Race and Slavery in the Middle East

An Historical Enquiry
Author: Bernard Lewis
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780195053265
Category: History
Page: 184
View: 4468
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From before the days of Moses up through the 1960s, slavery was a fact of life in the Middle East. Pagans, Jews, Christians, and Muslims bought and sold at the slave markets for millennia, trading the human plunder of wars and slave raids that reached from the Russian steppes to the African jungles. But if the Middle East was one of the last regions to renounce slavery, how do we account for its--and especially Islam's--image of racial harmony? How did these long years of slavery affect racial relations? In Race and Slavery in the Middle East, Bernard Lewis explores these questions and others, examining the history of slavery in law, social thought, and practice over the last two millennia. With 24 rare and intriguing full-color illustrations, this fascinating study describes the Middle East's culture of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice. Lewis demonstrates how nineteenth century Europeans mythologized the region as a racial utopia in debating American slavery. Islam, in fact, clearly teaches non-discrimination, but Lewis shows that prejudice often won out over pious sentiments, as he examines how Africans were treated, depicted, and thought of from antiquity to the twentieth century. "If my color were pink, women would love me/But the Lord has marred me with blackness," lamented a black slave poet in Arabia over a millennium ago--and Lewis deftly draws from these lines and others the nuances of racial relations over time. Islam, he finds, restricted enslavement and greatly improved the lot of slaves--who included, until the early twentieth century, some whites--while blacks occasionally rose to power and renown. But abuses ring throughout the written and visual record, from the horrors of capture to the castration and high mortality which, along with other causes, have left few blacks in many Middle Eastern lands, despite centuries of importing African slaves. Race and Slavery in the Middle East illuminates the legacy of slavery in the region where it lasted longest, from the days of warrior slaves and palace eunuchs and concubines to the final drive for abolition. Illustrated with outstanding reproductions of striking artwork, it casts a new light on this critical part of the world, and on the nature and interrelation of slavery and racial prejudice.

Race and Slavery in the Middle East

An Historical Enquiry
Author: Bernard Lewis
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: N.A
Category: Social Science
Page: 184
View: 3114
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From before the days of Moses up through the 1960s, slavery was a fact of life in the Middle East. Pagans, Jews, Christians, and Muslims bought and sold at the slave markets for millennia, trading the human plunder of wars and slave raids that reached from the Russian steppes to the African jungles. But if the Middle East was one of the last regions to renounce slavery, how do we account for its--and especially Islam's--image of racial harmony? How did these long years of slavery affect racial relations? In Race and Slavery in the Middle East, Bernard Lewis explores these questions and others, examining the history of slavery in law, social thought, and practice over the last two millenia. With 24 rare and intriguing full-color illustrations, this fascinating study describes the Middle East's culture of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice. Lewis demonstrates how nineteenth century Europeans mythologized the region as a racial utopia in debating American slavery. Islam, in fact, clearly teaches non-discrimination, but Lewis shows that prejudice often won out over pious sentiments, as he examines how Africans were treated, depicted, and thought of from antiquity to the twentieth century. "If my color were pink, women would love me/But the Lord has marred me with blackness," lamented a black slave poet in Arabia over a millennium ago--and Lewis deftly draws from these lines and others the nuances of racial relations over time. Islam, he finds, restricted enslavement and greatly improved the lot of slaves--who included, until the early twentieth century, some whites--while blacks occasionally rose to power and renown. But abuses ring throughout the written and visual record, from the horrors of capture to the castration and high mortality which, along with other causes, have left few blacks in many Middle Eastern lands, despite centuries of importing African slaves. Race and Slavery in the Middle East illuminates the legacy of slavery in the region where it lasted longest, from the days of warrior slaves and palace eunuchs and concubines to the final drive for abolition. Illustrated with outstanding reproductions of striking artwork, it casts a new light on this critical part of the world, and on the nature and interrelation of slavery and racial prejudice.

Race and Slavery in the Middle East

Histories of Trans-Saharan Africans in 19th-Century Egypt, Sudan, and the Ottoman Mediterranean
Author: Terence Walz,Kenneth M. Cuno
Publisher: American University in Cairo Press
ISBN: 1617973793
Category: History
Page: 256
View: 2063
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In the nineteenth century hundreds of thousands of Africans were forcibly migrated northward to Egypt and other eastern Mediterranean destinations, yet relatively little is known about them. Studies have focused mainly on the mamluk and harem slaves of elite households, who were mostly white, and on abolitionist efforts to end the slave trade, and most have relied heavily on western language sources. In the past forty years new sources have become available, ranging from Egyptian religious and civil court and police records to rediscovered archives and accounts in western archives and libraries. Along with new developments in the study of African slavery these sources provide a perspective on the lives of non-elite trans-Saharan Africans in nineteenth century Egypt and beyond. The nine essays in this volume examine the lives of slaves and freed men and women in Egypt and the region. Contributors: Kenneth M. Cuno, Y. Hakan Erdem, Michael Ferguson, Emad Ahmad Helal Shams al-Din, Liat Kozma, George Michael La Rue, Ahmad A. Sikainga, Eve M. Troutt Powell, and Terence Walz.

Slavery in the Arab World


Author: Murray Gordon
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 0941533301
Category: Social Science
Page: 265
View: 5549
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...a comprehensive portrait of slavery in the Islamic world from earliest times until today...D>--Arab Book World

Islam's Black Slaves

The Other Black Diaspora
Author: Ronald Segal
Publisher: Macmillan
ISBN: 0374527970
Category: History
Page: 273
View: 1077
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A comprehensive study of the Eastern slave trade by an eminent British scholar A companion volume to The Black Diaspora, this groundbreaking work tells the fascinating and horrifying story of the Islamic slave trade. Islam's Black Slaves documents a centuries-old institution that still survives, and traces the business of slavery and its repercussions from Islam's inception in the seventh century, through its history in China, India, Iran, Turkey, Egypt, Libya, and Spain, and on to Sudan and Mauritania, where, even today, slaves continue to be sold. Ronald Segal reveals for the first time the numbers involved in this trade--as many millions as were transported to the Americas--and explores the differences between the traffic in the East and the West. Islam's Black Slaves also examines the continued denial of the very existence of this sector of the black diaspora, although it survives today in significant numbers; and in an illuminating conclusion, Segal addresses the appeal of Islam to African-American communities, and the perplexing refusal of Black Muslim leaders to acknowledge black slavery and oppression in present-day Mauritania and Sudan. A fitting companion to Segal's previous work, Islam's Black Slaves is a fascinating account of an often unacknowledged tradition, and a riveting cross-cultural commentary.

Ebony and Ivy

Race, Slavery, and the Troubled History of America's Universities
Author: Craig Steven Wilder
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA
ISBN: 1596916818
Category: History
Page: 432
View: 3974
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A leading African-American historian of race in America exposes the uncomfortable truths about race, slavery and the American academy, revealing that our leading universities, dependent on human bondage, became breeding grounds for the racist ideas that sustained it.

Black Morocco

A History of Slavery, Race, and Islam
Author: Chouki El Hamel
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139620045
Category: History
Page: N.A
View: 5544
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Black Morocco: A History of Slavery, Race, and Islam chronicles the experiences, identity and achievements of enslaved black people in Morocco from the sixteenth century to the beginning of the twentieth century. Chouki El Hamel argues that we cannot rely solely on Islamic ideology as the key to explain social relations and particularly the history of black slavery in the Muslim world, for this viewpoint yields an inaccurate historical record of the people, institutions and social practices of slavery in Northwest Africa. El Hamel focuses on black Moroccans' collective experience beginning with their enslavement to serve as the loyal army of the Sultan Isma'il. By the time the Sultan died in 1727, they had become a political force, making and unmaking rulers well into the nineteenth century. The emphasis on the political history of the black army is augmented by a close examination of the continuity of black Moroccan identity through the musical and cultural practices of the Gnawa.

Slavery and the Founders

Race and Liberty in the Age of Jefferson
Author: Paul Finkelman
Publisher: M.E. Sharpe
ISBN: 076564147X
Category: History
Page: 322
View: 1038
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The new edition of this classic work addresses how the first generation of leaders of the United States dealt with the profoundly important question of human bondage. This third edition incorporates a new chapter on the regulation of the African slave trade and the latest research on Thomas Jefferson.

Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the Third/ninth Century


Author: Alexandre Popović
Publisher: Markus Wiener Pub
ISBN: 9781558761629
Category: History
Page: 207
View: 6754
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The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the III/IX Century is the only full-length study on the revolt o f the Zanj. Scholars of slavery, the African diaspora and th e Middle East have lauded Popovic''s work. '

Slavery, Race, and Conquest in the Tropics

Lincoln, Douglas, and the Future of Latin America
Author: Robert E. May
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521763835
Category: History
Page: 296
View: 6969
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Robert E. May internationalizes the American Civil War and reinterprets the 1860 presidential campaign, shedding new light on the Lincoln-Douglas rivalry.

Slavery in the Islamic Middle East


Author: Shaun Elizabeth Marmon
Publisher: Markus Wiener Pub
ISBN: 9781558761698
Category: History
Page: 117
View: 1274
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Slavery, recognized and regulated by Islamic law, was an integral part of Muslim societies in the Middle East well into modern times. Recruited from the "Abode of War" by means of trade or warfare, slaves began their lives in the Islamic world as deracinated outsiders, described by Muslim jurists as being in a state like death, awaiting resurrection and rebirth through manumission. Many of these slaves were manumitted and some rose to prominence as soldiers and political leaders. Others were not so fortunate. Slaves of African origin, in particular, were often condemned to lives of menial labor. Despite the importance of slavery in Islamic history, this institution has received scant attention from scholars. This volume examines the institution of slavery in Islam in a range of cultural settings. Shaun Marmon examines the role of domestic slavery and clientage in Medieval Egypt. Yvonne Seng discusses the social and spatial mobility provided by the institution of slavery in Ottoman Anatolia. John Hunwick examines the debates that took place among the North African ulama in the sixteenth through nineteenth century about the relationship between skin color and slavery. Michel Le Gall's partial translation of the memoirs of the French physician Louis Frank presents a vivid picture of the fate of these African victims of the slave trade in the nineteenth century. David Ayalon returns again to the important institution of military slavery in Islam in the pre-modern period. Book jacket.

The African diaspora in the Mediterranean lands of Islam


Author: John O. Hunwick,Eve Troutt Powell
Publisher: Markus Wiener Pub
ISBN: 9781558762749
Category: History
Page: 246
View: 1390
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Presents a collection of primary materials on the enslavement of Africans in Islamic countries of the Mediterranean, covering such topics as Muslim views on slavery, the capture and sale of slaves, and the types of labor they performed.

Sugar in the Blood

A Family's Story of Slavery and Empire
Author: Andrea Stuart
Publisher: Vintage
ISBN: 0307474542
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 353
View: 9508
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Presents a history of the interdependence of sugar, slavery, and colonial settlement in the New World through the story of the author's ancestors, exploring the myriad connections between sugar cultivation and her family's identity, genealogy, and financial stability.

Slavery and Freedom on the Middle Ground

Maryland During the Nineteenth Century
Author: Barbara Jeanne Fields
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 9780300040326
Category: History
Page: 268
View: 2834
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In this history, Fields shows how Maryland’s centrist moderation turned into centrist immoderation under the stress of the Civil War and argues that Reconstruction proved to be at least as difficult in Maryland as in the Confederacy.

Tell This in My Memory

Stories of Enslavement from Egypt, Sudan, and the Ottoman Empire
Author: Eve M. Troutt Powell
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 0804783756
Category: History
Page: 264
View: 6845
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In the late nineteenth century, an active slave trade sustained social and economic networks across the Ottoman Empire and throughout Egypt, Sudan, the Caucasus, and Western Europe. Unlike the Atlantic trade, slavery in this region crossed and mixed racial and ethnic lines. Fair-skinned Circassian men and women were as vulnerable to enslavement in the Nile Valley as were teenagers from Sudan or Ethiopia. Tell This in My Memory opens up a new window in the study of slavery in the modern Middle East, taking up personal narratives of slaves and slave owners to shed light on the anxieties and intimacies of personal experience. The framework of racial identity constructed through these stories proves instrumental in explaining how countries later confronted—or not—the legacy of the slave trade. Today, these vocabularies of slavery live on for contemporary refugees whose forced migrations often replicate the journeys and stigmas faced by slaves in the nineteenth century.

"There are No Slaves in France"

The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien Régime
Author: Sue Peabody
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780195158663
Category: History
Page: 210
View: 5353
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"There Are No Slaves in France": The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancient Regime examines the paradox of political antislavery and institutional racism in the century prior to the French Revolution. Black slaves who came to France as domestic servants of colonial masters challenged their servitude in courts. On the basis of the Freedom Principle, ̃a judicial maxim granting freedom to any slave who set foot in the kingdom, hundreds of slaves won their freedom.

Black Prometheus

Race and Radicalism in the Age of Atlantic Slavery
Author: Jared Hickman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190272589
Category: Mythology, Classical, in literature
Page: 544
View: 1327
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How did an ancient mythological figure who stole fire from the gods become a face of the modern, lending his name to trailblazing spaceships and radical publishing outfits alike? How did Prometheus come to represent a notion of civilizational progress through revolution--scientific, political, and spiritual--and thereby to center nothing less than a myth of modernity itself ? The answer Black Prometheus gives is that certain features of the myth--its geographical associations, iconography of bodily suffering, and function as a limit case in a long tradition of absolutist political theology--made it ripe for revival and reinvention in a historical moment in which freedom itself was racialized, in what was the Age both of Atlantic revolution and Atlantic slavery. Contained in the various incarnations of the modern Prometheus--whether in Mary Shelley's esoteric novel, Frankenstein, Denmark Vesey's real-world recruitment of slave rebels, or popular travelogues representing Muslim jihadists against the Russian empire in the Caucasus-- is a profound debate about the means and ends of liberation in our globalized world. Tracing the titan's rehabilitation and unprecedented exaltation in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries across a range of genres and geographies turns out to provide a way to rethink the relationship between race, religion, and modernity and to interrogate the Eurocentric and secularist assumptions of our deepest intellectual traditions of critique.

The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery


Author: Eric Foner
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 9780393080827
Category: History
Page: 448
View: 8592
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“A masterwork [by] the preeminent historian of the Civil War era.”—Boston Globe Selected as a Notable Book of the Year by the New York Times Book Review, this landmark work gives us a definitive account of Lincoln's lifelong engagement with the nation's critical issue: American slavery. A master historian, Eric Foner draws Lincoln and the broader history of the period into perfect balance. We see Lincoln, a pragmatic politician grounded in principle, deftly navigating the dynamic politics of antislavery, secession, and civil war. Lincoln's greatness emerges from his capacity for moral and political growth.

The Curse of Ham

Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Author: David M. Goldenberg
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400828546
Category: Religion
Page: 472
View: 1215
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How old is prejudice against black people? Were the racist attitudes that fueled the Atlantic slave trade firmly in place 700 years before the European discovery of sub-Saharan Africa? In this groundbreaking book, David Goldenberg seeks to discover how dark-skinned peoples, especially black Africans, were portrayed in the Bible and by those who interpreted the Bible--Jews, Christians, and Muslims. Unprecedented in rigor and breadth, his investigation covers a 1,500-year period, from ancient Israel (around 800 B.C.E.) to the eighth century C.E., after the birth of Islam. By tracing the development of anti-Black sentiment during this time, Goldenberg uncovers views about race, color, and slavery that took shape over the centuries--most centrally, the belief that the biblical Ham and his descendants, the black Africans, had been cursed by God with eternal slavery. Goldenberg begins by examining a host of references to black Africans in biblical and postbiblical Jewish literature. From there he moves the inquiry from Black as an ethnic group to black as color, and early Jewish attitudes toward dark skin color. He goes on to ask when the black African first became identified as slave in the Near East, and, in a powerful culmination, discusses the resounding influence of this identification on Jewish, Christian, and Islamic thinking, noting each tradition's exegetical treatment of pertinent biblical passages. Authoritative, fluidly written, and situated at a richly illuminating nexus of images, attitudes, and history, The Curse of Ham is sure to have a profound and lasting impact on the perennial debate over the roots of racism and slavery, and on the study of early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.