Reforming the Juvenile Justice System to Improve Children's Lives and Public Safety

Congressional Testimony
Author: George Miller
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
ISBN: 1437936369
Category:
Page: 94
View: 4998
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Hearing on the reauthorization of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act, which was first written in 1974 with the goal of supporting states¿ actions to prevent youth crime and to provide core protections for children. The law recognized that clear biological differences between teenagers and adults meant that youth should not be treated in the same manner as adults. Witnesses: Michael Belton, Ramsey County, MN, Dep. Dir. of Juvenile Corrections; Scott Burns, Exec. Dir., National DA¿s Assoc.; A. Hasan Davis, Dep. Commissioner for Operations, Kentucky Dept. of Juvenile Justice; Tracy McClard, Parent; John Solberg, Exec. Dir., Rawhide Boys Ranch, New London, WI; Steven Teske, Judge, Clayton County Juvenile Court, GA. Illus.

Reforming the juvenile justice system to improve children's lives and public safety

hearing before the Committee on Education and Labor, U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, second session, hearing held in Washington, DC, April 21, 2010
Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Education and Labor
Publisher: Government Printing Office
ISBN: N.A
Category: Law
Page: 94
View: 7902
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A New Juvenile Justice System

Total Reform for a Broken System
Author: Nancy E. Dowd
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 147984389X
Category: Law
Page: 400
View: 3206
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A New Juvenile Justice System aims at nothing less than a complete reform of the existing system: not minor change or even significant overhaul, but the replacement of the existing system with a different vision. The authors in this volume—academics, activists, researchers, and those who serve in the existing system—all respond in this collection to the question of what the system should be. Uniformly, they agree that an ideal system should be centered around the principle of child well-being and the goal of helping kids to achieve productive lives as citizens and members of their communities. Rather than the existing system, with its punitive, destructive, undermining effect and uneven application by race and gender, these authors envision a system responsive to the needs of youth as well as to the community’s legitimate need for public safety. How, they ask, can the ideals of equality, freedom, liberty, and self-determination transform the system? How can we improve the odds that children who have been labeled as “delinquent” can make successful transitions to adulthood? And how can we create a system that relies on proven, family-focused interventions and creates opportunities for positive youth development? Drawing upon interdisciplinary work as well as on-the-ground programs and experience, the authors sketch out the broad parameters of such a system. Providing the principles, goals, and concrete means to achieve them, this volume imagines using our resources wisely and well to invest in all children and their potential to contribute and thrive in our society.

Congressional Record


Author: N.A
Publisher: Government Printing Office
ISBN: N.A
Category:
Page: N.A
View: 7344
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Reforming Juvenile Justice

A Developmental Approach
Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Law and Justice,Committee on Assessing Juvenile Justice Reform
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309278937
Category: Law
Page: 462
View: 951
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Adolescence is a distinct, yet transient, period of development between childhood and adulthood characterized by increased experimentation and risk-taking, a tendency to discount long-term consequences, and heightened sensitivity to peers and other social influences. A key function of adolescence is developing an integrated sense of self, including individualization, separation from parents, and personal identity. Experimentation and novelty-seeking behavior, such as alcohol and drug use, unsafe sex, and reckless driving, are thought to serve a number of adaptive functions despite their risks. Research indicates that for most youth, the period of risky experimentation does not extend beyond adolescence, ceasing as identity becomes settled with maturity. Much adolescent involvement in criminal activity is part of the normal developmental process of identity formation and most adolescents will mature out of these tendencies. Evidence of significant changes in brain structure and function during adolescence strongly suggests that these cognitive tendencies characteristic of adolescents are associated with biological immaturity of the brain and with an imbalance among developing brain systems. This imbalance model implies dual systems: one involved in cognitive and behavioral control and one involved in socio-emotional processes. Accordingly adolescents lack mature capacity for self-regulations because the brain system that influences pleasure-seeking and emotional reactivity develops more rapidly than the brain system that supports self-control. This knowledge of adolescent development has underscored important differences between adults and adolescents with direct bearing on the design and operation of the justice system, raising doubts about the core assumptions driving the criminalization of juvenile justice policy in the late decades of the 20th century. It was in this context that the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) asked the National Research Council to convene a committee to conduct a study of juvenile justice reform. The goal of Reforming Juvenile Justice: A Developmental Approach was to review recent advances in behavioral and neuroscience research and draw out the implications of this knowledge for juvenile justice reform, to assess the new generation of reform activities occurring in the United States, and to assess the performance of OJJDP in carrying out its statutory mission as well as its potential role in supporting scientifically based reform efforts.

Rethinking Juvenile Justice


Author: Elizabeth S Scott,Laurence D Steinberg
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674043367
Category: Law
Page: 378
View: 4918
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What should we do with teenagers who commit crimes? In this book, two leading scholars in law and adolescent development argue that juvenile justice should be grounded in the best available psychological science, which shows that adolescence is a distinctive state of cognitive and emotional development. Although adolescents are not children, they are also not fully responsible adults.

Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice


Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Institute of Medicine,Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Children, Youth, and Families,Committee on Law and Justice,Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309172356
Category: Law
Page: 404
View: 3184
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Even though youth crime rates have fallen since the mid-1990s, public fear and political rhetoric over the issue have heightened. The Columbine shootings and other sensational incidents add to the furor. Often overlooked are the underlying problems of child poverty, social disadvantage, and the pitfalls inherent to adolescent decisionmaking that contribute to youth crime. From a policy standpoint, adolescent offenders are caught in the crossfire between nurturance of youth and punishment of criminals, between rehabilitation and "get tough" pronouncements. In the midst of this emotional debate, the National Research Council's Panel on Juvenile Crime steps forward with an authoritative review of the best available data and analysis. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice presents recommendations for addressing the many aspects of America's youth crime problem. This timely release discusses patterns and trends in crimes by children and adolescents--trends revealed by arrest data, victim reports, and other sources; youth crime within general crime; and race and sex disparities. The book explores desistance--the probability that delinquency or criminal activities decrease with age--and evaluates different approaches to predicting future crime rates. Why do young people turn to delinquency? Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice presents what we know and what we urgently need to find out about contributing factors, ranging from prenatal care, differences in temperament, and family influences to the role of peer relationships, the impact of the school policies toward delinquency, and the broader influences of the neighborhood and community. Equally important, this book examines a range of solutions: Prevention and intervention efforts directed to individuals, peer groups, and families, as well as day care-, school- and community-based initiatives. Intervention within the juvenile justice system. Role of the police. Processing and detention of youth offenders. Transferring youths to the adult judicial system. Residential placement of juveniles. The book includes background on the American juvenile court system, useful comparisons with the juvenile justice systems of other nations, and other important information for assessing this problem.

Reforming Juvenile Justice

A Developmental Approach
Author: Committee on Assessing Juvenile Justice Reform,Committee on Law and Justice,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309278910
Category: Law
Page: 429
View: 7226
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Adolescence is a distinct, yet transient, period of development between childhood and adulthood characterized by increased experimentation and risk-taking, a tendency to discount long-term consequences, and heightened sensitivity to peers and other social influences. A key function of adolescence is developing an integrated sense of self, including individualization, separation from parents, and personal identity. Experimentation and novelty-seeking behavior, such as alcohol and drug use, unsafe sex, and reckless driving, are thought to serve a number of adaptive functions despite their risks. Research indicates that for most youth, the period of risky experimentation does not extend beyond adolescence, ceasing as identity becomes settled with maturity. Much adolescent involvement in criminal activity is part of the normal developmental process of identity formation and most adolescents will mature out of these tendencies. Evidence of significant changes in brain structure and function during adolescence strongly suggests that these cognitive tendencies characteristic of adolescents are associated with biological immaturity of the brain and with an imbalance among developing brain systems. This imbalance model implies dual systems: one involved in cognitive and behavioral control and one involved in socio-emotional processes. Accordingly adolescents lack mature capacity for self-regulations because the brain system that influences pleasure-seeking and emotional reactivity develops more rapidly than the brain system that supports self-control. This knowledge of adolescent development has underscored important differences between adults and adolescents with direct bearing on the design and operation of the justice system, raising doubts about the core assumptions driving the criminalization of juvenile justice policy in the late decades of the 20th century. It was in this context that the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) asked the National Research Council to convene a committee to conduct a study of juvenile justice reform. The goal of Reforming Juvenile Justice: A Developmental Approach was to review recent advances in behavioral and neuroscience research and draw out the implications of this knowledge for juvenile justice reform, to assess the new generation of reform activities occurring in the United States, and to assess the performance of OJJDP in carrying out its statutory mission as well as its potential role in supporting scientifically based reform efforts.

Burning Down the House

The End of Juvenile Prison
Author: Nell
Publisher: New Press, The
ISBN: 159558966X
Category: Law
Page: 256
View: 6192
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When teenagers scuffle during a basketball game, they are typically benched. But when Will got into it on the court, he and his rival were sprayed in the face at close range by a chemical similar to Mace, denied a shower for twenty-four hours, and then locked in solitary confinement for a month. One in three American children will be arrested by the time they are twenty-three, and many will spend time locked inside horrific detention centers that defy everything we know about how to rehabilitate young offenders. In a clear-eyed indictment of the juvenile justice system run amok, award-winning journalist Nell Bernstein shows that there is no right way to lock up a child. The very act of isolation denies delinquent children the thing that is most essential to their growth and rehabilitation: positive relationships with caring adults. Bernstein introduces us to youth across the nation who have suffered violence and psychological torture at the hands of the state. She presents these youths all as fully realized people, not victims. As they describe in their own voices their fight to maintain their humanity and protect their individuality in environments that would deny both, these young people offer a hopeful alternative to the doomed effort to reform a system that should only be dismantled. Burning Down the House is a clarion call to shut down our nation’s brutal and counterproductive juvenile prisons and bring our children home.

The War on Kids

How American Juvenile Justice Lost Its Way
Author: Cara H. Drinan
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190605553
Category: Law
Page: 232
View: 977
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In 2003, when Terrence Graham was sixteen, he and three other teens attempted to rob a barbeque restaurant in Jacksonville, Florida. Though they left with no money, and no one was seriously injured, Terrence was sentenced to die in prison for his involvement in that crime. As shocking as Terrence's sentence sounds, it is merely a symptom of contemporary American juvenile justice practices. In the United States, adolescents are routinely transferred out of juvenile court and into adult criminal court without any judicial oversight. Once in adult court, children can be sentenced without regard for their youth. Juveniles are housed in adult correctional facilities, they may be held in solitary confinement, and they experience the highest rates of sexual and physical assault among inmates. Until 2005, children convicted in America's courts were subject to the death penalty; today, they still may be sentenced to die in prison-no matter what efforts they make to rehabilitate themselves. America has waged a war on kids. In The War on Kids, Cara Drinan reveals how the United States went from being a pioneer to an international pariah in its juvenile sentencing practices. Academics and journalists have long recognized the failings of juvenile justice practices in this country and have called for change. Despite the uncertain political climate, there is hope that recent Supreme Court decisions may finally make those calls a reality. The War on Kids seizes upon this moment of judicial and political recognition that children are different in the eyes of the law. Drinan chronicles the shortcomings of juvenile justice by drawing upon social science, legal decisions, and first-hand correspondence with Terrence and others like him-individuals whose adolescent errors have cost them their lives. At the same time, The War on Kids maps out concrete steps that states can take to correct the course of American juvenile justice.

Juvenile Justice

Advancing Research, Policy, and Practice
Author: Francine Sherman,Francine Jacobs
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118105850
Category: Political Science
Page: 569
View: 2303
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"The lessons in this book remind us that we can—and that we must—do better, for the sake of our children, their futures, and the sake of our nation. . . . This volume is a call to action, and I encourage everyone who reads it to take steps to ensure that all America's children are given an equal chance to succeed. We must all work together to replace the cradle-to-prison pipeline with a pipeline to responsible, productive adulthood." —From the Foreword by Marian Wright Edelman, JD, President and founder, Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC "Juvenile Justice: Advancing Research, Policy, and Practice appears at a critical time, when promising juvenile justice reforms are underway in so many jurisdictions across the United States. Sherman and Jacobs, and their impressive array of expert authors, fill a significant gap in the literature, making the current body of juvenile justice research and experience accessible to policy makers, researchers, and funders, and doing so through a practical and positive lens." —Patrick McCarthy, President and Chief Executive Officer, Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD "Most people have narrow views of what it means to be a delinquent youth. In Juvenile Justice: Advancing Research, Policy, and Practice, Sherman and Jacobs have diligently collected essays from the top experts in the juvenile justice field who tell an empirically based and powerful narrative of who is really in the delinquency system. As this book makes clear, until we ask and answer the right questions, we will remain unable to help the youth most in need." —Alexander Busansky, President, The National Council on Crime and Delinquency, Oakland, CA A comprehensive reference presenting a rehabilitative, youth- and community-centered vision of juvenile justice Juvenile Justice: Advancing Research, Policy, and Practice brings together experts in juvenile justice, child development, and public health to explore the intersections between juvenile justice and needed development of programs and policies that look out for the health and well-being of the youth who enter this system. This timely book provides a usable framework for imagining juvenile justice systems that emphasize the welfare of juveniles, achieved primarily through connections within their communities. A must-read for professionals working in juvenile courts and within juvenile justice agencies, Juvenile Justice: Advancing Research, Policy, and Practice reflects both the considerable advances and the challenges currently evident in the juvenile justice system, with an emphasis on the development and implementation of policies that can succeed in building a new generation of educated young people able to embrace their potential and build successful futures.

The Cycle of Juvenile Justice


Author: Thomas J. Bernard,Megan C. Kurlychek
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190451548
Category: Law
Page: 256
View: 5153
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The Cycle of Juvenile Justice takes a historical look at juvenile justice policies in the United States. Tracing a pattern of policies over the past 200 years, the book reveals cycles of reforms advocating either lenient treatment or harsh punishments for juvenile delinquents. Bernard and Kurlychek see this cycle as driven by several unchanging ideas that force us to repeat, rather than learn from, our history. This timely new edition provides a substantial update from the original, incorporating the vast policy changes from the 1990s to the present, and placing these changes in their broader historical context and their place within the cycle of juvenile justice. The authors provide a provocative and honest assessment of juvenile justice in the 21st century, arguing that no policy can solve the problem of youth crime since it arises not from the juvenile justice system, but from deeper social conditions and inequalities. With this highly-anticipated new edition, The Cycle of Juvenile Justice will continue to provide a controversial, challenging, and enlightening perspective for a broad array of juvenile justice officials, scholars, and students alike.

Bad Kids

Race and the Transformation of the Juvenile Court
Author: Barry C. Feld
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0195097874
Category: Law
Page: 374
View: 1415
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Traces the evolution of the juvenile court from its inception in the early 1900s, with an emphasis on the past three decades.

Implementing Juvenile Justice Reform

The Federal Role
Author: Committee on a Prioritized Plan to Implement a Developmental Approach in Juvenile Justice Reform,Committee on Law and Justice,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,National Research Council
Publisher: National Academy Press
ISBN: 9780309303477
Category: Law
Page: 122
View: 3622
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"In the past decade, a number of state, local, and tribal jurisdictions have begun to take significant steps to overhaul their juvenile justice systems - for example, reducing the use of juvenile detention and out-of-home placement, bringing greater attention to racial and ethnic disparities, looking for ways to engage affected families in the process, and raising the age at which juvenile court jurisdiction ends. These changes are the result of heightening awareness of the ineffectiveness of punitive practices and accumulating knowledge about adolescent development. Momentum for reform is growing. However, many more state, local, and tribal jurisdictions need assistance, and practitioners in the juvenile justice field are looking for guidance from the federal government, particularly from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) in the Department of Justice. Implementing Juvenile Justice Reform identifies and prioritizes strategies and policies to effectively facilitate reform of the juvenile justice system and develop an implementation plan for OJJDP. Based on the 2013 report Reforming Juvenile Justice, this report is designed to provide specific guidance to OJJDP regarding the steps that it should take, both internally and externally, to facilitate juvenile justice reform grounded in knowledge about adolescent development. The report identifies seven hallmarks of a developmental approach to juvenile justice to guide system reform: accountability without criminalization, alternatives to justice system involvement, individualized response based on needs and risks, confinement only when necessary for public safety, genuine commitment to fairness, sensitivity to disparate treatment, and family engagement. Implementing Juvenile Justice Reform outlines how these hallmarks should be incorporated into policies and practices within OJJDP, as well as in actions extended to state, local, and tribal jurisdictions to achieve the goals of the juvenile justice system through a developmentally informed approach. This report sets forth a detailed and prioritized strategic plan for the federal government to support and facilitate developmentally oriented juvenile justice reform. The pivotal component of the plan is to strengthen the role, capacity, and commitment of OJJDP, the lead federal agency in the field. By carrying out the recommendations of Implementing Juvenile Justice Reform, the federal government will both reaffirm and advance the promise of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act."--Publisher's description.

The Special Needs Child and Divorce

A Practical Guide to Evaluating and Handling Cases
Author: Margaret S. Price
Publisher: American Bar Association
ISBN: 9781604424928
Category: Law
Page: 343
View: 1846
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Examines what can be done to make the family court system work better for special needs children and their families, in a text with sample forms, resource materials, and contact information for organizations and state agencies.

Childhood and Adolescence in Society

Selections From CQ Researcher
Author: CQ Researcher,
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1452236062
Category: Psychology
Page: 336
View: 6355
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About CQ Researcher Readers In the tradition of nonpartisan and current analysis that is the hallmark of CQ Press, CQ Researcher readers investigate important and controversial policy issues. Childhood and Adolescence in Society aims to promote in-depth discussion, facilitate further research, and help readers formulate their own positions on crucial issues in the field, such as child soldiers, teen pregnancy, and violence and bullying. Offer your students the balanced reporting, complete overviews, and engaging writing that CQ Researcher has consistently provided for more than 80 years. Each article gives substantial background and analysis of a particular issue as well as useful pedagogical features to inspire critical thinking and to help students grasp and review key material. Key Features Pro/con boxes that examine two competing sides of a single question Detailed chronologies of key dates and events Annotated bibliographies and web resources Outlook sections that address possible regulation and initiatives from Capitol Hill and the White House over the next 5 to 10 years Photos, charts, graphs, and maps

Brick by Brick

Dismantling the Border Between Juvenile and Adult Justice
Author: Jeffrey A. Butts,Ojmarrh Mitchell
Publisher: Createspace Independent Pub
ISBN: 9781478262626
Category: Social Science
Page: 48
View: 9335
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Changes in juvenile law and juvenile court procedure are slowly dismantling the jurisdictional border between juvenile and criminal justice. Juvenile courts across the United States are increasingly similar to criminal courts in their method as well as in their general atmosphere. State and Federal laws are being changed to send a growing number of young offenders to criminal court where they can be tried as if they were adults. The two court systems appear to be moving toward complete convergence. Policymakers and practitioners need to be aware of the factors leading to this convergence and they should understand the effects it may have on offenders, victims, and the general community. This discssion reviews the origins of juvenile justice in the United States, summarizes the legislative and policy changes that are effectively dismantling the juvenile-criminal border, and examines research on the impact of such policies. The discussion concludes with a review of issues that should be prominent in any debate about the future viability of the juvenile-criminal boundary.

The proposed abolition of the Youth Justice Board

tenth report of session 2010-12, Vol. 1: Report, together with formal minutes, oral and written evidence
Author: Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: Justice Committee
Publisher: The Stationery Office
ISBN: 9780215038791
Category: Law
Page: 69
View: 448
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The Government has proposed that the Youth Justice Board (YJB) should be abolished, and its inclusion in the Public Bodies Bill is currently the subject of 'ping pong' between the two Houses of Parliament. The YJB is responsible for: advising the Justice Secretary on the operation of the youth justice system; monitoring the performance of that system; purchasing places for, and placing, children and young people remanded or sentenced to custody; disseminating effective practice; making grants to local authorities and others; and commissioning research and publishing information. The Government wants to transfer YJB's functions to a Youth Justice Division of the Ministry of Justice, arguing that this will restore direct Ministerial accountability. The Committee point out that if that does happen, certain steps must be taken to ensure that the new Division: is not part of NOMS; benefits from the establishment of a genuinely and visibly independent Advisory Board; improves the dissemination of best practice; and exercises 'light touch' oversight of Youth Offending Teams.

Children and Transitional Justice

Truth-telling, Accountability and Reconciliation
Author: Sharanjeet Parmar,Mindy Jane Roseman,Saudamini Siegrist,Theo Sowa
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780979639548
Category: Law
Page: 417
View: 326
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Children are increasingly a focus of international and national courts and truth commissions. Their participation, including through testimony that bears witness to their experiences, demonstrates their critical role in truth, justice, and reconciliation processes. If children are to engage, however, their rights must be respected. This book includes analysis of the recent involvement of children in transitional justice processes in Liberia, Peru, Sierra Leone, and South Africa. It also explores key areas of current debates among legal scholars and child rights advocates, such as international criminal responsibility, traditional and restorative justice, reparations, psychosocial support for child witnesses, and links between education and reconciliation. The book emphasizes how children must be engaged during post-conflict transition. If children are excluded, they may become vulnerable to a continuing cycle of violence, affecting future generations. In contrast, through active involvement in transitions, children and adolescents can be the catalysts for justice, reconciliation, and peace-building within their own families and communities.