Religion and State in Syria

The Sunni Ulama from Coup to Revolution
Author: Thomas Pierret
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107026415
Category: Political Science
Page: 276
View: 9180
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This book affords a new perspective on Syria as it stands at the crossroads of political, social and religious fragmentation.

(Re)constructing Armenia in Lebanon and Syria

Ethno-cultural Diversity and the State in the Aftermath of a Refugee Crisis
Author: Nicola Migliorino
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 9781845453527
Category: Social Science
Page: 242
View: 4379
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For almost nine decades, since their mass-resettlement to the Levant in the wake of the Genocide and First World War, the Armenian communities of Lebanon and Syria appear to have successfully maintained a distinct identity as an ethno-culturally diverse group, in spite of representing a small non-Arab and Christian minority within a very different, mostly Arab and Muslim environment. The author shows that, while in Lebanon the state has facilitated the development of an extensive and effective system of Armenian ethno-cultural preservation, in Syria the emergence of centralizing, authoritarian regimes in the 1950s and 1960s has severely damaged the autonomy and cultural diversity of the Armenian community. Since 1970, the coming to power of the Asad family has contributed to a partial recovery of Armenian ethno-cultural diversity, as the community seems to have developed some form of tacit arrangement with the regime. In Lebanon, on the other hand, the Armenian community suffered the consequences of the recurrent breakdown of the consociational arrangement that regulates public life. In both cases the survival of Armenian cultural distinctiveness seems to be connected, rather incidentally, with the continuing ‘search for legitimacy’ of the state.

Minority Rights in the Middle East


Author: Joshua Castellino,Kathleen A. Cavanaugh
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191668885
Category: Law
Page: 456
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Within the Middle East there are a wide range of minority groups outside the mainstream religious and ethnic culture. This book provides a detailed examination of their rights as minorities within this region, and their changing status throughout the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. The rights of minorities in the Middle East are subject to a range of legal frameworks, having developed in part from Islamic law, and in recent years subject to international human rights law and institutional frameworks. The book examines the context in which minority rights operate within this conflicted region, investigating how minorities engage with (or are excluded from) various sites of power and how state practice in dealing with minorities (often ostensibly based on Islamic authority) intersects with and informs modern constitutionalism and international law. The book identifies who exactly can be classed as a minority group, analysing in detail the different religious and ethnic minorities across the region. The book also pays special attention to the plight of minorities who are spread between various states, often as the result of conflict. It assesses the applicable domestic legislative instruments within the three countries investigated as case studies: Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon, and highlights key domestic remedies that could serve as models for ensuring greater social cohesion and greater inclusion of minorities in the political life of these countries.

Islamic Revivalism in Syria

The Rise and Fall of Ba'thist Secularism
Author: Line Khatib
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0415782031
Category: Religion
Page: 257
View: 4166
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Contemporary studies on Syria assume that the country's Ba'thist regime has been effective in subduing its Islamic opposition, placing Syria at odds with the Middle East's larger trends of rising Islamic activism and the eclipse of secular ideologies as the primary source of political activism. Yet this assumption founders when confronted with the clear resurgence in Islamic militantism in the country since 2004. This book examines Syria's current political reality as regards its Islamic movement, describing the country's present day Islamic groups - particularly their social profile and ideology - and offering an explanation of their resurgence. The analysis focuses on: Who are today's Syrian Islamic groups? Why and how are they re-emerging after 22 years of relative silence as an important socio-economic and political force? How is the Syrian state dealing with their re-emergence in light of Syria's secularism and ideologically diverse society? Bridging area studies, Islamic studies, and political science, this book will be an important reference for those working within the fields of Comparative Politics, Political Economy, and Middle Eastern Studies.

War and State Formation in Syria

Cemal Pasha's Governorate During World War I, 1914-1917
Author: M. Talha Çiçek
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317916735
Category: History
Page: 294
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During the First World War, Cemal Pasha attempted to establish direct control over Syrian and thereby reaffirm Ottoman authority there through various policies of control, including the abolishment of local intermediaries. Elaborating on these Ottoman policies of control, this book assesses Cemal Pasha’s policies towards different political groups in Syrian society, including; Arabists, Zionists, Christian clergymen and Armenian immigrants. The author then goes on to analyse Pasha’s educational activities, the conscription of Syrians- both Muslim and Christian, and the reconstruction of the major Syrian cities, assessing how these policies contributed to his attempt to create ideal Ottoman citizens. An important addition to existing literature on the social and political history of World War I, and contributing a new understanding of Ottoman Syria, and its transformation into a nation-state, this book will be of interest to students and scholars with an interest in state formation, Politics and History.

Syria from Reform to Revolt

Volume 2: Culture, Society, and Religion
Author: Leif Stenberg,Christa Salamandra
Publisher: Syracuse University Press
ISBN: 0815653514
Category: Political Science
Page: 250
View: 7262
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As Syria’s anti-authoritarian uprising and subsequent civil war have left the country in ruins, the need for understanding the nation’s complex political and cultural realities remains urgent. The second of a two-volume series, Syria from Reform to Revolt: Culture, Society, and Religion draws together closely observed, critical and historicized analyses, giving vital insights into Syrian society today. With a broad range of disciplinary perspectives, contributors reveal how Bashar al-Asad’s pivotal first decade of rule engendered changes in power relations and public discourse—dynamics that would feed the 2011 protest movement and civil war. Essays focus on key arenas of Syrian social life, including television drama, political fiction, Islamic foundations, and Christian choirs and charities, demonstrating the ways in which Syrians worked with and through the state in attempts to reform, undermine, or sidestep the regime. The contributors explore the paradoxical cultural politics of hope, anticipation, and betrayal that have animated life in Syria under Asad, revealing the fractures that obstruct peaceful transformation. Syria from Reform to Revolt provides a powerful assessment of the conditions that turned Syria’s hopeful Arab spring revolution into a catastrophic civil war that has cost over 200,000 lives and generated the worst humanitarian crisis of the twenty-first century.

Public Islam and the Common Good


Author: Armando Salvatore,Dale F. Eickelman
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004136215
Category: Social Science
Page: 254
View: 1536
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This book shows how competing Islamic ideas and practices create alternative political and social realities in the Muslim majority regions of the Arab Middle East, Iran, South Asia, Africa, and elsewhere in ways that differ from the emergence of the public sphere in Europe.

Family Religion in Babylonia, Ugarit and Israel

Continuity and Changes in the Forms of Religious Life
Author: K. Van Der Toorn
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9789004104105
Category: Religion
Page: 491
View: 9454
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This study of family religion in the Babylonian, Ugaritic and Israelite civilizations opens up a little studied province of ancient Near Eastern religion. By focusing on the interaction between family religion and state religion, the author offers fascinating insights in to the development of the religion of Israel.

The Dynamics of Opposition Cooperation in the Arab World

Contentious Politics in Times of Change
Author: Hendrik Jan Kraetzschmar
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317967364
Category: Social Science
Page: 224
View: 3301
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Within the democratisation literature, opposition unity is widely seen as an important requisite to successfully pressure authoritarian rulers into liberalising reforms and in bringing about democratic change. Taking up on this theme, this book examines the myriad ways in which opposition groups across the Arab world have sought to coalesce into broader reform coalitions at the local, national and transnational levels to challenge authoritarian incumbents and their policies. Drawing on original case studies from the region, it sheds light on the diverse nature and objectives of these reform coalitions, and explores the challenges opposition groups face in Arab states in uniting behind a common reform agenda and in driving this agenda forward. Be they electoral pacts, local government coalitions, broader opposition alliances or networks of resistance, this book demonstrates that, although widespread, the record of collective opposition activism in the Arab world is mixed, with many reform coalitions lacking the necessary cohesion and mass appeal to effectively mobilise for change. This book was originally published as a special issue of British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies

Twilight of the Saints

Everyday Religion in Ottoman Syria and Palestine
Author: James Grehan
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190619147
Category:
Page: 360
View: 9019
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In this study of everyday religious culture in early modern Syria and Palestine, James Grehan offers a social history that looks beyond conventional ways of thinking about religion in the Middle East. The most common narratives about the region introduce us to the separate traditions of Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, highlighting how each one has created its own distinctive traditions and communities. Twilight of the Saints offers a reinterpretation of religious and cultural history in a region which is today associated with division and violence. Exploring the religious habits of ordinary people, from the late seventeenth to the end of the nineteenth century, when the region was part of the Ottoman Empire, Grehan shows that members of different religious groups participated in a common, overarching religious culture that was still visible at the beginning of the twentieth century. Most evident in the countryside, though present everywhere, this religious mainstream thrived in a society in which few people had access to formal religious teachings. This older, folk religious culture was steeped in notions and rituals that the modern world, with its mainly theological conception of religion, has utterly repudiated. Indeed, the people of Syria and Palestine today would hardly recognize religion as it was experienced in the not-so-distant past. Only by uncovering this lost lived religion, argues Grehan, can we appreciate the largely unacknowledged revolution in religion that has taken place in the region over the last century.

The New Islamic State

Ideology, Religion and Violent Extremism in the 21st Century
Author: Jack Covarrubias,Tom Lansford
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317022777
Category: Political Science
Page: 248
View: 7385
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The rise of the Islamic State has dramatically forced a recalculation of political order and security in the Persian Gulf and broader Greater Middle East by the United States and its allies and adversaries, including, most notably, Iran, Israel and Saudi Arabia. Since the Arab Spring of 2011, the Islamic State has altered the military balance in the Syrian intra-state conflict and captured significant territory in Iraq. Its military successes has attracted foreign fighters from more than 100 countries, drawn in some cases by a sophisticated recruitment strategy that effectively combines a jihadist message with a social media outreach program targeting vulnerable Muslim populations in the region and the West. The Islamic State has prompted renewed American and allied military intervention in Iraq and Syria, and complicated the US relationship with its Iranian adversaries. The New Islamic State examines the rise of the religious extremist organization from the ashes of al-Qaeda in Iraq to its current efforts in Syria and Iraq and is designed to provide a comprehensive overview of the Islamic State, its effects on the Persian Gulf and Greater Middle East, and the response of both regional and great powers. The book is suitable for academics, policymakers and the general public.

Insight Turkey - 2015/1


Author: N.A
Publisher: SET Vakfı İktisadi İşletmesi
ISBN: N.A
Category: Political Science
Page: N.A
View: 821
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Religion, religious groups and teo-politics are always most vital topics of the Western politics. The relationship between politics and religion is reciprocal. While both domestic and international political actors try to exploit religion and religious sensitivity for their political interests and gains, religion and belief systems want to use significant power over main political and cultural actors and perceptions. With the emergence of the violent non-state actors such as Taliban, al-Qaeda and DAISH, which were all surfaced in the Middle East but have become transnational actors deeply affecting European politics, and the recent popularity of far-right Islam-phobic movements such as PEGIDA in Europe have once again forced us to look closely at the relationship between religion and politics in Western politics specifically in Europe. Even though it is generally perceived that the religion has lost its war against politics in Europe as European countries have established secular democracies based on the promotion of individual freedoms and pluralism, it is an undisputable fact that the general framework in European states is largely affected by the Christian values and often its imprints are seen in politics. The developments around the recent large scale immigration toward Europe from Middle East and Africa are the reasons which force us to make this bold statement. How Europe deals with mostly Muslim immigrants who come from very different ethnic and cultural backgrounds from European values is very alarming. After unsuccessful assimilation and/or integration efforts for these non-European and non-Christian immigrants, state and societal actors have instigated to take restrictive measures against further immigration and migrants. Furthermore we have started to witness strong wave of xenophobia and Islamophobia in these democratic European societies. Islamophobia, relations with European Muslims and implications of political developments in the Muslim World will significantly influence the future religion-state relations in European countries. However, for the last few months we have been spectators of the tragic death of thousands desperate immigrants at the Mediterranean Sea who were trying to reach Europe. Unfortunately the European countries have done nothing to prevent their death.. MUHİTTİN ATAMAN

Gods in the Desert

Religions of the Ancient Near East
Author: Glenn Stanfield Holland
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 9780742562264
Category: Religion
Page: 309
View: 5025
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Explores the religious practices and traditions of ancient Middle Eastern cultures, discussing pyramids, tombs, and Egyptian temples, and describing the gods, rulers, beliefs about afterlife, and worship rituals of Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Syria-Palestine.

Religion, Politics and Nation-Building in Post-Communist Countries


Author: Greg Simons,David Westerlund
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 1472449711
Category: Political Science
Page: 234
View: 4627
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The increasing significance and visibility of relationships between religion and public arenas and institutions following the fall of communism in Europe provide the core focus of this fascinating book. Leading international scholars consider the religious and political role of Christian Orthodoxy in the Russian Federation, Romania, Georgia and Ukraine alongside the revival of old, indigenous religions, often referred to as 'shamanistic' and look at how, despite Islam’s long history and many adherents in the south, Islamophobic attitudes have increasingly been added to traditional anti-Semitic, anti-Western or anti-liberal elements of Russian nationalism. Contrasts between the church’s position in the post-communist nation building process of secular Estonia with its role in predominantly Catholic Poland are also explored. Religion, Politics and Nation-Building in Post-Communist Countries gives a broad overview of the political importance of religion in the Post-Soviet space but its interest and relevance extends far beyond the geographical focus, providing examples of the challenges in the spheres of public, religious and social policy for all transitional countries.

State, Power and Politics in the Making of the Modern Middle East


Author: Roger Owen
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134432917
Category: Political Science
Page: 296
View: 6637
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Roger Owen has fully revised and updated his authoritative text to take into account the latest developments in the Middle East. This book continues to serve as an excellent introduction for newcomers to the modern history and politics of this fascinating region. This third edition continues to explore the emergence of individual Middle Eastern states since the fall of the Ottoman Empire at the end of the First World War and the key themes that have characterized the region since then.

Islam für Dummies


Author: Malcolm Clark
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527692428
Category: Religion
Page: 334
View: 997
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Über 1,3 Milliarden Muslime leben auf allen Kontinenten. Doch was wissen wir über ihren Glauben? Kaum mehr, als dass der Koran ihre heilige Schrift ist, Gläubige fünf Mal am Tag zu Allah beten und sie zum Ramadan fasten. Aber wer kann schon den Unterschied zwischen Schiiten und Sunniten erklären und wer weiß, was es mit den mystischen Sufi auf sich hat? Malcolm Clark erzählt vom Leben des Propheten Mohammed, berichtet über die Ausbreitung seiner Lehre und deren Entwicklung über die Jahrhunderte und erklärt die Bedeutung des Koran. Er beschreibt das Leben der Muslime und zeigt auf, welche Beiträge sie in den Naturwissenschaften, der Kunst und der Architektur geleistet haben.Er hilft so, Vorurteile zu vermeiden und muslimische Mitbürger besser zu verstehen.

Modern Turkey: Continuity and Change


Author: Ahmet Evin
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3663011771
Category: Social Science
Page: 164
View: 3746
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Syria

Society, Culture, and Polity
Author: Richard T. Antoun,Donald Quataert
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 9780791407134
Category: History
Page: 165
View: 3158
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This book provides a multi-disciplinary understanding of the processes of change in contemporary Syria as well as its historical, social, and cultural underpinnings. A number of distinguished anthropologists, historians, political scientists, and literateurs examine key issues such as the changing Syrian family, political factionalism, the sedentarization of nomads, bureaucratic corruption, rural-urban migration, the development of the Ba'th Party, Syria's political isolation, religious resurgence, and the continued importance of sects in Syrian life. This book strikes a balance between examining the consequences of Syria's geographical and strategic position in international politics and the implications of its internal and highly complex ethnic and class structure and culture. It argues that the religious culture of Syria is as important as the leadership of Asad and, more generally, that an understanding of Syrian politics must be matched by an understanding of Syrian society and culture.

Emergence of Minorities in the Middle East


Author: Benjamin Thomas White
Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
ISBN: 0748688935
Category: Political Science
Page: 256
View: 8911
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This book uses a study of Syria under the French mandate to show what historical developments led people to start describing themselves and others as 'minorities'.