Realistic Decision Theory

Rules for Nonideal Agents in Nonideal Circumstances
Author: Paul Weirich
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198038238
Category: Education
Page: 278
View: 9993
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Within traditional decision theory, common decision principles -- e.g. the principle to maximize utility -- generally invoke idealization; they govern ideal agents in ideal circumstances. In Realistic Decision Theory, Paul Weirch adds practicality to decision theory by formulating principles applying to nonideal agents in nonideal circumstances, such as real people coping with complex decisions. Bridging the gap between normative demands and psychological resources, Realistic Decision Theory is essential reading for theorists seeking precise normative decision principles that acknowledge the limits and difficulties of human decision-making.

The Foundations of Causal Decision Theory


Author: James M. Joyce
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139471384
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 3524
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This book defends the view that any adequate account of rational decision making must take a decision maker's beliefs about causal relations into account. The early chapters of the book introduce the non-specialist to the rudiments of expected utility theory. The major technical advance offered by the book is a 'representation theorem' that shows that both causal decision theory and its main rival, Richard Jeffrey's logic of decision, are both instances of a more general conditional decision theory. The book solves a long-standing problem for Jeffrey's theory by showing for the first time how to obtain a unique utility and probability representation for preferences and judgements of comparative likelihood. The book also contains a major new discussion of what it means to suppose that some event occurs or that some proposition is true. The most complete and robust defence of causal decision theory available.

Human Rights Between Law and Politics

The Margin of Appreciation in Post-National Contexts
Author: Petr Agha
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1509902813
Category: Law
Page: 208
View: 1268
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This book analyses human rights in post-national contexts and demonstrates, through the case law of the European Court of Human Rights, that the Margin of Appreciation doctrine is an essential part of human rights adjudication. Current approaches have tended to stress the instrumental value of the Margin of Appreciation, or to give it a complementary role within the principle of proportionality, while others have been wholly critical of it. In contradiction to these approaches this volume shows that the doctrine is a genuinely normative principle capable of balancing conflicting values. It explores to what extent the tension between human rights and politics, embodied in the doctrine, might be understood as a mutually reinforcing interplay of variables rather than an entrenched separation. By linking the interpretation of the Margin of Appreciation doctrine to a broader conception of human rights, understood as complex political and moral norms, this volume argues that the doctrine can assist in the formulation of the common good in light of the requirements of the Convention.

Decision Theory with a Human Face


Author: Richard Bradley
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108546773
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 7340
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When making decisions, people naturally face uncertainty about the potential consequences of their actions due in part to limits in their capacity to represent, evaluate or deliberate. Nonetheless, they aim to make the best decisions possible. In Decision Theory with a Human Face, Richard Bradley develops new theories of agency and rational decision-making, offering guidance on how 'real' agents who are aware of their bounds should represent the uncertainty they face, how they should revise their opinions as a result of experience and how they should make decisions when lacking full awareness of, or precise opinions on relevant contingencies. He engages with the strengths and flaws of Bayesian reasoning, and presents clear and comprehensive explorations of key issues in decision theory, from belief and desire to semantics and learning. His book draws on philosophy, economics, decision science and psychology, and will appeal to readers in all of these disciplines.

Transformative Experience


Author: L. A. Paul
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191027812
Category: Philosophy
Page: 120
View: 1389
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As we live our lives, we repeatedly make decisions that shape our future circumstances and affect the sort of person we will be. When choosing whether to start a family, or deciding on a career, we often think we can assess the options by imagining what different experiences would be like for us. L. A. Paul argues that, for choices involving dramatically new experiences, we are confronted by the brute fact that we can know very little about our subjective futures. This has serious implications for our decisions. If we make life choices in the way we naturally and intuitively want to—by considering what we care about, and what our future selves will be like if we choose to have the experience—we only learn what we really need to know after we have already committed ourselves. If we try to escape the dilemma by avoiding an experience, we have still made a choice. Choosing rationally, then, may require us to regard big life decisions as choices to make discoveries, small and large, about the intrinsic nature of experience, and to recognize that part of the value of living authentically is to experience one's life and preferences in whatever way they may evolve in the wake of the choices you make. Using classic philosophical examples about the nature of consciousness, and drawing on recent work in normative decision theory, cognitive science, epistemology, and the philosophy of mind, Paul develops a rigorous account of transformative experience that sheds light on how we should understand real-world experience and our capacity to rationally map our subjective futures.

Decision Space

Multidimensional Utility Analysis
Author: Paul Weirich
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139430418
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 9658
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In Decision Space: Multidimensional Utility Analysis, first published in 2001, Paul Weirich increases the power and versatility of utility analysis and in the process advances decision theory. Combining traditional and novel methods of option evaluation into one systematic method of analysis, multidimensional utility analysis is a valuable tool. It provides formulations of important decision principles, such as the principle to maximize expected utility; enriches decision theory in solving recalcitrant decision problems; and provides in particular for the cases in which an expert must make a decision for a group of people. The multiple dimensions of this analysis create a decision space broad enough to accommodate all factors affecting an option's utility. The book will be of interest to advanced students and professionals working in the subject of decision theory, as well as to economists and other social scientists.

Motivation and Agency


Author: Alfred R. Mele
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780195189520
Category: Self-Help
Page: 264
View: 3224
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What place does motivation have in the lives of intelligent agents? Mele's answer is sensitive to the concerns of philosophers of mind and moral philosophers and informed by empirical work. He offers a distinctive, comprehensive, attractive view of human agency. This book stands boldly at the intersection of philosophy of mind, moral philosophy, and metaphysics.

Models of Decision-Making

Simplifying Choices
Author: Paul Weirich
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 131624072X
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 5326
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Classical decision theory evaluates entire worlds, specified so as to include everything a decision-maker cares about. Thus applying decision theory requires performing computations far beyond an ordinary decision-maker's ability. In this book Paul Weirich explains how individuals can simplify and streamline their choices. He shows how different 'parts' of options (intrinsic, temporal, spatiotemporal, causal) are separable, so that we can know what difference one part makes to the value of an option, regardless of what happens in the other parts. He suggests that the primary value of options is found in basic intrinsic attitudes towards outcomes: desires, aversions, or indifferences. And using these two facts he argues that we need only compare small parts of the options we face in order to make a rational decision. This important book will interest readers in decision theory, economics, and the behavioral sciences.

Mathematical Reviews


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Mathematics
Page: N.A
View: 5635
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Evidence, Decision and Causality


Author: Arif Ahmed
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107020891
Category: Mathematics
Page: 258
View: 8678
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An explanation and defence of evidential decision theory, which emphasises the symptomatic value of options over their causal role.

Learning and Coordination

Inductive Deliberation, Equilibrium, and Convention
Author: Peter Vanderschraaf
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 9780815340393
Category: Mathematics
Page: 222
View: 3165
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Vanderschraaf develops a new theory of game theory equilibrium selection in this book. The new theory defends general correlated equilibrium concepts and suggests a new analysis of convention.

Reasoning, rationality, and probability


Author: Maria Carla Galavotti,Roberto Scazzieri,Patrick Suppes
Publisher: Center for the Study of Language and Inf
ISBN: 9781575865577
Category: Philosophy
Page: 303
View: 2482
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This volume broadens our concept of reasoning and rationality to allow for a more pluralistic and situational view of human thinking as a practical activity. Drawing on contributors across disciplines including philosophy, economics, psychology, statistics, computer science, engineering, and physics, Reasoning, Rationality, and Probability argues that the search for strong theories should leave room for the construction of context-sensitive conceptual tools. Both science and everyday life, the authors argue, are too complex and multifaceted to be forced into ready-made schemata.

Croatian Journal of Philosophy


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Analysis (Philosophy)
Page: N.A
View: 8564
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Collective Rationality

Equilibrium in Cooperative Games
Author: Paul Weirich
Publisher: OUP USA
ISBN: 0195388380
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 270
View: 9181
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Groups of people perform acts that are subject to standards of rationality. The book's theory of collective rationality explains how to evaluate collective acts. The people engaged in a game of strategy collectively produce an outcome, and the theory reveals what makes some outcomes solutions. It generates new equilibrium standards for solutions to cooperative games.

Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy: Papers-Zero


Author: Evan M. Berman
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Administrative agencies
Page: N.A
View: 925
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International Philosophical Quarterly


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Philosophy
Page: N.A
View: 8800
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Classics in Game Theory


Author: Harold William Kuhn
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691011929
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 362
View: 708
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A subfield of mathematics and economics, the theory of games simulates situations in which individuals compete and cooperate with each other to hypothesize a conclusion. The contributions collected here are "classics" from the groundbreaking era of research launched in the late 1940s. These 18 essays constitute the core of game theory as it exists today. An invaluable tool for researchers and students of the sciences.

Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association


Author: American Philosophical Association
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Philosophy
Page: N.A
View: 9529
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List of members in v. 1-

Bibliographic Index


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Bibliographical literature
Page: 26
View: 1508
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International Bibliography of Book Reviews of Scholarly Literature Chiefly in the Fields of Arts and Humanities and the Social Sciences


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Books
Page: N.A
View: 741
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