History and Philosophy of Modern Mathematics


Author: William Aspray,Philip Kitcher
Publisher: U of Minnesota Press
ISBN: 9780816615674
Category: Mathematics
Page: 386
View: 605
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History and Philosophy of Modern Mathematics was first published in 1988. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions. The fourteen essays in this volume build on the pioneering effort of Garrett Birkhoff, professor of mathematics at Harvard University, who in 1974 organized a conference of mathematicians and historians of modern mathematics to examine how the two disciplines approach the history of mathematics. In History and Philosophy of Modern Mathematics, William Aspray and Philip Kitcher bring together distinguished scholars from mathematics, history, and philosophy to assess the current state of the field. Their essays, which grow out of a 1985 conference at the University of Minnesota, develop the basic premise that mathematical thought needs to be studied from an interdisciplinary perspective. The opening essays study issues arising within logic and the foundations of mathematics, a traditional area of interest to historians and philosophers. The second section examines issues in the history of mathematics within the framework of established historical periods and questions. Next come case studies that illustrate the power of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of mathematics. The collection closes with a look at mathematics from a sociohistorical perspective, including the way institutions affect what constitutes mathematical knowledge.

Interactions

Mathematics, Physics and Philosophy, 1860-1930
Author: Vincent F. Hendricks,Klaus F. Jørgensen,Jesper Lützen,Stig A. Pedersen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402051956
Category: Philosophy
Page: 338
View: 9952
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The main theme of this anthology is the unique interaction between mathematics, physics and philosophy during the beginning of the 20th century. In this book, ten renowned philosopher-historians probe insightfully into key conceptual questions of pre-quantum mathematical physics. The result is a diverse yet thematically focused compilation of first class papers on mathematics, physics and philosophy, and a source-book on the interaction between them.

The Philosophy of Mathematical Practice


Author: Paolo Mancosu
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0199296456
Category: Philosophy
Page: 447
View: 808
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This book gives a coherent and unified presentation of a new direction of work in philosophy of mathematics. This new approach in philosophy of mathematics requires extensive attention to mathematical practice and provides philosophical analyses of important novel characteristics of contemporary (twentieth century) mathematics and of many aspects of mathematical activity-such as visualization, explanation, understanding etc.-- which escape purely formal logicaltreatment.The book consists of a lengthy introduction by the editor and of eight chapters written by some of the very best scholars in this area. Each chapter consists of a short introduction to the general topic of the chapter and of a longer research article in the very same area. Theeight topics selected represent a broad spectrum of the contemporary philosophical reflection on different aspects of mathematical practice: Diagrammatic reasoning and representational systems; Visualization; Mathematical Explanation; Purity of Methods; Mathematical Concepts; Philosophical relevance of category theory; Philosophical aspects of computer science in mathematics; Philosophical impact of recent developments in mathematical physics.

Phenomenology, Logic, and the Philosophy of Mathematics


Author: Richard L. Tieszen
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521837828
Category: Mathematics
Page: 357
View: 5346
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In this 2005 book, logic, mathematical knowledge and objects are explored alongside reason and intuition in the exact sciences.

Philosophy of Geometry from Riemann to Poincaré


Author: R. Torretti
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 9789027709202
Category: History
Page: 459
View: 8851
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Geometry has fascinated philosophers since the days of Thales and Pythagoras. In the 17th and 18th centuries it provided a paradigm of knowledge after which some thinkers tried to pattern their own metaphysical systems. But after the discovery of non-Euclidean geometries in the 19th century, the nature and scope of geometry became a bone of contention. Philosophical concern with geometry increased in the 1920's after Einstein used Riemannian geometry in his theory of gravitation. During the last fifteen or twenty years, renewed interest in the latter theory -prompted by advances in cosmology -has brought geometry once again to the forefront of philosophical discussion. The issues at stake in the current epistemological debate about geometry can only be understood in the light of history, and, in fact, most recent works on the subject include historical material. In this book, I try to give a selective critical survey of modern philosophy of geometry during its seminal period, which can be said to have begun shortly after 1850 with Riemann's generalized conception of space and to achieve some sort of completion at the turn of the century with Hilbert's axiomatics and Poincare's conventionalism. The philosophy of geometry of Einstein and his contemporaries will be the subject of another book. The book is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1 provides back ground information about the history of science and philosophy.

Philosophy of Mathematics

Selected Readings
Author: Paul Benacerraf,Hilary Putnam
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107268133
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 7430
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The twentieth century has witnessed an unprecedented 'crisis in the foundations of mathematics', featuring a world-famous paradox (Russell's Paradox), a challenge to 'classical' mathematics from a world-famous mathematician (the 'mathematical intuitionism' of Brouwer), a new foundational school (Hilbert's Formalism), and the profound incompleteness results of Kurt Gödel. In the same period, the cross-fertilization of mathematics and philosophy resulted in a new sort of 'mathematical philosophy', associated most notably (but in different ways) with Bertrand Russell, W. V. Quine, and Gödel himself, and which remains at the focus of Anglo-Saxon philosophical discussion. The present collection brings together in a convenient form the seminal articles in the philosophy of mathematics by these and other major thinkers. It is a substantially revised version of the edition first published in 1964 and includes a revised bibliography. The volume will be welcomed as a major work of reference at this level in the field.

Philosophy and Geometry

Theoretical and Historical Issues
Author: L. Magnani
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401096228
Category: Science
Page: 256
View: 6972
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Philosophers have studied geometry since ancient times. Geometrical knowledge has often played the role of a laboratory for the philosopher's conceptual experiments dedicated to the ideation of powerful theories of knowledge. Lorenzo Magnani's new book Philosophy and Geometry illustrates the rich intrigue of this fascinating story of human knowledge, providing a new analysis of the ideas of many scholars (including Plato, Proclus, Kant, and Poincaré), and discussing conventionalist and neopositivist perspectives and the problem of the origins of geometry. The book also ties together the concerns of philosophers of science and cognitive scientists, showing, for example, the connections between geometrical reasoning and cognition as well as the results of recent logical and computational models of geometrical reasoning. All the topics are dealt with using a novel combination of both historical and contemporary perspectives. Philosophy and Geometry is a valuable contribution to the renaissance of research in the field.

Russell's Unknown Logicism

A Study in the History and Philosophy of Mathematics
Author: Sebastien Gandon
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
ISBN: 0230576990
Category: Mathematics
Page: 263
View: 9712
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One hundred years ago, Russell and Whitehead published their epoch-making Principia Mathematica (PM), which was initially conceived as the second volume of Russell's Principles of Mathematics (PoM) that had appeared ten years before. No other works can be credited to have had such an impact on the development of logic and on philosophy in the twentieth century. However, until now, scholars only focused on the first parts of the books – that is, on Russell's and Whitehead's theory of logic, set-theory and arithmetic. Sebastien Gandon aims at reversing the perspective. His goal is to give a picture of Russell's logicism based on a detailed reading of the developments dealing with advanced mathematics - namely projective geometry and the theory of quantity. This book is not only the first study ever made of the 'later' portions of PoM and PM, it also shows how this shift of perspective compels us to change our view of the logicist program taken as a whole.

Philosophy of Science: The Key Thinkers


Author: James Robert Brown
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 1441142002
Category: Science
Page: 320
View: 591
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A guide to the key figures in the Philosophy of Science from Plato and Aristotle through to Popper, Puttnam and Cartwright.

Plato's Ghost

The Modernist Transformation of Mathematics
Author: Jeremy Gray
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400829040
Category: Mathematics
Page: 528
View: 8885
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Plato's Ghost is the first book to examine the development of mathematics from 1880 to 1920 as a modernist transformation similar to those in art, literature, and music. Jeremy Gray traces the growth of mathematical modernism from its roots in problem solving and theory to its interactions with physics, philosophy, theology, psychology, and ideas about real and artificial languages. He shows how mathematics was popularized, and explains how mathematical modernism not only gave expression to the work of mathematicians and the professional image they sought to create for themselves, but how modernism also introduced deeper and ultimately unanswerable questions. Plato's Ghost evokes Yeats's lament that any claim to worldly perfection inevitably is proven wrong by the philosopher's ghost; Gray demonstrates how modernist mathematicians believed they had advanced further than anyone before them, only to make more profound mistakes. He tells for the first time the story of these ambitious and brilliant mathematicians, including Richard Dedekind, Henri Lebesgue, Henri Poincaré, and many others. He describes the lively debates surrounding novel objects, definitions, and proofs in mathematics arising from the use of naïve set theory and the revived axiomatic method--debates that spilled over into contemporary arguments in philosophy and the sciences and drove an upsurge of popular writing on mathematics. And he looks at mathematics after World War I, including the foundational crisis and mathematical Platonism. Plato's Ghost is essential reading for mathematicians and historians, and will appeal to anyone interested in the development of modern mathematics.

Frege and the Philosophy of Mathematics


Author: Michael D. Resnik
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Mathematics
Page: 244
View: 1769
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The Foundations of Science

Science and Hypothesis, The Value of Science, Science and Method
Author: Henri Poincaré
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Mathematics
Page: 553
View: 9850
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Analysis and Synthesis in Mathematics

History and Philosophy
Author: Michael Otte,Marco Panza
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792345701
Category: Mathematics
Page: 440
View: 9918
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The book discusses the main interpretations of the classical distinction between analysis and synthesis with respect to mathematics. In the first part, this is discussed from a historical point of view, by considering different examples from the history of mathematics. In the second part, the question is considered from a philosophical point of view, and some new interpretations are proposed. Finally, in the third part, one of the editors discusses some common aspects of the different interpretations.

The Kantian Legacy in Nineteenth-century Science


Author: Michael Friedman,Alfred Nordmann
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262062542
Category: Philosophy
Page: 370
View: 3608
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Historians of philosophy, science, and mathematics explore the influence of Kant'sphilosophy on the evolution of modern scientific thought.

Science and Hypothesis


Author: Henri Poincaré
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Mathematics
Page: 196
View: 5269
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Mind and Nature

Selected Writings on Philosophy, Mathematics, and Physics
Author: Hermann Weyl
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400833320
Category: Mathematics
Page: 272
View: 7553
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Hermann Weyl (1885-1955) was one of the twentieth century's most important mathematicians, as well as a seminal figure in the development of quantum physics and general relativity. He was also an eloquent writer with a lifelong interest in the philosophical implications of the startling new scientific developments with which he was so involved. Mind and Nature is a collection of Weyl's most important general writings on philosophy, mathematics, and physics, including pieces that have never before been published in any language or translated into English, or that have long been out of print. Complete with Peter Pesic's introduction, notes, and bibliography, these writings reveal an unjustly neglected dimension of a complex and fascinating thinker. In addition, the book includes more than twenty photographs of Weyl and his family and colleagues, many of which are previously unpublished. Included here are Weyl's exposition of his important synthesis of electromagnetism and gravitation, which Einstein at first hailed as "a first-class stroke of genius"; two little-known letters by Weyl and Einstein from 1922 that give their contrasting views on the philosophical implications of modern physics; and an essay on time that contains Weyl's argument that the past is never completed and the present is not a point. Also included are two book-length series of lectures, The Open World (1932) and Mind and Nature (1934), each a masterly exposition of Weyl's views on a range of topics from modern physics and mathematics. Finally, four retrospective essays from Weyl's last decade give his final thoughts on the interrelations among mathematics, philosophy, and physics, intertwined with reflections on the course of his rich life.

Poincaré, Philosopher of Science

Problems and Perspectives
Author: María de Paz,Robert DiSalle
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401787808
Category: Science
Page: 191
View: 6354
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This volume presents a selection of papers from the Poincaré Project of the Center for the Philosophy of Science, University of Lisbon, bringing together an international group of scholars with new assessments of Henri Poincaré's philosophy of science—both its historical impact on the foundations of science and mathematics, and its relevance to contemporary philosophical inquiry. The work of Poincaré (1854-1912) extends over many fields within mathematics and mathematical physics. But his scientific work was inseparable from his groundbreaking philosophical reflections, and the scientific ferment in which he participated was inseparable from the philosophical controversies in which he played a pre-eminent part. The subsequent history of the mathematical sciences was profoundly influenced by Poincaré’s philosophical analyses of the relations between and among mathematics, logic, and physics, and, more generally, the relations between formal structures and the world of experience. The papers in this collection illuminate Poincaré’s place within his own historical context as well as the implications of his work for ours.

Scientific Structuralism


Author: Alisa Bokulich,Peter Bokulich
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048195978
Category: Science
Page: 182
View: 4800
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Recently there has been a revival of interest in structuralist approaches to science. Taking their lead from scientific structuralists such as Henri Poincaré, Ernst Cassirer, and Bertrand Russell, some contemporary philosophers and scientists have argued that the most fruitful approach to solving many problems in the philosophy of science lies in focusing on the structural features of our scientific theories. Much of the work in scientific structuralism to date has been focused on the problem of scientific realism, where it has been argued that even in cases of radical theory change the most important structural features of predecessor theories are preserved. These structural realists argue that what our most successful theories get right about the world is these abstract structural features, rather than any particular ontological claims. More recently, philosophers of science have adopted structuralist approaches to many other issues in the philosophy of science, such as scientific explanation and intertheory relations. The nine articles collected in this volume, written by the leading researchers in scientific structuralism, represent some of the most important directions of research in this field. This book will be of particular interest to those philosophers, scientists, and mathematicians who are interested in the foundations of science.

Science after the Practice Turn in the Philosophy, History, and Social Studies of Science


Author: Léna Soler,Sjoerd Zwart,Michael Lynch,Vincent Israel-Jost
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317935365
Category: Philosophy
Page: 346
View: 3561
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In the 1980s, philosophical, historical and social studies of science underwent a change which later evolved into a turn to practice. Analysts of science were asked to pay attention to scientific practices in meticulous detail and along multiple dimensions, including the material, social and psychological. Following this turn, the interest in scientific practices continued to increase and had an indelible influence in the various fields of science studies. No doubt, the practice turn changed our conceptions and approaches of science, but what did it really teach us? What does it mean to study scientific practices? What are the general lessons, implications, and new challenges? This volume explores questions about the practice turn using both case studies and theoretical analysis. The case studies examine empirical and mathematical sciences, including the engineering sciences. The volume promotes interactions between acknowledged experts from different, often thought of as conflicting, orientations. It presents contributions in conjunction with critical commentaries that put the theses and assumptions of the former in perspective. Overall, the book offers a unique and diverse range of perspectives on the meanings, methods, lessons, and challenges associated with the practice turn.

Brazilian Studies in Philosophy and History of Science

An account of recent works
Author: Décio Krause,Antonio Videira
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9048194229
Category: Science
Page: 354
View: 2520
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This volume, The Brazilian Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science, is the first attempt to present to a general audience, works from Brazil on this subject. The included papers are original, covering a remarkable number of relevant topics of philosophy of science, logic and on the history of science. The Brazilian community has increased in the last years in quantity and in quality of the works, most of them being published in respectable international journals on the subject. The chapters of this volume are forwarded by a general introduction, which aims to sketch not only the contents of the chapters, but it is conceived as a historical and conceptual guide to the development of the field in Brazil. The introduction intends to be useful to the reader, and not only to the specialist, helping them to evaluate the increase in production of this country within the international context.