Probability and Social Science

Methodological Relationships between the two Approaches
Author: Daniel Courgeau
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400728786
Category: Social Science
Page: 310
View: 3770
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This work examines in depth the methodological relationships that probability and statistics have maintained with the social sciences from their emergence. It covers both the history of thought and current methods. First it examines in detail the history of the different paradigms and axioms for probability, from their emergence in the seventeenth century up to the most recent developments of the three major concepts: objective, subjective and logicist probability. It shows the statistical inference they permit, different applications to social sciences and the main problems they encounter. On the other side, from social sciences—particularly population sciences—to probability, it shows the different uses they made of probabilistic concepts during their history, from the seventeenth century, according to their paradigms: cross-sectional, longitudinal, hierarchical, contextual and multilevel approaches. While the ties may have seemed loose at times, they have more often been very close: some advances in probability were driven by the search for answers to questions raised by the social sciences; conversely, the latter have made progress thanks to advances in probability. This dual approach sheds new light on the historical development of the social sciences and probability, and on the enduring relevance of their links. It permits also to solve a number of methodological problems encountered all along their history.

Methodological Investigations in Agent-Based Modelling

With Applications for the Social Sciences
Author: Eric Silverman
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319724088
Category: Social Science
Page: 235
View: 3989
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This open access book examines the methodological complications of using complexity science concepts within the social science domain. The opening chapters take the reader on a tour through the development of simulation methodologies in the fields of artificial life and population biology, then demonstrates the growing popularity and relevance of these methods in the social sciences. Following an in-depth analysis of the potential impact of these methods on social science and social theory, the text provides substantive examples of the application of agent-based models in the field of demography. This work offers a unique combination of applied simulation work and substantive, in-depth philosophical analysis, and as such has potential appeal for specialist social scientists, complex systems scientists, and philosophers of science interested in the methodology of simulation and the practice of interdisciplinary computing research.​

Agent-Based Modelling in Population Studies

Concepts, Methods, and Applications
Author: André Grow,Jan Van Bavel
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319322834
Category: Social Science
Page: 513
View: 4093
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This book examines the use of agent-based modelling (ABM) in population studies, from concepts to applications, best practices to future developments. It features papers written by leading experts in the field that will help readers to better understand the usefulness of ABM for population projections, how ABM can be injected with empirical data to achieve a better match between model and reality, how geographic information can be fruitfully used in ABM, and how ABM results can be reported effectively and correctly. Coverage ranges from detailing the relation between ABM and existing paradigms in population studies to infusing agent-based models with empirical data. The papers show the benefits that ABM offers the field, including enhanced theory formation by better linking the micro level with the macro level, the ability to represent populations more adequately as complex systems, and the possibility to study rare events and the implications of alternative mechanisms in artificial laboratories. In addition, readers will discover guidelines and best practices with detailed examples of how to apply agent-based models in different areas of population research, including human mating behaviour, migration, and socio-structural determinants of health behaviours. Earlier versions of the papers in this book have been presented at the workshop “Recent Developments and Future Directions in Agent-Based Modelling in Population Studies,” which took place at the University of Leuven (KU Leuven), Belgium, in September 2014. The book will contribute to the development of best practices in the field and will provide a solid point of reference for scholars who want to start using agent-based modelling in their own research.

Sequence Analysis and Related Approaches

Innovative Methods and Applications
Author: Gilbert Ritschard,Matthias Studer
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319954202
Category: Life cycle, Human
Page: N.A
View: 6701
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This open access book provides innovative methods and original applications of sequence analysis (SA) and related methods for analysing longitudinal data describing life trajectories such as professional careers, family paths, the succession of health statuses, or the time use. The applications as well as the methodological contributions proposed in this book pay special attention to the combined use of SA and other methods for longitudinal data such as event history analysis, Markov modelling, and sequence network. The methodological contributions in this book include among others original propositions for measuring the precarity of work trajectories, Markov-based methods for clustering sequences, fuzzy and monothetic clustering of sequences, network-based SA, joint use of SA and hidden Markov models, and of SA and survival models. The applications cover the comparison of gendered occupational trajectories in Germany, the study of the changes in women market participation in Denmark, the study of typical day of dual-earner couples in Italy, of mobility patterns in Togo, of internet addiction in Switzerland, and of the quality of employment career after a first unemployment spell. As such this book provides a wealth of information for social scientists interested in quantitative life course analysis, and all those working in sociology, demography, economics, health, psychology, social policy, and statistics.

The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods


Author: Michael Lewis-Beck,Alan E Bryman,Tim Futing Liao
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1452261458
Category: Social Science
Page: 1528
View: 3160
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"This defining work will be valuable to readers and researchers in social sciences and humanities at all academic levels. As a teaching resource it will be useful to instructors and students alike and will become a standard reference source. Essential for general and academic collections." --CHOICE This Encyclopedia provides readers with authoritative essays on virtually all social science methods topics, quantitative and qualitative, by an international collection of experts. Organized alphabetically, the Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods covers research terms ranging from different methodological approaches to epistemological issues and specific statistical techniques. Written to be accessible to general readers, the Encyclopedia entries do not require advanced knowledge of mathematics or statistics to understand the purposes or basic principles of any of the methods. To accomplish this goal, there are two major types of entries: definitions consisting of a paragraph or two to provide a quick explanation of a methodological term; and topical treatments or essays that discuss the nature, history, applications, and implications of using a certain method, including suggested readings and references. Readers are directed to related topics via cross-referenced terms that appear in small capital letters. By assembling entries of varied origins and serving different research purposes, readers will be able to benefit from this immense source of methodological expertise in advancing their understanding of research. With three volumes and more than 900 signed entries, the Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods will be a critical addition to any social science library.

The Oxford Handbook of Political Methodology


Author: Janet M. Box-Steffensmeier,Henry E. Brady,David Collier
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780199286546
Category: Political Science
Page: 880
View: 8709
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The Oxford Handbooks of Political Science are the essential guide to the state of political science today. With engaging contributions from major international scholars The Oxford Handbook of Political Methodology provides the key point of reference for anyone working throughout the discipline.

Research Methodology

Methods and Techniques
Author: C. R. Kothari
Publisher: New Age International
ISBN: 8122415229
Category: Analysis of covariance
Page: 401
View: 583
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About the Book: This second edition has been thoroughly revised and updated and efforts have been made to enhance the usefulness of the book. In this edition a new chapter The Computer: Its Role in Research have been added keeping in view of the fact tha

The SAGE Handbook of Applied Social Research Methods


Author: Leonard Bickman,MS Debra J Rog
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1412950317
Category: Social Science
Page: 661
View: 9368
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The SAGE Handbook of Applied Social Research Methods, Second Edition provides students and researchers with the most comprehensive resource covering core methods, research designs, and data collection, management, and analysis issues. This thoroughly revised edition continues to place critical emphasis on finding the tools that best fit the research question given the constraints of deadlines, budget, and available staff. Each chapter offers key guidance on how to make intelligent and conscious tradeoffs so that one can refine and hone the research question as new knowledge is gained, unanticipated obstacles are encountered, or contextual shifts take place - all key elements in the iterative nature of applied research. Each chapter has been enhanced pedagogically to include more step-by-step procedures, specific, rich yet practical examples from various settings to illustrate the method, parameters to define when the method is most appropriate and when it is not appropriate, and greater use of visual aids (graphs, models, tip boxes) to provide teaching and learning tools. - twenty core chapters written by research experts that cover major methods and data analysis issues across the social and behavioral sciences, education, and management; - emphasis on applying research techniques, particularly in "real-world" settings in which there are various data, money, time, and political constraints; - new chapters on mixed methods, qualitative comparative analysis, concept mapping, and internet data collection; - a newly developed section that serves as a guide for students who are navigating through the book and attempting to translate the chapters into action; - a new Instructor's Resources CD, with relevant journal articles, test questions, and exercises to aid the instructor in developing appropriate course materials.

Current Research for the Information Profession


Author: Pirkko Elliott
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Library science
Page: 271
View: 1675
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A Comparison of the Bayesian and Frequentist Approaches to Estimation


Author: Francisco J. Samaniego
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441959416
Category: Mathematics
Page: 225
View: 8949
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The main theme of this monograph is “comparative statistical inference. ” While the topics covered have been carefully selected (they are, for example, restricted to pr- lems of statistical estimation), my aim is to provide ideas and examples which will assist a statistician, or a statistical practitioner, in comparing the performance one can expect from using either Bayesian or classical (aka, frequentist) solutions in - timation problems. Before investing the hours it will take to read this monograph, one might well want to know what sets it apart from other treatises on comparative inference. The two books that are closest to the present work are the well-known tomes by Barnett (1999) and Cox (2006). These books do indeed consider the c- ceptual and methodological differences between Bayesian and frequentist methods. What is largely absent from them, however, are answers to the question: “which - proach should one use in a given problem?” It is this latter issue that this monograph is intended to investigate. There are many books on Bayesian inference, including, for example, the widely used texts by Carlin and Louis (2008) and Gelman, Carlin, Stern and Rubin (2004). These books differ from the present work in that they begin with the premise that a Bayesian treatment is called for and then provide guidance on how a Bayesian an- ysis should be executed. Similarly, there are many books written from a classical perspective.

Explanation, Prediction, and Confirmation


Author: Dennis Dieks,Wenceslao J. Gonzalez,Stephan Hartmann,Thomas Uebel,Marcel Weber
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400711808
Category: Science
Page: 540
View: 3517
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This volume, the second in the Springer series Philosophy of Science in a European Perspective, contains selected papers from the workshops organised by the ESF Research Networking Programme PSE (The Philosophy of Science in a European Perspective) in 2009. Five general topics are addressed: 1. Formal Methods in the Philosophy of Science; 2. Philosophy of the Natural and Life Sciences; 3. Philosophy of the Cultural and Social Sciences; 4. Philosophy of the Physical Sciences; 5. History of the Philosophy of Science. This volume is accordingly divided in five sections, each section containing papers coming from the meetings focussing on one of these five themes. However, these sections are not completely independent and detached from each other. For example, an important connecting thread running through a substantial number of papers in this volume is the concept of probability: probability plays a central role in present-day discussions in formal epistemology, in the philosophy of the physical sciences, and in general methodological debates---it is central in discussions concerning explanation, prediction and confirmation. The volume thus also attempts to represent the intellectual exchange between the various fields in the philosophy of science that was central in the ESF workshops.

The Psychology Research Handbook

A Guide for Graduate Students and Research Assistants
Author: Frederick T. L. Leong,James T. Austin
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 0761930221
Category: Psychology
Page: 516
View: 1566
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A comprehensive, easy-to-understand guide to the entire research process, this book quickly and efficiently equips advanced students and research assistants to conduct a full-scale investigation. The book is organized around the idea of a 'research script' that is, it follows the standard mode of research planning and design, data collection and analysis, and results writing. The volume contains 35 chapters, some co-authored by advanced graduate students who give their fellow students a touch of the 'real world' adding to the clarity and practicality of many chapters.

A Quantitative Tour of the Social Sciences


Author: Andrew Gelman
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521861985
Category: Mathematics
Page: 350
View: 678
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In this book, prominent social scientists describe quantitative models in economics, history, sociology, political science, and psychology.

Time Series Analysis

Methods and Applications
Author: Tata Subba Rao,Suhasini Subba Rao,Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444538585
Category: Mathematics
Page: 755
View: 4928
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The field of statistics not only affects all areas of scientific activity, but also many other matters such as public policy. It is branching rapidly into so many different subjects that a series of handbooks is the only way of comprehensively presenting the various aspects of statistical methodology, applications, and recent developments. The Handbook of Statistics is a series of self-contained reference books. Each volume is devoted to a particular topic in statistics, with Volume 30 dealing with time series. The series is addressed to the entire community of statisticians and scientists in various disciplines who use statistical methodology in their work. At the same time, special emphasis is placed on applications-oriented techniques, with the applied statistician in mind as the primary audience. Comprehensively presents the various aspects of statistical methodology Discusses a wide variety of diverse applications and recent developments Contributors are internationally renowened experts in their respective areas

Social Sciences Index


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Periodicals
Page: N.A
View: 5571
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Stanford Bulletin


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Education
Page: N.A
View: 3823
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Democratization and Research Methods


Author: Michael Coppedge
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521537274
Category: Political Science
Page: 357
View: 9703
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Democratization and Research Methods summarizes what researchers know about why countries become and remain democracies, and why they often do not. It also evaluates the various methods social scientists use to answer such questions. Michael Coppedge draws lessons that can be applied to any political phenomenon that is studied comparatively.

Measurement With Persons

Theory, Methods, and Implementation Areas
Author: Birgitta Berglund,Giovanni B. Rossi,James T. Townsend,Leslie R. Pendrill
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1136723730
Category: Psychology
Page: 422
View: 4674
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Measurements with persons are those in which human perception and interpretation are used for measuring complex, holistic quantities and qualities, which are perceived by the human brain and mind. Providing means for reproducible measurement of parameters such as pleasure and pain has important implications in evaluating all kind of products, services, and conditions. This book inaugurates a new era for this subject: a multi- and inter-disciplinary volume in which world-renowned scientists from the psychological, physical, biological, and social sciences reach a common understanding of measurement theory and methods. In the first section, generic theoretical and methodological issues are treated, including the conceptual basis of measurement in the various fields involved; the development of formal, representational, and probabilistic theories; the approach to experimentation; and the theories, models, and methods for multidimensional problems. In the second section, several implementation areas are presented, including sound, visual, skin, and odor perception, functional brain imagining, body language and emotions, and, finally, the use of measurements in decision making Measurement with Persons will appeal to a wide audience across a range of sciences, including general psychology and psychophysics, measurement theory, metrology and instrumentation, neurophysiology, engineering, biology, and chemistry.

Measurements with Persons


Author: Birgitta Berglund,Giovanni B. Rossi,James T. Townsend,Leslie R. Pendrill
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1136723749
Category: Psychology
Page: 422
View: 2340
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Measurements with persons are those in which human perception and interpretation are used for measuring complex, holistic quantities and qualities, which are perceived by the human brain and mind. Providing means for reproducible measurement of parameters such as pleasure and pain has important implications in evaluating all kind of products, services, and conditions. This book inaugurates a new era for this subject: a multi- and inter-disciplinary volume in which world-renowned scientists from the psychological, physical, biological, and social sciences reach a common understanding of measurement theory and methods. In the first section, generic theoretical and methodological issues are treated, including the conceptual basis of measurement in the various fields involved; the development of formal, representational, and probabilistic theories; the approach to experimentation; and the theories, models, and methods for multidimensional problems. In the second section, several implementation areas are presented, including sound, visual, skin, and odor perception, functional brain imagining, body language and emotions, and, finally, the use of measurements in decision making Measurement with Persons will appeal to a wide audience across a range of sciences, including general psychology and psychophysics, measurement theory, metrology and instrumentation, neurophysiology, engineering, biology, and chemistry.

International Handbook of Behavior Modification and Therapy

Second Edition
Author: Alan S. Bellack,Michel Hersen,Alan E. Kazdin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461305233
Category: Psychology
Page: 908
View: 5675
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It is particularly gratifying to prepare a second edition of a book, because there is the necessary impli cation that the first edition was well received. Moreover, now an opportunity is provided to correct the problems or limitations that existed in the first edition as well as to address recent developments in the field. Thus, we are grateful to our friends, colleagues, and students, as well as to the reviewers who have expressed their approval of the first edition and who have given us valuable input on how the revision could best be structured. Perhaps the first thing that the reader will notice about the second edition is that it is more extensive than the first. The volume currently has 41 chapters, in contrast to the 31 chapters that comprised the earlier version. Chapters 3, 9, 29, and 30 of the first edition either have been dropped or were combined, whereas 14 new chapters have been added. In effect, we are gratified in being able to reflect the continued growth of behavior therapy in the 1980s. Behavior therapists have addressed an ever-increasing number of disorders and behavioral dysfunctions in an increasing range of populations. The most notable advances are taking place in such areas as cognitive approaches, geriatrics, and behavioral medicine, and also in the treatment of childhood disorders.