Reaffirming Juvenile Justice

From Gault to Montgomery
Author: Alida V. Merlo,Peter J. Benekos
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351618377
Category: Social Science
Page: 150
View: 613
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This book will expand students’ knowledge and understanding of the evolution of juvenile justice in the last 50 years. Designed to coincide with the 50th anniversary of the landmark case In re Gault, which the U.S. Supreme Court decided in 1967, the authors provide a brief history of juvenile justice, then frame the developments and transformations that have occurred in the intervening years. Topics covered include an overview of the dramatic changes to the field following the spike in youth violence in the 1990s, the "superpredator" myth, zero-tolerance policies, and sanctions for juvenile offenders—particularly the 2005 abolition of the death penalty and subsequent decision on life without parole. The book also covers child and youth victimization and trauma, and recent prevention and treatment initiatives. Designed for upper-level undergraduates, this text reflects on the evolving U.S. juvenile justice system while anticipating future challenges and trends. Reaffirming Juvenile Justice illustrates how ideology, media, and politics shape policy and how it can evolve.

The War on Kids

How American Juvenile Justice Lost Its Way
Author: Cara H. Drinan
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190605553
Category: Law
Page: 232
View: 1452
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In 2003, when Terrence Graham was sixteen, he and three other teens attempted to rob a barbeque restaurant in Jacksonville, Florida. Though they left with no money, and no one was seriously injured, Terrence was sentenced to die in prison for his involvement in that crime. As shocking as Terrence's sentence sounds, it is merely a symptom of contemporary American juvenile justice practices. In the United States, adolescents are routinely transferred out of juvenile court and into adult criminal court without any judicial oversight. Once in adult court, children can be sentenced without regard for their youth. Juveniles are housed in adult correctional facilities, they may be held in solitary confinement, and they experience the highest rates of sexual and physical assault among inmates. Until 2005, children convicted in America's courts were subject to the death penalty; today, they still may be sentenced to die in prison-no matter what efforts they make to rehabilitate themselves. America has waged a war on kids. In The War on Kids, Cara Drinan reveals how the United States went from being a pioneer to an international pariah in its juvenile sentencing practices. Academics and journalists have long recognized the failings of juvenile justice practices in this country and have called for change. Despite the uncertain political climate, there is hope that recent Supreme Court decisions may finally make those calls a reality. The War on Kids seizes upon this moment of judicial and political recognition that children are different in the eyes of the law. Drinan chronicles the shortcomings of juvenile justice by drawing upon social science, legal decisions, and first-hand correspondence with Terrence and others like him-individuals whose adolescent errors have cost them their lives. At the same time, The War on Kids maps out concrete steps that states can take to correct the course of American juvenile justice.

Reforming Juvenile Justice

A Developmental Approach
Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Law and Justice,Committee on Assessing Juvenile Justice Reform
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309278937
Category: Law
Page: 462
View: 7469
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Adolescence is a distinct, yet transient, period of development between childhood and adulthood characterized by increased experimentation and risk-taking, a tendency to discount long-term consequences, and heightened sensitivity to peers and other social influences. A key function of adolescence is developing an integrated sense of self, including individualization, separation from parents, and personal identity. Experimentation and novelty-seeking behavior, such as alcohol and drug use, unsafe sex, and reckless driving, are thought to serve a number of adaptive functions despite their risks. Research indicates that for most youth, the period of risky experimentation does not extend beyond adolescence, ceasing as identity becomes settled with maturity. Much adolescent involvement in criminal activity is part of the normal developmental process of identity formation and most adolescents will mature out of these tendencies. Evidence of significant changes in brain structure and function during adolescence strongly suggests that these cognitive tendencies characteristic of adolescents are associated with biological immaturity of the brain and with an imbalance among developing brain systems. This imbalance model implies dual systems: one involved in cognitive and behavioral control and one involved in socio-emotional processes. Accordingly adolescents lack mature capacity for self-regulations because the brain system that influences pleasure-seeking and emotional reactivity develops more rapidly than the brain system that supports self-control. This knowledge of adolescent development has underscored important differences between adults and adolescents with direct bearing on the design and operation of the justice system, raising doubts about the core assumptions driving the criminalization of juvenile justice policy in the late decades of the 20th century. It was in this context that the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) asked the National Research Council to convene a committee to conduct a study of juvenile justice reform. The goal of Reforming Juvenile Justice: A Developmental Approach was to review recent advances in behavioral and neuroscience research and draw out the implications of this knowledge for juvenile justice reform, to assess the new generation of reform activities occurring in the United States, and to assess the performance of OJJDP in carrying out its statutory mission as well as its potential role in supporting scientifically based reform efforts.

Boy with a Knife


Author: Jean Trounstine
Publisher: Ig Publishing
ISBN: 9781632460240
Category: Law
Page: 264
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One boy s harrowing journey through the criminal justice system, and his fight to reform it."

Implementing Juvenile Justice Reform

The Federal Role
Author: Committee on a Prioritized Plan to Implement a Developmental Approach in Juvenile Justice Reform,Committee on Law and Justice,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,National Research Council
Publisher: National Academy Press
ISBN: 9780309303477
Category: Law
Page: 122
View: 6756
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"In the past decade, a number of state, local, and tribal jurisdictions have begun to take significant steps to overhaul their juvenile justice systems - for example, reducing the use of juvenile detention and out-of-home placement, bringing greater attention to racial and ethnic disparities, looking for ways to engage affected families in the process, and raising the age at which juvenile court jurisdiction ends. These changes are the result of heightening awareness of the ineffectiveness of punitive practices and accumulating knowledge about adolescent development. Momentum for reform is growing. However, many more state, local, and tribal jurisdictions need assistance, and practitioners in the juvenile justice field are looking for guidance from the federal government, particularly from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) in the Department of Justice. Implementing Juvenile Justice Reform identifies and prioritizes strategies and policies to effectively facilitate reform of the juvenile justice system and develop an implementation plan for OJJDP. Based on the 2013 report Reforming Juvenile Justice, this report is designed to provide specific guidance to OJJDP regarding the steps that it should take, both internally and externally, to facilitate juvenile justice reform grounded in knowledge about adolescent development. The report identifies seven hallmarks of a developmental approach to juvenile justice to guide system reform: accountability without criminalization, alternatives to justice system involvement, individualized response based on needs and risks, confinement only when necessary for public safety, genuine commitment to fairness, sensitivity to disparate treatment, and family engagement. Implementing Juvenile Justice Reform outlines how these hallmarks should be incorporated into policies and practices within OJJDP, as well as in actions extended to state, local, and tribal jurisdictions to achieve the goals of the juvenile justice system through a developmentally informed approach. This report sets forth a detailed and prioritized strategic plan for the federal government to support and facilitate developmentally oriented juvenile justice reform. The pivotal component of the plan is to strengthen the role, capacity, and commitment of OJJDP, the lead federal agency in the field. By carrying out the recommendations of Implementing Juvenile Justice Reform, the federal government will both reaffirm and advance the promise of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act."--Publisher's description.

Juvenile in Justice


Author: Richard Ross
Publisher: Self Publisher
ISBN: 9780985510602
Category: Documentary photography
Page: 192
View: 886
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photographs by Richard Ross of juveniles in detention, commitment and treatment across the US.

International Handbook of Juvenile Justice


Author: Scott H. Decker,Nerea Marteache
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319450905
Category: Social Science
Page: 550
View: 8816
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This comprehensive reference work presents an in-depth analysis of juvenile justice systems across the world. The second edition of this Handbook has been updated with 13 new chapters, now covering a total of 34 countries, across North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East from an international and comparative perspective. The International Handbook of Juvenile Justice is the result of research conducted by a group of outstanding scholars working in the field of juvenile justice. It reflects a collective concern about trends in juvenile justice over the past two decades, trends that have begun to blur the difference between criminal and juvenile justice. Also new to the second edition, each chapter is formatted to increase the comparative aspect of the book, highlighting: · The legal status of juveniles · Age of majority · The country’s stance toward the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child · Trends in juvenile crime over the period 2004-2014 · Causes of juvenile crime · Policing and juveniles · Courts and juveniles · Custodial rules for juveniles (detention, prison, mixing juveniles with adults) · Alternative sanctions for juveniles: home confinement, restorative justice, restitution, etc. · Differences in treatment of boys and girls This seminal work highlights similarities and differences between the various systems, and will be an important reference for researchers in criminology and criminal justice, particularly interested in juvenile delinquency and youth crime, as well as related disciplines like sociology, social work, and public policy.

Reaffirming Rehabilitation


Author: Francis T. Cullen,Karen E. Gilbert
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1455731307
Category: Social Science
Page: 239
View: 8670
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Reaffirming Rehabilitation, 2nd Edition, brings fresh insights to one of the core works of criminal justice literature. This groundbreaking work analyzes the rehabilitative ideal within the American correctional system and discusses its relationship to and conflict with political ideologies. Many researchers and policymakers rejected the value of rehabilitation after Robert Martinson's proclamation that "nothing works." Cullen and Gilbert's book helped stem the tide of negativism that engulfed the U.S. correctional system in the years that followed the popularization of the "nothing works" doctrine. Now Cullen traces the social impact on U.S. corrections policy. This new edition is appropriate as a textbook in corrections courses and as recommended reading in related courses. It also serves as a resource for researchers and policymakers working in the field of corrections. The first edition continues to be used in corrections courses even though it is out of print. This new edition makes the book readily available, along with rich new content in the introduction and concluding chapter. Introduces a new generation to the ongoing clash of political agendas and research-based corrections policies. Supports critical thinking about the role of rehabilitation in our society.

Juvenile Justice

A Text/Reader
Author: Richard Lawrence,Craig Hemmens
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1412950368
Category: Law
Page: 604
View: 6549
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Juvenile Justice: A Text/Reader offers a unique new spin on the core textbook format. Organized like a more traditional juvenile justice text, this text/reader is divided into eight sections that contain all the usual topics taught in a juvenile justice course. After a comprehensive overview, each section has an introductory “mini-chapter” that provides engaging coverage of key concepts, developments, controversial issues, and research in the field. These authored introductions are followed by carefully selected and edited original research articles. The readings, from prominent scholarly journals, were written by juvenile justice experts and often have a policy orientation that will help address student interest in the “so what?” application of theory. Key Features and Benefits Boasts extensive and unique coverage of the juvenile justice system, focusing on law enforcement, the court system, correctional responses to juvenile offending, and an overview of the causes of delinquency Features a unique “How to Read a Research Article”—tied to the first reading in the book—to give students a guide to understand and learn from the edited articles that appear throughout the text. Provides an introduction to each reading to give students an overview of the purpose, main points, and conclusions of each article. Utilizes photographs, boxes, and suggested Web resources to enhance the book’s presentation and engage student interest. Offers a clear and concise summary of key terms and concepts in each section and discussion questions that enhance student comprehension Ancillaries A Student study site at www.sagepub.com/lawrencestudy provides self-quizzes, e-flashcards, additional readings, and more. Instructor Resource on CD include test questions for both the text and readings, PowerPoint slides, teaching tips, and other resources. Qualified instructors can request a copy by contacting Customer Care at 1-800-818-SAGE (7243), 6AM-5PM, Pacific Time. Intended Audience This Text/Reader is designed to serve as a replacement for a core text, or a supplement text for upper-level undergraduate Juvenile Justice courses in departments of criminal justice, criminology, sociology and related disciplines. Interested in a text/ reader for another criminology or criminal justice here? Explore other titles in the series.

Beyond Suppression

Global Perspectives on Youth Violence
Author: Joan Serra Hoffman,Lyndee M. Knox,Robert Cohen
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 9780313383458
Category: Social Science
Page: 251
View: 1580
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"This book presents a most captivating and thorough account of trafficking in human beings in the context of a globalized world of the 21st century. This publication, unlike many others, provides a full account of the extent of human misery, crime, and the exploitation of those misusing democracy, mobility, as well as human rights and civic liberties. It is fascinating reading for all those who seek to deepen their knowledge of the international community and its reaction to the ever-growing trade with human beings, the new form of slavery of the 21st century."---Peter von Bethlenfalvy Director, 10M Vienna/Head of Special Liaison Mission to the OSCE and International Organizations, 10M Ambassador to the UN "Criminal justice professors Clarke and Newman present a systematic approach that security agencies can use to fight terrorism. The focus is on identifying opportunities for attacks and then blocking or removing them before terrorists can strike. The authors, who are affiliated with the Center for Problem Oriented Policing, also offer suggestions for developing a more rational and effective homeland security policy in the United States."---Reference & Research Book News All around the world, youth violence---defined as violence committed by or against individuals ages 10-29---is occurring with alarming frequency; 565 young people die every day as a result of interpersonal assaults. What can be done to end this needless violence? The magnitude of the problem of youth violence in nations throughout the world is shocking. What is encouraging is that strategies to combat this issue do appear to work. For example, community-based restorative justice programs in Northern Ireland reduced retaliatory strikes by paramilitary youth groups by 75 percent, and research trials of policy and intervention strategies, such as parent training and early childhood education, have been shown to significantly reduce youth violence. This text offers a comprehensive overview of youth violence, including background information that defines the problem internationally, a conceptual framework for understanding approaches to youth violence, examinations of multiple case studies, and examples of prevention programs. The final section presents conclusions and suggested strategies for dealing with interpersonal violence and recommendations for future policy.

Controversies in Juvenile Justice and Delinquency


Author: Peter J. Benekos,Alida V. Merlo
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317523784
Category: Political Science
Page: 364
View: 3370
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After providing a history of the development of the juvenile court, this book explores some of the most important current controversies in juvenile justice. Original essays review major theories of juvenile delinquency, explore psychological and biological factors that may explain delinquent behavior, and examine the nexus between substance abuse and delinquency. A final chapter provides a comparative analysis.

Emotional Literacy in Criminal Justice

Professional Practice with Offenders
Author: C. Knight
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137273216
Category: Social Science
Page: 222
View: 3719
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Emotions remain largely invisible in the management of criminal justice practice. This book seeks to uncover some of the underground emotional work of practitioners and make visible the impact of both positive and negative emotions, which play a crucial role in practitioner-offender relationships. Exploring how practitioners understand, regulate and work with emotion, Knight argues that the 'soft skills' of emotion are more likely to achieve motivation and change in offenders than the 'hard' skills of punishment, monitoring and surveillance. The book examines some of the gendered implications of this practice and develops an argument for the explicit building of emotional resources within organizations to sustain the development, enhancement and support of emotional literacy in the workforce. Using practice examples, Knight reveals how practitioners can benefit from having an understanding of their own emotions and how these can impact on their practice. This unique and accessible book will be a valuable resource to practitioners across the criminal justice sector including probation officers, youth justice workers, police and prison officers, social workers, policymakers and managers, as well as scholars working within criminology, criminal justice and probation.

Preventing and Reducing Juvenile Delinquency

A Comprehensive Framework
Author: James C. Howell
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1412956382
Category: Social Science
Page: 377
View: 9184
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This text aims to inform students about the latest research and the most promising and effective programs and provides a wealth of information for understanding, preventing and controlling juvenile delinquency. The history of current juvenile justice system policies and practices is examined, including the juvenile violence ′epidemic.′ Key myths about juvenile violence and the ability of the juvenile justice system to handle modern-day juvenile delinquents are discussed in depth. Developmental theories of juvenile delinquency are applied to understanding how juvenile offender careers evolve. Effective prevention and rehabilitation programs and what does not work are reviewed. And finally, a comprehensive framework for building a continuum of effective programs is presented. This book is intended as a supplementary text for undergraduate and graduate courses in juvenile delinquency, juvenile justice, and violent offender intervention courses. It is also essential reading for juvenile justice and social services research and development specialists.

The Juvenile Justice System

Delinquency, Processing, and the Law
Author: Alida V. Merlo,Peter J. Benekos,Dean J. Champion
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780134812953
Category: Juvenile courts
Page: 480
View: 9419
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For courses in juvenile justice. An in�-depth introduction to juvenile justice The Juvenile Justice System: Delinquency, Processing, and the Law is a comprehensive study of the juvenile justice system that examines how youth offenders are defined and classified. It takes a critical eye to the stages of juvenile processing, current and historical responses to juvenile justice, and how research has influenced policy. Examples of comparative juvenile justice raise the importance of providing opportunities for reform and treatment. The 9th edition highlights evidence-based programs effective in preventing delinquency and treating youthful offenders. It assesses the Sanctuary Model� and trauma-informed care as two new approaches to working with youth. The Juvenile Justice System, 9th Edition, is also available via Revel(tm), an interactive learning environment that enables students to read, practice, and study in one continuous experience. Learn more.

The Juvenile Justice System


Author: N.A
Publisher: N A S W Press
ISBN: 9780871014160
Category: Law
Page: 54
View: 9426
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Community Justice


Author: Todd R Clear,John R Hamilton, Jr.,Eric Cadora
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135145717
Category: Social Science
Page: 168
View: 2374
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Community Justice discusses concepts of community within the context of justice policy and programs, and addresses the important relationship between the criminal justice system and the community in the USA. Taking a bold stance in the criminal justice debate, this book argues that crime management is more effective through the use of informal (as opposed to formal) social control. It demonstrates how an increasing number of criminal justice elements are beginning to understand that the development of partnerships within the community that enhance informal social control will lead to a stabilization and possible a decline in crime, especially violent crime, and make communities more liveable. Borrowing from an eclectic toolbox of ideas and strategies - community organizing, environmental crime prevention, private-public partnerships, justice initiatives – Community Justice puts forward a new approach to establishing safe communities, and highlights the failure of the current American justice system in its lack of vision and misuse of resources. Providing detailed information about how community justice fits within each area of the criminal justice system, and including relevant case studies to exemplify this philosophy in action, this book is essential reading for undergraduate and postgraduate students of subjects such as criminology, law and sociology.

The Law and Child Development


Author: Mavis Maclean
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351887025
Category: Social Science
Page: 516
View: 3063
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This volume asks what legal and socio legal scholarship can contribute to understanding the role of law in the care and development of children. The editors have selected key articles ranging from theoretical analysis to empirical data based research that address the law's approach in the United States and the United Kingdom to resolving parenting disputes after separation, protecting children from abuse and neglect, and affording children procedural protections in the juvenile justice system. Their introduction to these important and often distressing areas of the law confirms the importance of understanding how law works in practice, and reaffirms that law itself remains responsible for articulating and protecting society's values.

Reforming juvenile justice

reasons and strategies for the 21st century
Author: Dan Macallair,Vincent Schiraldi
Publisher: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company
ISBN: 9780787245511
Category: Social Science
Page: 267
View: 3324
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Juvenile Justice Administration


Author: Peter C. Kratcoski
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439821607
Category: Law
Page: 524
View: 8378
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An effective administrator must not only have the educational background to understand the foundational basis for the system, but must also be guided by the vision and mission of the organization. Juvenile Justice Administration illustrates through examples and interviews with juvenile justice administrators and other personnel how these organizations and agencies function and provides a comparative analysis of juvenile justice systems across countries and continents. Using a plethora of case studies to demonstrate the issues presented, the book examines: The historical origins and goals of the juvenile justice system The tasks performed by juvenile justice administrators Management theories and administrative models such as the human relations approach, the social systems approach, and organizational models Juvenile justice personnel and administrative agencies serving endangered children Laws pertaining to juvenile offenders and children at risk Police and juvenile justice issues in the United States, Canada, Japan, Austria, and South Africa Probation, parole, community-based sanctions, and correctional facilities for juvenile offenders The book also explores future trends in juvenile justice administration. As the system increasingly shifts from a punishment-oriented model to a restorative justice approach, this book provides administrators with sufficient background on the topic as well as insight into innovative policies and procedures that may prove advantageous to their communities.

Children and Transitional Justice

Truth-telling, Accountability and Reconciliation
Author: Sharanjeet Parmar,Mindy Jane Roseman,Saudamini Siegrist,Theo Sowa
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780979639548
Category: Law
Page: 417
View: 1413
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Children are increasingly a focus of international and national courts and truth commissions. Their participation, including through testimony that bears witness to their experiences, demonstrates their critical role in truth, justice, and reconciliation processes. If children are to engage, however, their rights must be respected. This book includes analysis of the recent involvement of children in transitional justice processes in Liberia, Peru, Sierra Leone, and South Africa. It also explores key areas of current debates among legal scholars and child rights advocates, such as international criminal responsibility, traditional and restorative justice, reparations, psychosocial support for child witnesses, and links between education and reconciliation. The book emphasizes how children must be engaged during post-conflict transition. If children are excluded, they may become vulnerable to a continuing cycle of violence, affecting future generations. In contrast, through active involvement in transitions, children and adolescents can be the catalysts for justice, reconciliation, and peace-building within their own families and communities.