Quantum Chance

Nonlocality, Teleportation and Other Quantum Marvels
Author: Nicolas Gisin
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319054732
Category: Science
Page: 109
View: 4788
Quantum physics, which offers an explanation of the world on the smallest scale, has fundamental implications that pose a serious challenge to ordinary logic. Particularly counterintuitive is the notion of entanglement, which has been explored for the past 30 years and posits an ubiquitous randomness capable of manifesting itself simultaneously in more than one place. This amazing 'non-locality' is more than just an abstract curiosity or paradox: it has entirely down-to-earth applications in cryptography, serving for example to protect financial information; it also has enabled the demonstration of 'quantum teleportation', whose infinite possibilities even science-fiction writers can scarcely imagine. This delightful and concise exposition does not avoid the deep logical difficulties of quantum physics, but gives the reader the insights needed to appreciate them. From 'Bell's Theorem' to experiments in quantum entanglement, the reader will gain a solid understanding of one of the most fascinating areas of contemporary physics.

Introduction to Quantum Optics

From the Semi-classical Approach to Quantized Light
Author: Gilbert Grynberg,Alain Aspect,Claude Fabre
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139490842
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 1419
Covering a number of important subjects in quantum optics, this textbook is an excellent introduction for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students, familiarizing readers with the basic concepts and formalism as well as the most recent advances. The first part of the textbook covers the semi-classical approach where matter is quantized, but light is not. It describes significant phenomena in quantum optics, including the principles of lasers. The second part is devoted to the full quantum description of light and its interaction with matter, covering topics such as spontaneous emission, and classical and non-classical states of light. An overview of photon entanglement and applications to quantum information is also given. In the third part, non-linear optics and laser cooling of atoms are presented, where using both approaches allows for a comprehensive description. Each chapter describes basic concepts in detail, and more specific concepts and phenomena are presented in 'complements'.

Einstein, Bohr and the Quantum Dilemma

From Quantum Theory to Quantum Information
Author: Andrew Whitaker
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521671027
Category: Science
Page: 461
View: 1302
A fascinating account of the development of quantum theory and emergence of quantum information theory.

Entropy and the Second Law

Interpretation and Misss-Interpretationsss
Author: Arieh Ben-Naim
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company
ISBN: 981462389X
Category: Science
Page: 296
View: 2499
This book presents a clear and readable description of one of the most mysterious concepts of physics: Entropy. It contains a self-learning kit that guides the reader in understanding the concepts of entropy. In the first part, the reader is asked to play the familiar twenty-Question game. Once the reader feels comfortable with playing this game and acquires proficiency in playing the game effectively (intelligently), he or she will be able to capture the elusive and used-to-be mysterious concept of entropy. There will be no more speculative or arbitrary interpretations, nor “older” or “modern” views of entropy. This book will guide readers in choosing their own interpretation of entropy. Video intro on the Bestsellers on Entropy by Arieh Ben-Naim https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S5fOsKyOlHw Request Inspection Copy Contents:Introduction: From Heat Engines to Disorder, Information Spreading, Freedom, and More…Forget about Entropy for a While, Let us Go and Play iGamesThe Astounding Emergence of the Entropy of a Classical Ideal Gas out of Shannon's Measure of InformationExamples and Their Interpretations. Challenges for any Descriptor of EntropyFinally, Let Us Discuss the Most Mysterious Second Law of Thermodynamics Readership: Undergraduate and graduate students in chemistry and physics, academics and lay persons.

Quantum Sense and Nonsense

Author: Jean Bricmont
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319652710
Category: Science
Page: 286
View: 2906
Permeated by the author's delightful humor, this little book explains, with nearly no mathematics, the main conceptual issues associated with quantum mechanics: The issue of determinism. Does quantum mechanics signify the end of a deterministic word-view? The role of the human subject or of the "observer" in science. Since Copernicus, science has increasingly tended to dethrone Man from his formerly held special position in the Universe. But quantum mechanics, with its emphasis on the notion of observation, may once more have given a central role to the human subject. The issue of locality. Does quantum mechanics imply that instantaneous actions at a distance exist in Nature? In these pages the author offers a variety of views and answers - bad as well as good - to these questions. The reader will be both entertained and enlightened by Jean Bricmont's clear and incisive arguments.

Characterizing Entanglement and Quantum Correlations Constrained by Symmetry

Author: Jordi Tura i Brugués
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319495712
Category: Science
Page: 237
View: 7371
This thesis focuses on the study and characterization of entanglement and nonlocal correlations constrained under symmetries. It includes original results as well as detailed methods and explanations for a number of different threads of research: positive partial transpose (PPT) entanglement in the symmetric states; a novel, experimentally friendly method to detect nonlocal correlations in many-body systems; the non-equivalence between entanglement and nonlocality; and elemental monogamies of correlations. Entanglement and nonlocal correlations constitute two fundamental resources for quantum information processing, as they allow novel tasks that are otherwise impossible in a classical scenario. However, their elusive characterization is still a central problem in quantum information theory. The main reason why such a fundamental issue remains a formidable challenge lies in the exponential growth in complexity of the Hilbert space as well as the space of multipartite correlations. Physical systems of interest, on the other hand, display symmetries that can be exploited to reduce this complexity, opening the possibility that some of these questions become tractable for such systems.

Quantum Weirdness

Author: William J. Mullin
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192514342
Category: Science
Page: 256
View: 1921
Quantum mechanics allows a remarkably accurate description of nature and powerful predictive capabilities. The analyses of quantum systems and their interpretation lead to many surprises, for example, the ability to detect the characteristics of an object without ever touching it in any way, via "interaction-free measurement," or the teleportation of an atomic state over large distances. The results can become downright bizarre. Quantum mechanics is a subtle subject that usually involves complicated mathematics — calculus, partial differential equations, etc., for complete understanding. Most texts for general audiences avoid all mathematics. The result is that the reader misses almost all deep understanding of the subject, much of which can be probed with just high-school level algebra and trigonometry. Thus, readers with that level of mathematics can learn so much more about this fundamental science. The book starts with a discussion of the basic physics of waves (an appendix reviews some necessary classical physics concepts) and then introduces the fundamentals of quantum mechanics, including the wave function, superposition, entanglement, Bell's theorem, etc., and applications to Bose—Einstein condensation, quantum computing, and much more. The interpretation of the mathematics of quantum mechanics into a world view has been the subject of much controversy. The result is a variety of conflicting interpretations, from the famous Copenhagen view of Bohr to the multiple universes of Everett. We discuss these interpretations in the chapter "What is a wave function?" and include some very recent advances, for example, quantum Bayesianism, and measurements of the reality of the wave function.

The Quantum Handshake

Entanglement, Nonlocality and Transactions
Author: John G. Cramer
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319246429
Category: Science
Page: 218
View: 6425
This book shines bright light into the dim recesses of quantum theory, where the mysteries of entanglement, nonlocality, and wave collapse have motivated some to conjure up multiple universes, and others to adopt a "shut up and calculate" mentality. After an extensive and accessible introduction to quantum mechanics and its history, the author turns attention to his transactional model. Using a quantum handshake between normal and time-reversed waves, this model provides a clear visual picture explaining the baffling experimental results that flow daily from the quantum physics laboratories of the world. To demonstrate its powerful simplicity, the transactional model is applied to a collection of counter-intuitive experiments and conceptual problems.

John Stewart Bell and Twentieth-Century Physics

Vision and Integrity
Author: Andrew Whitaker
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191060690
Category: Science
Page: 480
View: 8476
John Stewart Bell (1928-1990) was one of the most important figures in twentieth-century physics, famous for his work on the fundamental aspects of the century's most important theory, quantum mechanics. While the debate over quantum theory between the supremely famous physicists, Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr, appeared to have become sterile in the 1930s, Bell was able to revive it and to make crucial advances - Bell's Theorem or Bell's Inequalities. He was able to demonstrate a contradiction between quantum theory and essential elements of pre-quantum theory - locality and causality. The book gives a non-mathematical account of Bell's relatively impoverished upbringing in Belfast and his education. It describes his major contributions to quantum theory, but also his important work in the physics of accelerators, and nuclear and elementary particle physics.

Philosophical Theories of Probability

Author: Donald Gillies
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134672454
Category: Philosophy
Page: 240
View: 7403
The Twentieth Century has seen a dramatic rise in the use of probability and statistics in almost all fields of research. This has stimulated many new philosophical ideas on probability. Philosophical Theories of Probability is the first book to present a clear, comprehensive and systematic account of these various theories and to explain how they relate to one another. Gillies also offers a distinctive version of the propensity theory of probability, and the intersubjective interpretation, which develops the subjective theory.

Inside Interesting Integrals

A Collection of Sneaky Tricks, Sly Substitutions, and Numerous Other Stupendously Clever, Awesomely Wicked, and Devilishly Seductive Maneuvers for Computing Nearly 200 Perplexing Definite Integrals From Physics, Engineering, and Mathematics (Plus 60 Challenge Problems with Complete, Detailed Solutions)
Author: Paul J. Nahin
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493912771
Category: Science
Page: 412
View: 499
What’s the point of calculating definite integrals since you can’t possibly do them all?. What makes doing the specific integrals in this book of value aren’t the specific answers we’ll obtain, but rather the methods we’ll use in obtaining those answers; methods you can use for evaluating the integrals you will encounter in the future. This book is written in a light-hearted manner for students who have completed the first year of college or high school AP calculus and have just a bit of exposure to the concept of a differential equation. Every result is fully derived. If you are fascinated by definite integrals, then this is a book for you.

Making Sense of Quantum Mechanics

Author: Jean Bricmont
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319258893
Category: Science
Page: 331
View: 3350
This book explains, in simple terms, with a minimum of mathematics, why things can appear to be in two places at the same time, why correlations between simultaneous events occurring far apart cannot be explained by local mechanisms, and why, nevertheless, the quantum theory can be understood in terms of matter in motion. No need to worry, as some people do, whether a cat can be both dead and alive, whether the moon is there when nobody looks at it, or whether quantum systems need an observer to acquire definite properties. The author’s inimitable and even humorous style makes the book a pleasure to read while bringing a new clarity to many of the longstanding puzzles of quantum physics.

The Emperor's New Mind

Concerning Computers, Minds, and the Laws of Physics
Author: Roger Penrose
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198784929
Category: Computers
Page: 602
View: 9223
For many decades, the proponents of `artificial intelligence' have maintained that computers will soon be able to do everything that a human can do. In his bestselling work of popular science, Sir Roger Penrose takes us on a fascinating tour through the basic principles of physics, cosmology, mathematics, and philosophy to show that human thinking can never be emulated by a machine. Oxford Landmark Science books are 'must-read' classics of modern science writing which have crystallized big ideas, and shaped the way we think.

Controlling the Quantum World:

The Science of Atoms, Molecules, and Photons
Author: Board on Physics and Astronomy,Committee on AMO2010,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309102707
Category: Science
Page: 244
View: 2157
As part of the Physics 2010 decadal survey project, the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation requested that the National Research Council assess the opportunities, over roughly the next decade, in atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) science and technology. In particular, the National Research Council was asked to cover the state of AMO science, emphasizing recent accomplishments and identifying new and compelling scientific questions. Controlling the Quantum World, discusses both the roles and challenges for AMO science in instrumentation; scientific research near absolute zero; development of extremely intense x-ray and laser sources; exploration and control of molecular processes; photonics at the nanoscale level; and development of quantum information technology. This book also offers an assessment of and recommendations about critical issues concerning maintaining U.S. leadership in AMO science and technology.

From Photons to Higgs

A Story of Light
Author: M. Y. Han
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company Incorporated
ISBN: 9789814583862
Category: Science
Page: 127
View: 2748
This book presents a brief introduction to the quantum field theory of the Standard Model for quarks and leptons. With minimal use of mathematics, it covers the basics of quantum field theory, local gauge field theory, spontaneous symmetry breaking mechanism, the Higgs mechanism and quantum chromodynamics. From the time when the first edition was published until today, the field of particle physics has seen some major break-through with the possible discovery of Higgs particle, also known as the Higgs boson. In the second edition, the famous Higgs mechanism is included to explain the symmetry breaking in the Standard Model and the origin of mass, and all of this is explained in high-school level algebra. Aimed at both scientists and non-specialists, it requires only some rudimentary knowledge of the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulation of Newtonian mechanics as well as a basic understanding of the special theory of relativity and quantum mechanics to enjoy this book.

The God Effect

Quantum Entanglement, Science's Strangest Phenomenon
Author: Brian Clegg
Publisher: St. Martin's Press
ISBN: 1429966017
Category: Science
Page: 288
View: 1461
The phenomenon that Einstein thought too spooky and strange to be true What is entanglement? It's a connection between quantum particles, the building blocks of the universe. Once two particles are entangled, a change to one of them is reflected---instantly---in the other, be they in the same lab or light-years apart. So counterintuitive is this phenomenon and its implications that Einstein himself called it "spooky" and thought that it would lead to the downfall of quantum theory. Yet scientists have since discovered that quantum entanglement, the "God Effect," was one of Einstein's few---and perhaps one of his greatest---mistakes. What does it mean? The possibilities offered by a fuller understanding of the nature of entanglement read like something out of science fiction: communications devices that could span the stars, codes that cannot be broken, computers that dwarf today's machines in speed and power, teleportation, and more. In The God Effect, veteran science writer Brian Clegg has written an exceptionally readable and fascinating (and equation-free) account of entanglement, its history, and its application. Fans of Brian Greene and Amir Aczel and those interested in the marvelous possibilities coming down the quantum road will find much to marvel, illuminate, and delight.

Quantum Reality

Beyond the New Physics
Author: Nick Herbert
Publisher: Anchor
ISBN: 030780674X
Category: Science
Page: 288
View: 7161
This clearly explained layman's introduction to quantum physics is an accessible excursion into metaphysics and the meaning of reality. Herbert exposes the quantum world and the scientific and philosophical controversy about its interpretation.

Schrodinger's Cat Trilogy

The Universe Next Door, The Trick Top Hat, & The Homing Pigeons
Author: Robert A. Wilson
Publisher: Dell
ISBN: 0307573931
Category: Fiction
Page: 560
View: 2523
The sequel to the cult classic The Illuminatus! Trilogy, this is an epic fantasy that offers a twisted look at our modern-day world--a reality that exists in another dimension of time and space that may be closer than we think.

Machine Learning

A Constraint-Based Approach
Author: Marco Gori
Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann
ISBN: 0081006705
Category: Computers
Page: 580
View: 8065
Machine Learning: A Constraint-Based Approach provides readers with a refreshing look at the basic models and algorithms of machine learning, with an emphasis on current topics of interest that includes neural networks and kernel machines. The book presents the information in a truly unified manner that is based on the notion of learning from environmental constraints. While regarding symbolic knowledge bases as a collection of constraints, the book draws a path towards a deep integration with machine learning that relies on the idea of adopting multivalued logic formalisms, like in fuzzy systems. A special attention is reserved to deep learning, which nicely fits the constrained- based approach followed in this book. This book presents a simpler unified notion of regularization, which is strictly connected with the parsimony principle, and includes many solved exercises that are classified according to the Donald Knuth ranking of difficulty, which essentially consists of a mix of warm-up exercises that lead to deeper research problems. A software simulator is also included. Presents fundamental machine learning concepts, such as neural networks and kernel machines in a unified manner Provides in-depth coverage of unsupervised and semi-supervised learning Includes a software simulator for kernel machines and learning from constraints that also includes exercises to facilitate learning Contains 250 solved examples and exercises chosen particularly for their progression of difficulty from simple to complex