Rangeland Systems

Processes, Management and Challenges
Author: David D. Briske
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319467093
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 661
View: 1086
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This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 2.5 license. This book provides an unprecedented synthesis of the current status of scientific and management knowledge regarding global rangelands and the major challenges that confront them. It has been organized around three major themes. The first summarizes the conceptual advances that have occurred in the rangeland profession. The second addresses the implications of these conceptual advances to management and policy. The third assesses several major challenges confronting global rangelands in the 21st century. This book will compliment applied range management textbooks by describing the conceptual foundation on which the rangeland profession is based. It has been written to be accessible to a broad audience, including ecosystem managers, educators, students and policy makers. The content is founded on the collective experience, knowledge and commitment of 80 authors who have worked in rangelands throughout the world. Their collective contributions indicate that a more comprehensive framework is necessary to address the complex challenges confronting global rangelands. Rangelands represent adaptive social-ecological systems, in which societal values, organizations and capacities are of equal importance to, and interact with, those of ecological processes. A more comprehensive framework for rangeland systems may enable management agencies, and educational, research and policy making organizations to more effectively assess complex problems and develop appropriate solutions.

The Politics of Scale

A History of Rangeland Science
Author: Nathan F. Sayre
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022608339X
Category: Science
Page: 288
View: 8908
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Rangelands are vast, making up one quarter of the United States and forty percent of the Earth’s ice-free land. And while contemporary science has revealed a great deal about the environmental impacts associated with intensive livestock production—from greenhouse gas emissions to land and water degradation—far less is known about the historic role science has played in rangeland management and politics. Steeped in US soil, this first history of rangeland science looks to the origins of rangeland ecology in the late nineteenth-century American West, exploring the larger political and economic forces that—together with scientific study—produced legacies focused on immediate economic success rather than long-term ecological well being. During the late 1880s and early 1890s, a variety of forces—from the Homestead Act of 1862 to the extermination of bison, foreign investment, and lack of government regulation—promoted free-for-all access to and development of the western range, with disastrous environmental consequences. To address the crisis, government agencies turned to scientists, but as Nathan F. Sayre shows, range science grew in a politically fraught landscape. Neither the scientists nor the public agencies could escape the influences of bureaucrats and ranchers who demanded results, and the ideas that became scientific orthodoxy—from fire suppression and predator control to fencing and carrying capacities—contained flaws and blind spots that plague public debates about rangelands to this day. Looking at the global history of rangeland science through the Cold War and beyond, The Politics of Scale identifies the sources of past conflicts and mistakes and helps us to see a more promising path forward, one in which rangeland science is guided less by capital and the state and more by communities working in collaboration with scientists.

Rangelands

Ecology, Management and Conservation Benefits
Author: Suzanne Reyes
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781634825047
Category: Nature
Page: 215
View: 2929
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Written by seventeen experts in the field of rangeland management, this compilation of essays brings to light the latent issues concerning this subject to readers all over the globe. Though technical approaches can address some issues, social processes ultimately prevent the balancing of these matters. Socio-economic and political institutions are often a stumbling block for improving rangeland management. Human intervention (such as burning and grazing) have been used as rehabilitation efforts to address reverse land degradation problems. It is also hoped that these methods will bring about ecological restoration for more than 30 percent of the worlds land mass and provide living conditions for 1 billion people across every inhabited continent. Multiple-use has become an important factor in the last few decades, especially when discussing global climate change. The extensive bibliography we provide will give researchers, members of academia and policy makers contemplative subject matter; they may access multi-lingual literature that give insight into the issues concerning rangeland situations.

The Governance of Rangelands

Collective Action for Sustainable Pastoralism
Author: Pedro M. Herrera,Jonathan Davies,Pablo Manzano Baena
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317665171
Category: Nature
Page: 298
View: 915
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Rangelands are large natural landscapes that can include grasslands, shrublands, savannahs and woodlands. They are greatly influenced by, and often dependent on, the action of herbivores. In the majority of rangelands the dominant herbivores are found in domestic herds that are managed by mobile pastoralists. Most pastoralists manage their rangelands communally, benefitting from the greater flexibility and seasonal resource access that common property regimes can offer. As this book shows, this creates a major challenge for governance and institutions. This work improves our understanding of the importance of governance, how it can be strengthened and the principles that underpin good governance, in order to prevent degradation of rangelands and ensure their sustainability. It describes the nature of governance at different levels: community governance, state governance, international governance, and the unique features of rangelands that demand collective action (issues of scale, ecological disequilibrium and seasonality). A series of country case studies is presented, drawn from a wide spectrum of examples from Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia, Europe and North America. These provide contrasting lessons which are summarised to promote improved governance of rangelands and pastoralist livelihoods.

Rangeland Health

New Methods to Classify, Inventory, and Monitor Rangelands
Author: Committee on Rangeland Classification,Board on Agriculture,National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309566479
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 166
View: 5666
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Rangelands comprise between 40 and 50 percent of all U.S. land and serve the nation both as productive areas for wildlife, recreational use, and livestock grazing and as watersheds. The health and management of rangelands have been matters for scientific inquiry and public debate since the 1880s, when reports of widespread range degradation and livestock losses led to the first attempts to inventory and classify rangelands. Scientists are now questioning the utility of current methods of rangeland classification and inventory, as well as the data available to determine whether rangelands are being degraded. These experts, who are using the same methods and data, have come to different conclusions. This book examines the scientific basis of methods used by federal agencies to inventory, classify, and monitor rangelands; it assesses the success of these methods; and it recommends improvements. The book's findings and recommendations are of interest to the public; scientists; ranchers; and local, state, and federal policymakers.

Viability and Resilience of Complex Systems

Concepts, Methods and Case Studies from Ecology and Society
Author: Guillaume Deffuant,Nigel Gilbert
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642204228
Category: Social Science
Page: 224
View: 3950
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One common characteristics of a complex system is its ability to withstand major disturbances and the capacity to rebuild itself. Understanding how such systems demonstrate resilience by absorbing or recovering from major external perturbations requires both quantitative foundations and a multidisciplinary view on the topic. This book demonstrates how new methods can be used to identify the actions favouring the recovery from perturbations. Examples discussed include bacterial biofilms resisting detachment, grassland savannahs recovering from fire, the dynamics of language competition and Internet social networking sites overcoming vandalism. The reader is taken through an introduction to the idea of resilience and viability and shown the mathematical basis of the techniques used to analyse systems. The idea of individual or agent-based modelling of complex systems is introduced and related to analytically tractable approximations of such models. A set of case studies illustrates the use of the techniques in real applications, and the final section describes how one can use new and elaborate software tools for carrying out the necessary calculations. The book is intended for a general scientific audience of readers from the natural and social sciences, yet requires some mathematics to gain a full understanding of the more theoretical chapters. It is an essential point of reference for those interested in the practical application of the concepts of resilience and viability

Structure and Function of a Chihuahuan Desert Ecosystem

The Jornada Basin Long-Term Ecological Research Site
Author: Kris M. Havstad,Laura F. Huenneke,William H. Schlesinger
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195344271
Category: Science
Page: 492
View: 9200
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The Jornada Basin LTER is located in the Chihuahuan Desert, the largest in North America. This region of south central New Mexico has a history of nearly 100 years as the basis for scientific research. This work gives a thorough, encompassing review of the tremendous array of observations resulting from experiments conducted in this ecosystem. Beginning with thorough descriptions of the most salient features of the region, the book then reviews a wide range of archived and active data sets on a diversity of biotic and abiotic features. It next presents a syntheses of important topics including livestock grazing and remediation efforts. A concluding chapter provides a synthesis of the principles that have emerged from this body of work, and how these relate to the broader fields of ecology and natural resource management. It concludes with recommendations for future research directions. The insightful views expressed in this volume should guide management of arid landscapes globally. This is the sixth volume in the Long Term Ecological Network Series.

Restoring Community Connections to the Land

Building Resilience Through Community-based Rangeland Management in China and Mongolia
Author: María E. Fernández-Giménez
Publisher: CABI
ISBN: 1845938941
Category: Nature
Page: 245
View: 6256
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The rangelands of China and Mongolia encompass diverse landscapes of global environmental and cultural significance. Pastoralists in these two nations share much common history and tradition, including their nomadic heritage and twin eras of collectivized production under different centrally planned socialist regimes. This unique collection of case studies describes the change, loss, re-emergence and resilience of seven herder communities located in distinct socio-ecological settings ranging from the Gobi desert of Mongolia to the Tibetan Plateau regions of China's Sichuan and Gansu Provinces. Useful for policy makers within international development and conservation policy, this book is also of interest for researchers and students of rural economics and agriculture.

Rangeland Desertification


Author: Olafur Arnalds,Steve Archer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401596026
Category: Science
Page: 209
View: 5539
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Desertification has occurred worldwide. The biophysical and socio-economic complexity of this phenomenon has challenged our ability to categorize, inventory, monitor and repair the condition of degraded lands. One of the most important distinctions to be made in relation to land degradation is between cultivated land used for annual crop production and `rangelands'. Grazing by free-roaming livestock is the traditional primary use of the world's rangelands. However, there is growing recognition of the importance of these vast acreages for wildlife habitat, hydrology and ground water recharge, recreation and aesthetics. This text focuses on the desertification of rangelands and explores processes, problems and solutions. Chapters in the first section evaluate interactions between `natural' and human-induced disturbance regimes, thresholds, and non-linear change with respect to vegetation, hydrology, nutrients and erosion. Chapters in the second section examine socio-economic constraints and approaches for preventing and reversing degradation. The book provides a contemporary, process-oriented perspective on rangeland degradation of value to students, policy-makers and professionals alike.

Range and Animal Sciences and Resources Management - Volume II


Author: Victor R. Squires
Publisher: EOLSS Publications
ISBN: 1848263716
Category:
Page: 424
View: 6059
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Range and Animal Sciences and Resources Management is a component of Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. Rangelands comprise over forty percent of the earth's land surface and, as one of the most prevalent land systems on the planet, rangelands are critical habitats for myriad plant and animal species and form many of the world's major watersheds Rangelands are categorized in two distinct ways: (a) as a type of land or (b) a type of (land) use. This theme with contributions from distinguished experts in the field discusses about Range and Animal Sciences and Resources Management in several related topics. These two volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers and NGOs.

Holistic Management

A New Framework for Decision Making
Author: Allan Savory,Jody Butterfield
Publisher: Island Press
ISBN: 155963488X
Category: Nature
Page: 616
View: 4559
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This work shows that on the most fundamental level, environmental problems are cuased by human management decisions rather than the commonly blamed culprits of environmental degradation, overpopulation, poor farming practices and lack of financial support.

Integrated pest management on rangeland


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category:
Page: N.A
View: 2011
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Complexity and Ecosystem Management

The Theory and Practice of Multi-agent Systems
Author: Marco Janssen
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 9781781957240
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 344
View: 5485
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The quality of ecosystems is affected by the actions of different stakeholders who use them in a variety of ways. In order to understand this complex relationship between humans and nature, it is vital to understand the complexity of the interacting agents. The authors in this book attempt to do this by applying multi-agent systems to the problems of ecosystem management. The multi-agent approach to ecosystem management is a relatively new and rapidly developing field which takes a formal computational approach towards the interaction of humans with their environment. The authors highlight some of the promising new methodologies which are emerging in the field from disciplines such as computer science and computational social science. They move on to address a number of important topics including diffusion processes, common-pool resources, land use change and the participatory use of models, in an attempt to solve contemporary management issues. They clearly demonstrate the potential utility of multi-agent systems in the context of theoretical problems and practical case studies.

Handbook of Weed Management Systems


Author: Albert E. Smith
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351441825
Category: Science
Page: 758
View: 3665
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This work provides the fundamental information necessary for the development of weed management strategies for all the major US crops using concepts that can be applied worldwide. Weed management systems are provided for cotton, peanut, soybean, wheat, barley, oat, sorghum, rice, fruits, nut crops, and more. The dynamics involved in creating the best management approaches for specific types of crops are explained.

Rangelands: A Resource Under Siege

Proceedings of the Second Inter Rangeland Congress
Author: P. J. Joss,P. W. Lynch
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521309363
Category: Nature
Page: 634
View: 8244
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This volume comprises the proceedings of the Second International Rangelands Congress held in Adelaide, Australia in May 1984, and includes some 350 contributions drawn from 43 different countries. The Congress addressed the problem of the conflict between land-users and the degradation of this valuable resource. Some 40% of the Earth's land surface is and or alpine and therefore unsuitable for agricultural cultivation. Collectively, these lands are known as rangelands and in their natural state they constitute a habitat for grazing animals, both domestic and wild. Despite their low productivity, rangelands have been used for thousands of years as a source of food and fibre, but other uses such as mining, tourism, recreation and conservation are exerting increasing demands. The result is often conflict between land-users and degradation of the resource.

Sustainable Land Management Sourcebook


Author: World Bank
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821374337
Category: Political Science
Page: 212
View: 6116
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Policies promoting pro-poor agricultural growth are the key to helping countries achieve the Millennium Development Goals especially the goal of halving poverty and hunger by 2015. The public sector, private sector, and civil society organizations are working to enhance productivity and competitiveness of the agricultural sector to reduce rural poverty and sustain the natural resource base. The pathways involve participation by rural communities, science and technology, knowledge generation and further learning, capacity enhancement, and institution building. Sustainable land management (SLM) an essential component of such policies will help to ensure the productivity of agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and hydrology. SLM will also support a range of ecosystem services on which agriculture depends. The 'Sustainable Land Management Sourcebook' provides a knowledge repository of tested practices and innovative resource management approaches that are currently being tested. The diverse menu of options represents the current state of the art of good land management practices. Section one identifies the need and scope for SLM and food production in relation to cross-sector issues such as freshwater and forest resources, regional climate and air quality, and interactions with biodiversity conservation and increasingly valuable ecosystem services. Section two categorizes the diversity of land management systems globally and the strategies for improving household livelihoods in each system type. Section three presents a range of investment notes that summarize good practice, as well as innovative activity profiles that highlight design of successful or innovative investments. Section four identifies easy-to-access, Web-based resources relevant for land and natural resource managers. The 'Sourcebook' is a living document that will be periodically updated and expanded as new material and findings become available on good land management practices. This book will be of interest to project managers and practitioners working to enhance land and natural resource management in developing countries.

Mapping Poverty and Livestock in the Developing World


Author: N.A
Publisher: ILRI (aka ILCA and ILRAD)
ISBN: 9789291461097
Category: Livestock
Page: 118
View: 507
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Rangeland Management Series: Guidelines for Monitoring Riparian Grazing Systems


Author: N.A
Publisher: UCANR Publications
ISBN: 1601072686
Category:
Page: N.A
View: 5117
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Grazing Management


Author: John F. Vallentine
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0127100008
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 533
View: 6047
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Introduction to Grazing. Grazing Effects on Plants and Soils. Spatial Patterns in Grazing. Manipulation Grazing Distribution. Grazing and Herbivore Nutrition. Grazing Activities and Behavior. Plant Selection in Grazing. Kind and Mix of Grazing Animals. Grazing Animal Intake and Equivalence. Grazing Capacity Inventory. Grazing Intensity. Grazing Seasons. Grazing Systems. Part I. Grazing Systems. Part II. Appendix. Terminology. Literature Cited. Index of Plants. Subject Index. Key Features * Comparison of types of grazing land with grazing animals. * Evaluation of productivity of forage plants under different grazing regimes. * Examination of specialized grazing systems * Development of inventories of grazing resources * Determination of nutritive quality of various forages * Sustainability of forage plant vigor and productivity

Multiple Stable States in Natural Ecosystems


Author: Peter Petraitis
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191668346
Category: Science
Page: 200
View: 7247
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One of the most interesting and vexing problems in ecology is how distinctly different communities of plants and animals can occur in the same ecosystem. The theory of these systems, known as multiple stable states, is well understood, but whether multiple stable states actually exist in nature has remained a hotly debated subject. Multiple Stable States in Natural Ecosystems provides a broad and synthetic critique of recent advances in theory and new experimental evidence. Modern models of systems with multiple stable states are placed in historical context. Current theories are covered in a rigorous fashion with the specific goal of identifying testable predictions about multiple stable states. The book provides a more synthetic, more critical, and broader analysis of multiple stable states in natural ecosystems than any previous review. By making the theory more transparent and the analysis of the evidence more comparative, the book broadens the discussion about multiple stable states, leading to a more general consideration of the interplay between theory and experiment in community ecology and environmental management. This accessible research monograph will be suitable for graduate students taking courses in community ecology, theoretical ecology, and restoration ecology. It will also be a valuable reference for professional ecologists and environmental managers requiring a concise overview of the topic.