Plural Logic


Author: Alex Oliver,Timothy Smiley
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199570426
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 336
View: 9633
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Alex Oliver and Timothy Smiley provide a natural point of entry to what for most readers will be a new subject. Plural logic deals with plural terms, plural predicates, and plural quantification. Current logic is singularist: its terms stand for at most one thing. By contrast, the foundational thesis of this book is that a particular term may legitimately stand for several things at once; in other words, there is such a thing as genuinely plural denotation. Theauthors argue that plural phenomena need to be taken seriously and that the only viable response is to adopt a plural logic, a logic based on plural denotation. They expound a framework of ideas thatincludes the distinction between distributive and collective predicates, the theory of plural descriptions, multivalued functions, and lists. A formal system of plural logic is presented in three stages, before being applied to Cantorian set theory as an illustration. The authors' approach is an attractive blend of no-nonsense argumentative directness and open minded liberalism, and they convey the exciting and unexpected richness of their subject. Mathematicians and linguists, as well aslogicians and philosophers, will find surprises in this book.

Plural Logic

Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged
Author: Alex Oliver,Timothy Smiley
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191644110
Category: Philosophy
Page: 352
View: 4895
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Alex Oliver and Timothy Smiley provide a natural point of entry to what for most readers will be a new subject. Plural logic deals with plural terms ('Whitehead and Russell', 'Henry VIII's wives', 'the real numbers', 'the square root of -1', 'they'), plural predicates ('surrounded the fort', 'are prime', 'are consistent', 'imply'), and plural quantification ('some things', 'any things'). Current logic is singularist: its terms stand for at most one thing. By contrast, the foundational thesis of this book is that a particular term may legitimately stand for several things at once; in other words, there is such a thing as genuinely plural denotation. The authors argue that plural phenomena need to be taken seriously and that the only viable response is to adopt a plural logic, a logic based on plural denotation. They expound a framework of ideas that includes the distinction between distributive and collective predicates, the theory of plural descriptions, multivalued functions, and lists. A formal system of plural logic is presented in three stages, before being applied to Cantorian set theory as an illustration. Technicalities have been kept to a minimum, and anyone who is familiar with the classical predicate calculus should be able to follow it. The authors' approach is an attractive blend of no-nonsense argumentative directness and open-minded liberalism, and they convey the exciting and unexpected richness of their subject. Mathematicians and linguists, as well as logicians and philosophers, will find surprises in this book. This second edition includes a greatly expanded treatment of the paradigm empty term zilch, a much strengthened treatment of Cantorian set theory, and a new chapter on higher-level plural logic.

Unity and Plurality

Logic, Philosophy, and Linguistics
Author: Massimiliano Carrara,Alexandra Arapinis,Friederike Moltmann
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019871632X
Category:
Page: 256
View: 431
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Unity and Plurality presents novel ways of thinking about plurality while casting new light on the interconnections among the logical, philosophical, and linguistic aspects of plurals. The volume brings together new work on the logic and ontology of plurality and on the semantics of plurals in natural language. Plural reference, the view that definite plurals such as 'the students' refer to several entities at once (the individual students), is an approach favoured by logicians and philosophers, who take sentences with plurals ('the students gathered') not to be committed to entities beyond individuals, entities such as classes, sums, or sets. By contrast, linguistic semantics has been dominated by a singularist approach to plurals, taking the semantic value of a definite plural such as 'the students' to be a mereological sum or set. Moreover, semantics has been dominated by a particular ontological view of plurality, that of extensional mereology. This volume aims to build a bridge between the two traditions and to show the fruitfulness of nonstandard mereological approaches. A team of leading experts investigates new perspectives that arise from plural logic and non-standard mereology and explore novel applications to natural language phenomena.

The Continuum Companion to Philosophical Logic


Author: Leon Horsten,Richard Pettigrew
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 144115423X
Category: Philosophy
Page: 637
View: 2437
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A single volume reference guide to the latest work and potential future directions in Philosophical Logic, written by an international team of leading scholars.

Mathematics, Models, and Modality

Selected Philosophical Essays
Author: John P. Burgess
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 113947054X
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 5816
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John Burgess is the author of a rich and creative body of work which seeks to defend classical logic and mathematics through counter-criticism of their nominalist, intuitionist, relevantist, and other critics. This selection of his essays, which spans twenty-five years, addresses key topics including nominalism, neo-logicism, intuitionism, modal logic, analyticity, and translation. An introduction sets the essays in context and offers a retrospective appraisal of their aims. The volume will be of interest to a wide range of readers across philosophy of mathematics, logic, and philosophy of language.

Plural Predication


Author: Thomas McKay
Publisher: Clarendon Press
ISBN: 9780199278145
Category: Philosophy
Page: 272
View: 3488
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Plural predication is a pervasive part of ordinary language. We can say that some people are fifty in number, are surrounding a building, come from many countries, and are classmates. These predicates can be true of some people without being true of any one of them; they are non-distributive predications. Yet the apparatus of predication and quantification in standard modern logic does not allow a place for such non-distributive predicates.Thomas McKay's book explores the enrichment of modern logic with plural predication and quantification. We can have genuinely non-distributive predication without relying on singularizing procedures from set theory and mereology. The fundamental 'among' relation can be understood in a way that does not generate any hierarchy of plurals analogous to a hierarchy of types or a hierarchy of higher-order logics. Singular quantification can be understood as a special case, with the general type beingquantifiers that allow both singular and plural quantification. The 'among' relation is formally similar to a 'part of' relation, but the relations are distinct, so that mass quantification and plural quantification cannot be united in the same way that plural and singular are united.Analysis of singular and plural definite descriptions follows, with a defense of a fundamentally Russellian analysis, but coupled with some new ideas about how to be sensitive to the role of context. This facilitates an analysis of some central features of the use of pronouns, both singular and plural.

Logic & Natural Language

On Plural Reference and Its Semantic and Logical Significance
Author: Hanoch Ben-Yami
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 9780754637431
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 160
View: 1867
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Frege's invention of the predicate calculus has been the most influential event in the history of modern logic. The calculus' place in logic is so central that many philosophers think, in fact, of it when they think of logic. This book challenges the position in contemporary logic and philosophy of language of the predicate calculus claiming that it is based on mistaken assumptions. Ben-Yami shows that the predicate calculus is different from natural language in its fundamental semantic characteristics, primarily in its treatment of reference and quantification, and that as a result the calculus is inadequate for the analysis of the semantics and logic of natural language.

Plural Pronominal Anaphora in Context

Dynamic Aspects of Quantification
Author: Rick Nouwen
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Anaphora (Linguistics)
Page: 193
View: 7978
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Logic, Logic, and Logic


Author: George Boolos,Richard C. Jeffrey
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674537675
Category: Philosophy
Page: 443
View: 1355
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George Boolos was one of the most prominent and influential logician-philosophers of recent times. This collection, nearly all chosen by Boolos himself shortly before his death, includes thirty papers on set theory, second-order logic, and plural quantifiers; on Frege, Dedekind, Cantor, and Russell; and on miscellaneous topics in logic and proof theory, including three papers on various aspects of the Gödel theorems. Boolos is universally recognized as the leader in the renewed interest in studies of Frege's work on logic and the philosophy of mathematics. John Burgess has provided introductions to each of the three parts of the volume, and also an afterword on Boolos's technical work in provability logic, which is beyond the scope of this volume.

From discourse to logic

introduction to modeltheoretic semantics of natural language, formal logic and discourse representation theory. Part 1
Author: Hans Kamp,Uwe Reyle
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792310273
Category: Language and logic
Page: 713
View: 1716
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English Grammar Workbook For Dummies


Author: Nuala O'Sullivan,Geraldine Woods
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470664541
Category: Education
Page: 328
View: 5574
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English Grammar Workbook For Dummies, UK Edition is grammar First Aid for anyone wanting to perfect their English and develop the practical skills needed to write and speak correctly. Each chapter focuses on key grammatical principles, with easy-to-follow theory and examples as well as practice questions and explanations. From verbs, prepositions and tenses, to style, expressions and tricky word traps, this hands-on workbook is essential for both beginners looking to learn and practise the basics of English grammar, and those who want to brush up skills they already have - quickly, easily, and with confidence. English Grammar Workbook For Dummies, UK Edition covers: Part I: Laying the Groundwork: Grammar Basics Chapter 1: Placing the Proper Verb in the Proper Place Chapter 2: Matchmaker, Make Me a Match: Pairing Subjects and Verbs Correctly Chapter 3: Who Is She, and What Is It? The Lowdown on Pronouns Chapter 4: Finishing What You Start: Writing Complete Sentences Part II: Mastering Mechanics Chapter 5: Exercising Comma Sense Chapter 6: Made You Look! Punctuation Marks That Demand Attention Chapter 7: One Small Mark, a Whole New Meaning: Apostrophes Chapter 8: "Let Me Speak!" Quotation Marks Chapter 9: Hitting the Big Time: Capital Letters Part III: The Pickier Points of Correct Verb and Pronoun Use Chapter 10: The Case of It (And Other Pronouns) Chapter 11: Choosing the Best Pronoun for a Tricky Sentence Chapter 12: Travelling in Time: Tricky Verb-Tense Situations Chapter 13: Are You and Your Verbs in the Right Mood? Part IV: All You Need to Know about Descriptions and Comparisons Chapter 14: Writing Good or Well: Adjectives and Adverbs Chapter 15: Going on Location: Placing Descriptions Correctly Chapter 16: For Better or Worse: Forming Comparisons Chapter 17: Apples and Oranges: Improper Comparisons Part V: Writing with Style Chapter 18: Keeping Your Balance Chapter 19: Spicing Up and Trimming Down Your Sentences Chapter 20: Steering Clear of Tricky Word Traps Part VI: The Part of Tens Chapter 21: Ten Over-corrections Chapter 22: Ten Errors to Avoid at All Cost

Composition as Identity


Author: A. J. Cotnoir,Donald L. M. Baxter
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199669619
Category: Philosophy
Page: 259
View: 1724
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This collection of essays is the first of its kind to focus on the relationship between composition and identity. Twelve original articles--written by internationally renowned scholars and rising stars in the field--argue for and against the controversial doctrine that composition is identity.--Provided by publisher

Derrida Vis-à-vis Lacan

Interweaving Deconstruction and Psychoanalysis
Author: Andrea Margaret Hurst
Publisher: Fordham Univ Press
ISBN: 0823228754
Category: Philosophy
Page: 469
View: 3091
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Derrida and Lacan have long been viewed as proponents of two opposing schools of thought. This book argues, however, that the logical structure underpinning Lacanian psychoanalytic theory is a complex, paradoxical relationality that corresponds to Derrida's "plural logic of the aporia." Andrea Hurst begins by linking this logic to a strand of thinking (in which Freud plays a part) that unsettles philosophy's transcendental tradition. She then shows that Derrida is just as serious and careful a reader of Freud's texts as Lacan. Interweaving the two thinkers, she argues that the Lacanian Real is another name for Derrida's différance and shows how Derrida's writings on Heidegger and Nietzsche embody an attitude toward sexual difference and feminine sexuality that matches Lacanian insights. Derrida's "plural logic of the aporia," she argues, can serve as a heuristic for addressing prominent themes in Lacanian psychoanalysis: subjectivity, ethics, and language. Finally, she takes up Derrida's prejudicial reading of Lacan's "Seminar on 'The Purloined Letter, '" which was instrumental in the antagonism between Derrideans and Lacanians. Although acknowledging the injustice of Derrida's reading, the author brings out the deep theoretical accord between thinkers that both recognize the power of psychoanalysis to address contemporary political and ethical issues.

The Plural Actor


Author: Bernard Lahire
Publisher: Polity
ISBN: 0745646840
Category: Political Science
Page: 271
View: 9607
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The individual that the social sciences take as an object is most often studied in a particular context or from a single dimension. The actor is analysed as a student, worker, consumer, spouse, reader, sportsperson, a voter etc. However, in societies where individuals live often through simultaneously and successively heterogeneous and sometimes contradictory social experiences, each person inevitably carries a plurality of roles, ways of seeing, feeling and acting. The aim of this study is to consider the ways in which this plurality of worlds and experiences are incorporated into the being of each individual and to observe the individual's actions in a variety of settings. In addition to his sociological viewpoint, the author engages with psychology, history, anthropology and philosophy. His reflections lead him to embark on a program of psychological sociology to highlight the complexities of this plural view of the social.

First Person Plural

Multiple Personality and the Philosophy of Mind
Author: Stephen E. Braude
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 9780847679966
Category: Psychology
Page: 315
View: 2216
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Do people with multiple personalities have more than one self? The first full-length philosophical study of multiple personality disorder, First Person Plural maintains that even the deeply divided multiple personality contains an underlying psychological unity. Braude updates his work in this revised edition to discuss recent empirical and conceptual developments, including the charge that clinicians induce false memories in their patients, and the professional redefinition of "multiple personality disorder" as "dissociative identity disorder."

Plural Temporality

Transindividuality and the Aleatory Between Spinoza and Althusser
Author: Vittorio Morfino
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004270558
Category: Political Science
Page: 204
View: 6140
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Plural Temporality traces out a dynamic historical relationship between the texts of Spinoza and of Althusser. It interrogates Spinoza’s text through Althusser and vice versa regarding the question of materialism.

Worlds Apart

A Handbook on World Views; Second Edition
Author: Norman Geisler,William D. Watkins
Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers
ISBN: 1592441262
Category: Religion
Page: 308
View: 5095
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Those looking for a compendium of the major world views, written from a Christian perspective, need look no further. Comprehensive and readable, well organized and up to date, 'Worlds Apart' stands alone. After introducing the meaning and function of a world view, the authors explore the seven major world views of our day -- theism, atheism, pantheism, pantheism, deism, finite godism, and polytheism. They delineate the varieties within each view, analyze the beliefs of its major representatives, and outline and evaluate its basic tenets. The authors present the seven world views in such a way that one can compare and contrast these views. ÒIt is our hope,Ó they write, Òthat [readers] will carefully consider all the options and then decide, even if it means discarding the world view [they] now have.Ó In this revised edition the authors have updated the text and bibliography, rewritten several sections, and included suggested readings for each world view. Like the original edition, published in 1984, this volume contains a glossary of terms and an index of subjects and names.

The Plural Event

Descartes, Hegel, Heidegger
Author: Andrew Benjamin
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134866925
Category: Philosophy
Page: 224
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Benjamin provides new and important readings of key canonical texts in the history of philosophy in his sustained philosophical reworking of ontology. Amongst texts included are Hegel's Difference Essay and the Shorter Logic and Heidegger's Time and Being and The Question of Being. The effective presence of ontology, defined as `an original difference', will be familiar to readers of his earlier writings. This book represents his most thorough and original contribution to contemporary philosophy to date.

Understanding the Many


Author: Byeong-uk Yi
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136713859
Category: Philosophy
Page: 112
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First Published in 2002. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.