbook of United Nations Peacekeeping Operations provides an innovative, authoritative, and accessible examination and critique of all 67 United Nations peacekeeping operations launched between 1948 and 2013. l Since the late 1940s, but particularly since the end of the cold war, peacekeeping has been the most visible and one of the most important activities of the United Nations and a significant part of global security governance and conflict management. The volume offers a chapter-by-chapter chronological analysis, designed to provide a comprehensive overview that highlights the evolution, changing nature and overall impact of UN peacekeeping. It also includes a collection of thematic chapters that examine key issues such as major trends of peace operations, the link between peacekeeping, humanitarian interventions and the responsibility to protect, peacekeeping and international law, the UN's inter-organizational partnerships and how to evaluate success or failure. l This handbook brings together leading scholars and senior practitioners in order to provide a comprehensive assessment of the successes, failures and lessons learned of UN peacekeeping since 1948. This is a unique reference book for scholars and practitioners working in the field of international relations, international security, peacekeeping and global governance.

Providing Peacekeepers

The Politics, Challenges, and Future of United Nations Peacekeeping Contributions
Author: Alex J. Bellamy,Paul D. Williams
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191653470
Category: Political Science
Page: 480
View: 832
During the first decade of the twenty-first century, the rising demand for peacekeepers saw the United Nations (UN) operate at a historically unprecedented tempo, with increases in the number and size of missions as well as in the scope and complexity of their mandates. The need to deploy over 120,000 UN peacekeepers and the demands placed upon them in the field have threatened to outstrip the willingness and to some extent capacity of the UN's Member States. This situation raised the questions of why states contribute forces to UN missions and, conversely, what factors inhibit them from doing more? Providing Peacekeepers answers these questions. After summarizing the challenges confronting the UN in its force generation efforts, the book develops a new framework for analyzing UN peacekeeping contributions in light of the evidence presented in sixteen case study chapters which examine the experiences of the United States, the United Kingdom, France, the People's Republic of China, the Russian Federation, Bangladesh, Pakistan, India, Nigeria, Ghana, Nepal, Uruguay, Brazil, Turkey, South Africa, and Japan. The book concludes by offering recommendations for how the UN might develop new strategies for force generation so as to meet the foreseeable challenges of twenty-first century peacekeeping and improve the quantity and quality of its uniformed peacekeepers.

Fortress Israel

The Inside Story of the Military Elite Who Run the Country--and Why They Can't Make Peace
Author: Patrick Tyler
Publisher: Macmillan
ISBN: 0374281041
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 562
View: 2614
In the late 1940s, David Ben-Gurion founded a unique military society: the state of Israel. A powerful defense establishment came to dominate the nation, and for half a century Israel's leaders have relished continuous war with the Arabs with an unblinking determination.

Warriors for peace

a sociological study on the Austrian experience of UN peacekeeping
Author: Franz Kernic,Harald Haas
Publisher: Peter Lang Pub Inc
Category: History
Page: 131
View: 529
This study deals with sociological and sociopsychological aspects of UN Peacekeeping missions focusing on the Austrian experience. The study is broad and descriptive covering a spectrum that ranges from the soldier's motivation to join UN-troops to the social and psychological problems encountered during service. The main purpose is to give a broad overview of work-related experiences during the tour of duty. The emphasis is on the Austrian soldier's life and his experiences as a peacekeeper. The study focuses primarily on an Austrian battalion (AUSBATT/UNDOF) deployed to the Golan Heights. Their mission can be considered a traditional UN Peacekeeping operation. In addition, some data on the Austrian IFOR contingent to Bosnia is included.

The Politics of International Intervention

The Tyranny of Peace
Author: Mandy Turner,Florian P. Kühn
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317486471
Category: Political Science
Page: 302
View: 8189
This book critically explores the practices of peacebuilding, and the politics of the communities experiencing intervention. The contributions to this volume have a dual focus. First, they analyse the practices of western intervention and peacebuilding, and the prejudices and politics that drive them. Second, they explore how communities experience and deal with this intervention, as well as an understanding of how their political and economic priorities can often diverge markedly from those of the intervener. This is achieved through theoretical and thematic chapters, and an extensive number of in-depth empirical case studies. Utilising a variety of conceptual frameworks and disciplines, the book seeks to understand why something so normatively desirable – the pursuit of, and building of, peace – has turned out so badly. From Cambodia to Afghanistan, Iraq to Mali, interventions in the pursuit of peace have not achieved the results desired by the interveners. But, rather, they have created further instability and violence. The contributors to this book explore why. This book will be of much interest to students, academics and practitioners of peacebuilding, peacekeeping, international intervention, statebuilding, security studies and IR in general.


Author: Beth L Bailey
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674035364
Category: History
Page: 319
View: 5072
"... the story of the all-volunteer force, from the draft protests and policy proposals of the 1960s through the Iraq War"--Jacket.