Power System Relaying


Author: Stanley H. Horowitz,Arun G. Phadke
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118701518
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 400
View: 7155
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With emphasis on power system protection from the network operator perspective, this classic textbook explains the fundamentals of relaying and power system phenomena including stability, protection and reliability. The fourth edition brings coverage up-to-date with important advancements in protective relaying due to significant changes in the conventional electric power system that will integrate renewable forms of energy and, in some countries, adoption of the Smart Grid initiative. New features of the Fourth Edition include: an entirely new chapter on protection considerations for renewable energy sources, looking at grid interconnection techniques, codes, protection considerations and practices. new concepts in power system protection such as Wide Area Measurement Systems (WAMS) and system integrity protection (SIPS) -how to use WAMS for protection, and SIPS and control with WAMS. phasor measurement units (PMU), transmission line current differential, high voltage dead tank circuit breakers, and relays for multi-terminal lines. revisions to the Bus Protection Guide IEEE C37.234 (2009) and to the sections on additional protective requirements and restoration. Used by universities and industry courses throughout the world, Power System Relaying is an essential text for graduate students in electric power engineering and a reference for practising relay and protection engineers who want to be kept up to date with the latest advances in the industry.

Computer Relaying for Power Systems


Author: Arun G. Phadke,James S. Thorp
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470747575
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 344
View: 951
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Since publication of the first edition of Computer Relaying for Power Systems in 1988, computer relays have been widely accepted by power engineers throughout the world and in many countries they are now the protective devices of choice. The authors have updated this new edition with the latest developments in technology and applications such as adaptive relaying, wide area measurements, signal processing, new GPS-based measurement techniques and the application of artificial intelligence to digital relays. New material also includes sigma-delta and oversampling A/D converters, self-polarizing and cross-polarizing in transmission lines protection and optical current and voltage transformers. Phadke and Thorp have been working together in power systems engineering for more than 30 years. Their impressive work in the field has been recognized by numerous awards, including the prestigious 2008 Benjamin Franklin Medal in Electrical Engineering for their pioneering contributions to the development and application of microprocessor controllers in electric power systems. Provides the student with an understanding of computer relaying Authored by international authorities in computer relaying Contents include relaying practices, mathematical basis for protective relaying algorithms, transmission line relaying, protection of transformers, machines and buses, hardware organization in integrated systems, system relaying and control, and developments in new relaying principles Features numerous solved examples to explain several of the more complex topics, as well as a problem at the end of each chapter Includes an updated list of references and a greatly expanded subject index.

Power System Protective Relaying


Author: J. C. Das
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351230794
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 702
View: 826
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This book focuses on protective relaying, which is an indispensable part of electrical power systems. The recent advancements in protective relaying are being dictated by MMPRs (microprocessor-based multifunction relays). The text covers smart grids, integration of wind and solar generation, microgrids, and MMPRs as the driving aspects of innovations in protective relaying. Topics such as cybersecurity and instrument transformers are also explored. Many case studies and practical examples are included to emphasize real-world applications.

Protective relaying for power systems


Author: Stanley H. Horowitz
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 575
View: 4333
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Protective Relaying for Power Generation Systems


Author: Donald Reimert
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351836706
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 592
View: 5581
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Power outages have considerable social and economic impacts, and effective protection schemes are crucial to avoiding them. While most textbooks focus on the transmission and distribution aspects of protective relays, Protective Relaying for Power Generation Systems is the first to focus on protection of motors and generators from a power generation perspective. It also includes workbook constructions that allow students to perform protection-related calculations in Mathcad® and Excel®. This text provides both a general overview and in-depth discussion of each topic, making it easy to tailor the material to students' needs. It also covers topics not found in other texts on the subject, including detailed time decrement generator fault calculations and minimum excitation limit. The author clearly explains the potential for damage and damaging mechanisms related to each protection function and includes thorough derivations of complex system interactions. Such derivations underlie the various rule-of-thumb setting criteria, provide insight into why the rules-of-thumb work and when they are not appropriate, and are useful for post-incident analysis. The book's flexible approach combines theoretical discussions with example settings that offer quick how-to information. Protective Relaying for Power Generation Systems integrates fundamental knowledge with practical tools to ensure students have a thorough understanding of protection schemes and issues that arise during or after abnormal operation.

Protective Relaying

Principles and Applications, Fourth Edition
Author: J. Lewis Blackburn,Thomas J. Domin
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498760007
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 695
View: 9633
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For many years, Protective Relaying: Principles and Applications has been the go-to text for gaining proficiency in the technological fundamentals of power system protection. Continuing in the bestselling tradition of the previous editions by the late J. Lewis Blackburn, the Fourth Edition retains the core concepts at the heart of power system analysis. Featuring refinements and additions to accommodate recent technological progress, the text: Explores developments in the creation of smarter, more flexible protective systems based on advances in the computational power of digital devices and the capabilities of communication systems that can be applied within the power grid Examines the regulations related to power system protection and how they impact the way protective relaying systems are designed, applied, set, and monitored Considers the evaluation of protective systems during system disturbances and describes the tools available for analysis Addresses the benefits and problems associated with applying microprocessor-based devices in protection schemes Contains an expanded discussion of intertie protection requirements at dispersed generation facilities Providing information on a mixture of old and new equipment, Protective Relaying: Principles and Applications, Fourth Edition reflects the present state of power systems currently in operation, making it a handy reference for practicing protection engineers. And yet its challenging end-of-chapter problems, coverage of the basic mathematical requirements for fault analysis, and real-world examples ensure engineering students receive a practical, effective education on protective systems. Plus, with the inclusion of a solutions manual and figure slides with qualifying course adoption, the Fourth Edition is ready-made for classroom implementation.

Protective Relaying of Power Systems Using Mathematical Morphology


Author: Q.H. Wu,Zhen Lu,Tianyao Ji
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1848824998
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 208
View: 1051
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This book discusses the development of novel protective relaying algorithms using Mathematical Morphology, a nonlinear signal processing technique derived from set theory and geometry.

The Art & Science of Protective Relaying, C. Russell Mason, 2015

Protective Relaying
Author: C. Russell Mason
Publisher: Bukupedia
ISBN: N.A
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 357
View: 5856
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We usually think of an electric power system in terms of its more impressive partsÐthe big generating stations, transformers, high-voltage lines, etc. While these are some of the basic elements, there are many other necessary and fascinating components. Protective relaying is one of these. The role of protective relaying in electric-power-system design and operation is explained by a brief examination of the over-all background. There are three aspects of a power system that will serve the purposes of this examination. These aspects are as follows: A. Normal operation B. Prevention of electrical failure. C. Mitigation of the effects of electrical failure. The term Ònormal operationÓ assumes no failures of equipment, no mistakes of personnel, nor Òacts of God.Ó It involves the minimum requirements for supplying the existing load and a certain amount of anticipated future load. Some of the considerations are: A. Choice between hydro, steam, or other sources of power. B. Location of generating stations. C. Transmission of power to the load. D. Study of the load characteristics and planning for its future growth. E. Metering F. Voltage and frequency regulation. G. System operation. E. Normal maintenance. The provisions for normal operation involve the major expense for equipment and operation, but a system designed according to this aspect alone could not possibly meet present-day requirements. Electrical equipment failures would cause intolerable outages. There must be additional provisions to minimize damage to equipment and interruptions to the service when failures occur. Two recourses are open: (1) to incorporate features of design aimed at preventing failures, and (2) to include provisions for mitigating the effects of failure when it occurs. Modern 2 THE PHILOSOPHY OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING power-system design employs varying degrees of both recourses, as dictated by the economics of any particular situation. Notable advances continue to be made toward greater reliability. But also, increasingly greater reliance is being placed on electric power. Consequently, even though the probability of failure is decreased, the tolerance of the possible harm to the service is also decreased. But it is futile-or at least not economically justifiable-to try to prevent failures completely. Sooner or later the law of diminishing returns makes itself felt. Where this occurs will vary between systems and between parts of a system, but, when this point is reached, further expenditure for failure prevention is discouraged. It is much more profitable, then, to let some failures occur and to provide for mitigating their effects. The type of electrical failure that causes greatest concern is the short circuit, or ÒfaultÓ as it is usually called, but there are other abnormal operating conditions peculiar to certain elements of the system that also require attention. Some of the features of design and operation aimed at preventing electrical failure are: A. Provision of adequate insulation. B. Coordination of insulation strength with the capabilities of lightning arresters. C. Use of overhead ground wires and low tower-footing resistance. D. Design for mechanical strength to reduce exposure, and to minimize the likelihood of failure causable by animals, birds, insects, dirt, sleet, etc. E. Proper operation and maintenance practices. Some of the features of design and operation for mitigating the effects of failure are: A. Features that mitigate the immediate effects of an electrical failure. 1. Design to limit the magnitude of short-circuit current.1 a. By avoiding too large concentrations of generating capacity. b. By using current-limiting impedance. 2. Design to withstand mechanical stresses and heating owing to short-circuit currents. 3. Time-delay undervoltage devices on circuit breakers to prevent dropping loads during momentary voltage dips. 4. Ground-fault neutralizers (Petersen coils). B. Features for promptly disconnecting the faulty element. 1. Protective relaying. 2. Circuit breakers with sufficient interrupting capacity. 3. Fuses. C. Features that mitigate the loss of the faulty element. 1. Alternate circuits. 2. Reserve generator and transformer capacity. 3. Automatic reclosing. THE PHILOSOPHY OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING 3 D. Features that operate throughout the period from the inception of the fault until after its removal, to maintain voltage and stability. 1. Automatic voltage regulation. 2. Stability characteristics of generators. E. Means for observing the electiveness of the foregoing features. 1. Automatic oscillographs. 2. Efficient human observation and record keeping. F. Frequent surveys as system changes or additions are made, to be sure that the foregoing features are still adequate. Thus, protective relaying is one of several features of system design concerned with minimizing damage to equipment and interruptions to service when electrical failures occur. When we say that relays Òprotect,Ó we mean that, together with other equipment, the relays help to minimize damage and improve service. It will be evident that all the mitigation features are dependent on one another for successfully minimizing the effects of failure. Therefore, the capabilities and the application requirements of protective-relaying equipments should be considered concurrently with the other features.2 This statement is emphasized because there is sometimes a tendency to think of the protective-relaying equipment after all other design considerations are irrevocably settled. Within economic limits, an electric power system should be designed so that it can be adequately protected. THE FUNCTION OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING The function of protective relaying is to cause the prompt removal from service of any element of a power system when it suffers a short circuit, or when it starts to operate in any abnormal manner that might cause damage or otherwise interfere with the effective operation of the rest of the system. The relaying equipment is aided in this task by circuit breakers that are capable of disconnecting the faulty element when they are called upon to do so by the relaying equipment. Circuit breakers are generally located so that each generator, transformer, bus, transmission line, etc., can be completely disconnected from the rest of the system. These circuit breakers must have sufficient capacity so that they can carry momentarily the maximum short-circuit current that can flow through them, and then interrupt this current; they must also withstand closing in on such a short circuit and then interrupting it according to certain prescribed standards.3 Fusing is employed where protective relays and circuit breakers are not economically justifiable. Although the principal function of protective relaying is to mitigate the effects of short circuits, other abnormal operating conditions arise that also require the services of protective relaying. This is particularly true of generators and motors. A secondary function of protective relaying is to provide indication of the location and type of failure. Such data not only assist in expediting repair but also, by comparison with 4 THE PHILOSOPHY OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING human observation and automatic oscillograph records, they provide means for analyzing the effectiveness of the fault-prevention and mitigation features including the protective relaying itself. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING Let us consider for the moment only the relaying equipment for the protection against short circuits. There are two groups of such equipmentÐone which we shall call ÒprimaryÓ relaying, and the other Òback-upÓ relaying. Primary relaying is the first line of defense, whereas back-up relaying functions only when primary relaying fails.

Protection of Electricity Distribution Networks, 2nd Edition


Author: Juan M. Gers,Edward J. Holmes
Publisher: IET
ISBN: 0863415377
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 342
View: 5337
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Written by two practicing electrical engineers, this second edition of the bestselling Protection of Electricity Distribution Networks offers both practical and theoretical coverage of the technologies, from the classical electromechanical relays to the new numerical types, which protect equipment on networks and in electrical plants. A properly coordinated protection system is vital to ensure that an electricity distribution network can operate within preset requirements for safety for individual items of equipment, staff and public, and the network overall. Suitable and reliable equipment should be installed on all circuits and electrical equipment and to do this, protective relays are used to initiate the isolation of faulted sections of a network in order to maintain supplies elsewhere on the system. This then leads to an improved electricity service with better continuity and quality of supply.

Protective relaying for power systems II


Author: Stanley H. Horowitz,IEEE Power Engineering Society
Publisher: IEEE
ISBN: 9780780304130
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 579
View: 6167
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Design, Modeling and Evaluation of Protective Relays for Power Systems


Author: Mladen Kezunovic,Jinfeng Ren,Saeed Lotfifard
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319209191
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 297
View: 3577
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This book is a practical guide to digital protective relays in power systems. It explains the theory of how the protective relays work in power systems, provides the engineering knowledge and tools to successfully design them and offers expert advice on how they behave in practical circumstances. This book helps readers gain technical mastery of how the relays function, how they are designed and how they perform. This text not only features in-depth coverage of the theory and principles behind protective relays, but also includes a manual supplemented with software that offers numerous hands-on examples in MATLAB. A great resource for protective relaying labs and self-learners, its manual provides lab experiments unavailable elsewhere. The book is suitable for advanced courses in Digital Relays and Power Systems Fault Analysis and Protection, and will prove to be a valuable resource for practitioners in the utility industry, including relay designers.

Digital Protection for Power Systems


Author: Allan T. Johns,Salman K. Salman
Publisher: IET
ISBN: 9780863413032
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 203
View: 8063
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This book is a long awaited comprehensive introduction to the protection of electrical power systems using computer-based methods (i.e. digital relays). The treatment is logically structured, taking the reader through the mathematics and principles underlying the development and implementation of the major algorithms underlying different protection techniques. They can be applied to protection of generator transformers, lines, switchgear and cable circuits: the main components of transmission and distribution systems. The book deals with the research and development activity in the field of digital protection during the last 15 years. The reader will become familiarised with the fast developing field of power system protection using computers and microcomputers. "This book provides a full introduction for senior undergraduates and graduates, and acts as a sound reference for engineers already practising in this area."

Protective Relaying of Power Systems Using Mathematical Morphology


Author: Q.H. Wu,Zhen Lu,Tianyao Ji
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1848824998
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 208
View: 3054
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This book discusses the development of novel protective relaying algorithms using Mathematical Morphology, a nonlinear signal processing technique derived from set theory and geometry.

Protective Relaying

Theory and Applications
Author: Walter A. Elmore
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824709723
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 432
View: 6716
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Targeting the latest microprocessor technologies for more sophisticated applications in the field of power system short circuit detection, this revised and updated source imparts fundamental concepts and breakthrough science for the isolation of faulty equipment and minimization of damage in power system apparatus. The Second Edition clearly describes key procedures, devices, and elements crucial to the protection and control of power system function and stability. It includes chapters and expertise from the most knowledgeable experts in the field of protective relaying, and describes microprocessor techniques and troubleshooting strategies in clear and straightforward language.

DIGITAL POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION


Author: S. R. BHIDE
Publisher: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
ISBN: 8120349792
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 280
View: 3547
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Digital power system protection, as a subject, offers the use of computers in power line relaying which is the act of automatically controlling the power system via instrumentation and control devices. This book is an attempt to make a gentle introduction to the nitty-gritty of digital relays. Written in a simple, clear and student-friendly style, this text covers basics of digital processing of analog signals for the purpose of relaying. All important basic algorithms that are used in various types of digital relays have been explained. FIR and IIR filters have been presented in such a manner that students will be able to develop intuitive understanding. The book also covers DFT and FFT and synchrophasor technology in details. MATLAB programs and Excel simulations have been given to reinforce the comprehension of the algorithms. This book has been thoroughly class-room tested and based on course notes which is primarily intended for undergraduate and postgraduate students of electrical engineering. Key Features • In-depth coverage of DSP fundamentals • Pedagogical tools like figures, flowcharts, block diagrams and tables have been extensively used • Review questions are given at the end of each chapter • Extensive references to literature on power system protection

Power Quality in Power Systems and Electrical Machines


Author: Ewald Fuchs,Mohammad A. S. Masoum
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128009888
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 1140
View: 625
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The second edition of this must-have reference covers power quality issues in four parts, including new discussions related to renewable energy systems. The first part of the book provides background on causes, effects, standards, and measurements of power quality and harmonics. Once the basics are established the authors move on to harmonic modeling of power systems, including components and apparatus (electric machines). The final part of the book is devoted to power quality mitigation approaches and devices, and the fourth part extends the analysis to power quality solutions for renewable energy systems. Throughout the book worked examples and exercises provide practical applications, and tables, charts, and graphs offer useful data for the modeling and analysis of power quality issues. Provides theoretical and practical insight into power quality problems of electric machines and systems 134 practical application (example) problems with solutions 125 problems at the end of chapters dealing with practical applications 924 references, mostly journal articles and conference papers, as well as national and international standards and guidelines

Pilot Protective Relaying


Author: Elmore
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824781958
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 184
View: 7207
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This text concentrates on the fundamentals of protective relaying and aims to provide lasting information in intelligible language. It covers the relative qualities of modern transmission line systems, communications channels, three-terminal applications and program design for microprocessors, and also supplies an encyclopaedic bibliography listing professional papers useful to the relay engineer.

Handbook of Electric Motors


Author: Hamid A. Toliyat,Gerald B. Kliman
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420030388
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 850
View: 5170
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Presenting current issues in electric motor design, installation, application, and performance, this second edition serves as the most authoritative and reliable guide to electric motor utilization and assessment in the commercial and industrial sectors. Covering topics ranging from motor energy and efficiency to computer-aided design and equipment selection, this reference assists professionals in all aspects of electric motor maintenance, repair, and optimization. It has been expanded by more than 40 percent to explore the most influential technologies in the field including electronic controls, superconducting generators, recent analytical tools, new computing capabilities, and special purpose motors.

IEEE Standard[s]


Author: IEEE Power Engineering Society. Power Systems Relaying Committee,Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,IEEE Standards Board
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781559376938
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 30
View: 8503
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The synchronizing input and the data output for phasor measurements made by substation computer systems is discussed. Processes involved in computing phasors from sampled data, data-to-phasor conversions, and formats for timing inputs and phasor data output from a Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) are also addressed.

Fundamentals of Power System Protection


Author: Paithankar Y. G.,S. R. Bhide
Publisher: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
ISBN: 8120341236
Category: Electric power systems
Page: 366
View: 3601
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