Race and Ethnicity in the Juvenile Justice System


Author: Tina L. Freiburger,Kareem L. Jordan
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781611635348
Category: Discrimination in juvenile justice administration
Page: N.A
View: 5093

Race and Ethnicity in the Juvenile Justice System provides a comprehensive empirical examination of the role of race and ethnicity in the juvenile court. Using empirical research as a foundation, the authors examine how race and ethnicity influence multiple decision points for youth entering the juvenile system including arrest, referral, petition, pre-adjudication release, adjudication, and disposition. The authors ground the decision-making in a separate chapter that exclusively focuses on theories that can be used to explain the role of race and ethnicity in juvenile justice processing. Additionally, there is an examination of how community factors differentially impact decision-making based on the race/ethnicity of youth, the role of race/ethnicity in the practice of transferring youth to adult court, and how race influences juveniles' perceptions of police and the juvenile system. Also, the authors empirically examine the role of race/ethnicity on the processing of status offenders and how it influences female involvement in delinquency. In framing all of these salient issues in the proper context, the authors provide a historical analysis on the role of race in development of the juvenile court system and how different races were treated both before and after the juvenile court's implementation. The underlying theme of the text is that all races/ethnicities of youth were not initially served by or meant to benefit from the juvenile court. Therefore, the continuing racial and ethnic disparities currently observed in the system can be traced to the pre-juvenile court era.

States of Delinquency

Race and Science in the Making of California's Juvenile Justice System
Author: Miroslava Chavez-Garcia
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520951557
Category: History
Page: 314
View: 5640

This unique analysis of the rise of the juvenile justice system from the nineteenth to twentieth centuries uses one of the harshest states—California—as a case study for examining racism in the treatment of incarcerated young people of color. Using rich new untapped archives, States of Delinquency is the first book to explore the experiences of young Mexican Americans, African Americans, and ethnic Euro-Americans in California correctional facilities including Whittier State School for Boys and the Preston School of Industry. Miroslava Chávez-García examines the ideologies and practices used by state institutions as they began to replace families and communities in punishing youth, and explores the application of science and pseudo-scientific research in the disproportionate classification of youths of color as degenerate. She also shows how these boys and girls, and their families, resisted increasingly harsh treatment and various kinds of abuse, including sterilization.

Our Children, Their Children

Confronting Racial and Ethnic Differences in American Juvenile Justice
Author: Darnell F. Hawkins,Kimberly Kempf-Leonard
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226319919
Category: Social Science
Page: 440
View: 7883

In Our Children, Their Children, a prominent team of researchers argues that a second-rate and increasingly punitive juvenile justice system is allowed to persist because most people believe it is designed for children in other ethnic and socioeconomic groups. While public opinion, laws, and social policies that convey distinctions between "our children" and "their children" may seem to conflict with the American ideal of blind justice, they are hardly at odds with patterns of group differentiation and inequality that have characterized much of American history. Our Children, Their Children provides a state-of-the-science examination of racial and ethnic disparities in the American juvenile justice system. Here, contributors document the precise magnitude of these disparities, seek to determine their causes, and propose potential solutions. In addition to race and ethnicity, contributors also look at the effects on juvenile justice of suburban sprawl, the impact of family and neighborhood, bias in postarrest decisions, and mental health issues. Assessing the implications of these differences for public policy initiatives and legal reforms, this volume is the first critical summary of what is known and unknown in this important area of social research.

Racial Divide

Racial and Ethnic Bias in the Criminal Justice System
Author: Michael J. Lynch,E. Britt Patterson,Kristina K. Childs
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 1881798860
Category: Law
Page: 301
View: 9368

This anthology provides a balanced assessment of whether the American criminal justice system is guilty of bias in its treatment of racial and ethnic minorities. Contexts in which this question is explored include: policing and perceptions of police, sentencing, prison populations, racial profiling and forensic sciences.the diverse theories on disparities in the criminal justice process;evidence of racial prejudice in policing;African-American citizens' and police officers' perceptions of police bias;disparities in sentencing;differential sentencing patterns among juvenile drug offenders;minority overrepresentation in the prison population;the application of the death penalty;racial profiling of white customers in retail stores;misuse of race and racial identification in the forensic sciences;residents' proximity to environmental hazards and enforcement of environmental regulations

The Oxford Handbook of Juvenile Crime and Juvenile Justice


Author: Barry C. Feld,Donna M. Bishop
Publisher: OUP USA
ISBN: 0195385101
Category: Law
Page: 934
View: 4064

State-of-the-art critical reviews of recent scholarship on the causes of juvenile delinquency, juvenile justice system responses, and public policies to prevent and reduce youth crime are brought together in a single volume authored by leading scholars and researchers in neuropsychology, developmental and social psychology, sociology, history, criminology/criminal justice, and law.

The Color of Justice: Race, Ethnicity, and Crime in America


Author: Samuel Walker,Cassia Spohn,Miriam DeLone
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 1337514683
Category: Education
Page: 560
View: 6913

Comprehensive and balanced, THE COLOR OF JUSTICE: RACE, ETHNICITY, AND CRIME IN AMERICA is the definitive introduction to current research and theories of racial and ethnic discrimination within America's criminal justice system. The sixth edition covers the best and the most recent research on patterns of criminal behavior and victimization, immigration and crime, drug use, police practices, court processing and sentencing, unconscious bias, the death penalty, and correctional programs, giving students the facts and theoretical foundation they need to make their own informed decisions about discrimination within the system. Uniquely unbiased, THE COLOR OF JUSTICE makes every effort to incorporate discussion of all major race groups found in the United States. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Race, Ethnicity and Law


Author: Mathieu Deflem
Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing
ISBN: 1787146049
Category: Crime and race
Page: 294
View: 6792

"Addresses issues of race and ethnicity within the law and law-related phenomena. In today's so-called multicultural, post-racial world racial and ethnic concerns prevail in many aspects of modern law. Contributors to this volume examine racial and ethnic disparities in sentencing and punishment; the continued problematic nature of the African American experience within the US system; the criminalization of immigrants; racial inequities in the administration of drug laws; and the racial disparities that affect juvenile justice"--Publisher's description.

Juvenile Justice

Advancing Research, Policy, and Practice
Author: Francine Sherman,Francine Jacobs
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118105850
Category: Political Science
Page: 569
View: 2403

"The lessons in this book remind us that we can—and that we must—do better, for the sake of our children, their futures, and the sake of our nation. . . . This volume is a call to action, and I encourage everyone who reads it to take steps to ensure that all America's children are given an equal chance to succeed. We must all work together to replace the cradle-to-prison pipeline with a pipeline to responsible, productive adulthood." —From the Foreword by Marian Wright Edelman, JD, President and founder, Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC "Juvenile Justice: Advancing Research, Policy, and Practice appears at a critical time, when promising juvenile justice reforms are underway in so many jurisdictions across the United States. Sherman and Jacobs, and their impressive array of expert authors, fill a significant gap in the literature, making the current body of juvenile justice research and experience accessible to policy makers, researchers, and funders, and doing so through a practical and positive lens." —Patrick McCarthy, President and Chief Executive Officer, Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD "Most people have narrow views of what it means to be a delinquent youth. In Juvenile Justice: Advancing Research, Policy, and Practice, Sherman and Jacobs have diligently collected essays from the top experts in the juvenile justice field who tell an empirically based and powerful narrative of who is really in the delinquency system. As this book makes clear, until we ask and answer the right questions, we will remain unable to help the youth most in need." —Alexander Busansky, President, The National Council on Crime and Delinquency, Oakland, CA A comprehensive reference presenting a rehabilitative, youth- and community-centered vision of juvenile justice Juvenile Justice: Advancing Research, Policy, and Practice brings together experts in juvenile justice, child development, and public health to explore the intersections between juvenile justice and needed development of programs and policies that look out for the health and well-being of the youth who enter this system. This timely book provides a usable framework for imagining juvenile justice systems that emphasize the welfare of juveniles, achieved primarily through connections within their communities. A must-read for professionals working in juvenile courts and within juvenile justice agencies, Juvenile Justice: Advancing Research, Policy, and Practice reflects both the considerable advances and the challenges currently evident in the juvenile justice system, with an emphasis on the development and implementation of policies that can succeed in building a new generation of educated young people able to embrace their potential and build successful futures.

Race, Ethnicity, Crime, and Justice


Author: Matthew B. Robinson
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781611636376
Category: Crime and race
Page: 332
View: 4203

Race, Ethnicity, Crime, and Justice examines key facts related to the relationship between race and ethnicity and criminal justice practices at the juvenile and adult levels. Designed to be brief yet thorough, the text covers the most important issues related to race and ethnicity as they pertain to the law, crime and delinquency, policing, courts, and corrections. Race, Ethnicity, Crime, and Justice is intended to provide an in-depth account of what is known about race and ethnicity and how these factors impact justice processing in the United States. The book is highly readable and classroom friendly while also making a meaningful contribution to the literature on the topic.

Rethinking Juvenile Justice


Author: Elizabeth S Scott,Laurence D Steinberg
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674043367
Category: Law
Page: 378
View: 8231

What should we do with teenagers who commit crimes? In this book, two leading scholars in law and adolescent development argue that juvenile justice should be grounded in the best available psychological science, which shows that adolescence is a distinctive state of cognitive and emotional development. Although adolescents are not children, they are also not fully responsible adults.

The Evolution of the Juvenile Court

Race, Politics, and the Criminalizing of Juvenile Justice
Author: Barry C. Feld
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 1479895695
Category: Law
Page: 392
View: 5272

A major statement on the juvenile justice system by one of America’s leading experts The juvenile court lies at the intersection of youth policy and crime policy. Its institutional practices reflect our changing ideas about children and crime control. The Evolution of the Juvenile Court provides a sweeping overview of the American juvenile justice system’s development and change over the past century. Noted law professor and criminologist Barry C. Feld places special emphasis on changes over the last 25 years—the ascendance of get tough crime policies and the more recent Supreme Court recognition that “children are different.” Feld’s comprehensive historical analyses trace juvenile courts’ evolution though four periods—the original Progressive Era, the Due Process Revolution in the 1960s, the Get Tough Era of the 1980s and 1990s, and today’s Kids Are Different era. In each period, changes in the economy, cities, families, race and ethnicity, and politics have shaped juvenile courts’ policies and practices. Changes in juvenile courts’ ends and means—substance and procedure—reflect shifting notions of children’s culpability and competence. The Evolution of the Juvenile Court examines how conservative politicians used coded racial appeals to advocate get tough policies that equated children with adults and more recent Supreme Court decisions that draw on developmental psychology and neuroscience research to bolster its conclusions about youths’ reduced criminal responsibility and diminished competence. Feld draws on lessons from the past to envision a new, developmentally appropriate justice system for children. Ultimately, providing justice for children requires structural changes to reduce social and economic inequality—concentrated poverty in segregated urban areas—that disproportionately expose children of color to juvenile courts’ punitive policies. Historical, prescriptive, and analytical, The Evolution of the Juvenile Court evaluates the author’s past recommendations to abolish juvenile courts in light of this new evidence, and concludes that separate, but reformed, juvenile courts are necessary to protect children who commit crimes and facilitate their successful transition to adulthood.

Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice


Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Institute of Medicine,Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Children, Youth, and Families,Committee on Law and Justice,Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309172356
Category: Law
Page: 404
View: 9419

Even though youth crime rates have fallen since the mid-1990s, public fear and political rhetoric over the issue have heightened. The Columbine shootings and other sensational incidents add to the furor. Often overlooked are the underlying problems of child poverty, social disadvantage, and the pitfalls inherent to adolescent decisionmaking that contribute to youth crime. From a policy standpoint, adolescent offenders are caught in the crossfire between nurturance of youth and punishment of criminals, between rehabilitation and "get tough" pronouncements. In the midst of this emotional debate, the National Research Council's Panel on Juvenile Crime steps forward with an authoritative review of the best available data and analysis. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice presents recommendations for addressing the many aspects of America's youth crime problem. This timely release discusses patterns and trends in crimes by children and adolescents--trends revealed by arrest data, victim reports, and other sources; youth crime within general crime; and race and sex disparities. The book explores desistance--the probability that delinquency or criminal activities decrease with age--and evaluates different approaches to predicting future crime rates. Why do young people turn to delinquency? Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice presents what we know and what we urgently need to find out about contributing factors, ranging from prenatal care, differences in temperament, and family influences to the role of peer relationships, the impact of the school policies toward delinquency, and the broader influences of the neighborhood and community. Equally important, this book examines a range of solutions: Prevention and intervention efforts directed to individuals, peer groups, and families, as well as day care-, school- and community-based initiatives. Intervention within the juvenile justice system. Role of the police. Processing and detention of youth offenders. Transferring youths to the adult judicial system. Residential placement of juveniles. The book includes background on the American juvenile court system, useful comparisons with the juvenile justice systems of other nations, and other important information for assessing this problem.

Race and Juvenile Justice


Author: Everette Burdette Penn,Helen Taylor Greene,Shaun L. Gabbidon
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780890895726
Category: Political Science
Page: 266
View: 6135

An edited volume, Race and Juvenile Justice offers a collection of readings that examines race and the juvenile justice system in a historical and social context. Part I of the volume is dedicated to each of the American racial /ethnic groups (African-American, Asian-American, Latino-American, Native-American, and White-American). These readings present the complexities of juvenile justice issues as they relate to each prospective group. Part II of the volume presents articles on Disproportionate Minority Confinement, the history of race in juvenile justice, gangs, the role of domestic violence in juvenile justice, and juveniles and the death penalty. The volume concludes with an article that examines delinquency prevention and intervention strategies.

Race and Crime


Author: Shaun L. Gabbidon,Helen Taylor Greene
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1452202605
Category: Social Science
Page: 416
View: 5647

Written by two award winning criminologists, the third edition of Race and Crime continues to examine the history of how racial and ethnic groups intersect with the U.S. criminal justice system, and investigates key contemporary issues relevant to understanding the current state of race/ethnicity and crime in the United States. This thought-provoking text provides students the latest research and data on White, Black, Hispanic, Asian-American and Native American intersections with the criminal justice system. The unique historical perspective is integrated throughout the text and provides students with a panoramic perspective on race and crime.

A New Juvenile Justice System

Total Reform for a Broken System
Author: Nancy E. Dowd
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 147984389X
Category: Law
Page: 400
View: 3379

A New Juvenile Justice System aims at nothing less than a complete reform of the existing system: not minor change or even significant overhaul, but the replacement of the existing system with a different vision. The authors in this volume—academics, activists, researchers, and those who serve in the existing system—all respond in this collection to the question of what the system should be. Uniformly, they agree that an ideal system should be centered around the principle of child well-being and the goal of helping kids to achieve productive lives as citizens and members of their communities. Rather than the existing system, with its punitive, destructive, undermining effect and uneven application by race and gender, these authors envision a system responsive to the needs of youth as well as to the community’s legitimate need for public safety. How, they ask, can the ideals of equality, freedom, liberty, and self-determination transform the system? How can we improve the odds that children who have been labeled as “delinquent” can make successful transitions to adulthood? And how can we create a system that relies on proven, family-focused interventions and creates opportunities for positive youth development? Drawing upon interdisciplinary work as well as on-the-ground programs and experience, the authors sketch out the broad parameters of such a system. Providing the principles, goals, and concrete means to achieve them, this volume imagines using our resources wisely and well to invest in all children and their potential to contribute and thrive in our society.

A Return to Justice

Rethinking our Approach to Juveniles in the System
Author: Ashley Nellis
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 1442227672
Category: Law
Page: 156
View: 2091

The juvenile justice system has changed dramatically since its inception in this country. From a system that sought to protect and rehabilitate, to one that sought to punish and incarcerate, it is now refocusing on treatment and redirection. Here, Nellis delivers a history of the system and calls for more reforms to reflect current realities.

The Black Child-Savers

Racial Democracy and Juvenile Justice
Author: Geoff K. Ward
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226873161
Category: History
Page: 336
View: 2133

During the Progressive Era, a rehabilitative agenda took hold of American juvenile justice, materializing as a citizen-and-state-building project and mirroring the unequal racial politics of American democracy itself. Alongside this liberal "manufactory of citizens,” a parallel structure was enacted: a Jim Crow juvenile justice system that endured across the nation for most of the twentieth century. In The Black Child Savers, the first study of the rise and fall of Jim Crow juvenile justice, Geoff Ward examines the origins and organization of this separate and unequal juvenile justice system. Ward explores how generations of “black child-savers” mobilized to challenge the threat to black youth and community interests and how this struggle grew aligned with a wider civil rights movement, eventually forcing the formal integration of American juvenile justice. Ward’s book reveals nearly a century of struggle to build a more democratic model of juvenile justice—an effort that succeeded in part, but ultimately failed to deliver black youth and community to liberal rehabilitative ideals. At once an inspiring story about the shifting boundaries of race, citizenship, and democracy in America and a crucial look at the nature of racial inequality, The Black Child Savers is a stirring account of the stakes and meaning of social justice.

Bad Kids

Race and the Transformation of the Juvenile Court
Author: Barry C. Feld
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0195097874
Category: Law
Page: 374
View: 9226

Traces the evolution of the juvenile court from its inception in the early 1900s, with an emphasis on the past three decades.

The Oxford Handbook of Ethnicity, Crime, and Immigration


Author: Sandra M. Bucerius,Michael H. Tonry
Publisher: Oxford Handbooks
ISBN: 0199859019
Category: Law
Page: 960
View: 8898

This title provides comprehensive analyses of current knowledge about the unwarranted disparities in dealings with the criminal justice system faced by some disadvantaged minority groups in all developed countries.

Reforming the Juvenile Justice System to Improve Children's Lives and Public Safety

Congressional Testimony
Author: George Miller
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
ISBN: 1437936369
Category:
Page: 94
View: 4787

Hearing on the reauthorization of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act, which was first written in 1974 with the goal of supporting states¿ actions to prevent youth crime and to provide core protections for children. The law recognized that clear biological differences between teenagers and adults meant that youth should not be treated in the same manner as adults. Witnesses: Michael Belton, Ramsey County, MN, Dep. Dir. of Juvenile Corrections; Scott Burns, Exec. Dir., National DA¿s Assoc.; A. Hasan Davis, Dep. Commissioner for Operations, Kentucky Dept. of Juvenile Justice; Tracy McClard, Parent; John Solberg, Exec. Dir., Rawhide Boys Ranch, New London, WI; Steven Teske, Judge, Clayton County Juvenile Court, GA. Illus.