Rethinking Secularism


Author: Craig Calhoun,Mark Juergensmeyer,Jonathan VanAntwerpen
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199911304
Category: Social Science
Page: 328
View: 4238
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This collection of essays presents groundbreaking work from an interdisciplinary group of leading theorists and scholars representing the fields of history, philosophy, political science, sociology, and anthropology. The volume will introduce readers to some of the most compelling new conceptual and theoretical understandings of secularism and the secular, while also examining socio-political trends involving the relationship between the religious and the secular from a variety of locations across the globe. In recent decades, the public has become increasingly aware of the important role religious commitments play in the cultural, social, and political dynamics of domestic and world affairs. This so called ''resurgence'' of religion in the public sphere has elicited a wide array of responses, including vehement opposition to the very idea that religious reasons should ever have a right to expression in public political debate. The current global landscape forces scholars to reconsider not only once predominant understandings of secularization, but also the definition and implications of secular assumptions and secularist positions. The notion that there is no singular secularism, but rather a range of multiple secularisms, is one of many emerging efforts to reconceptualize the meanings of religion and the secular. Rethinking Secularism surveys these efforts and helps to reframe discussions of religion in the social sciences by drawing attention to the central issue of how ''the secular'' is constituted and understood. It provides valuable insight into how new understandings of secularism and religion shape analytic perspectives in the social sciences, politics, and international affairs.

Tibetan Democracy

Governance, Leadership and Conflict in Exile
Author: Trine Brox
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1786730464
Category: Political Science
Page: 400
View: 4326
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How do you govern 130,000 people from exile? Tibet - and the struggles of diaspora Tibetans - are elements of an ongoing and highly debated issue. The Dalai Lama's democratisation process during his time in India from 1959-2011, and the subsequent election of Lobsang Sangay as prime minister-in-exile, marked to the Tibetan people the move away from a seemingly feudal societal structure and traditional theocratic governance. Central to these Tibetan democracy aspirations is the 'freedom struggle' in which Tibetans dream of an ideal politics which includes both Tibetans residing in Tibet and those in exile, with the ultimate goal of returning to a self-ruled Tibet. However, some have questioned whether the fight for democracy has helped or hindered a united and free Tibet. To elucidate this complex debate Trine Brox has undertaken extensive fieldwork investigating how democracy is viewed and practised amongst Tibetans in exile. In so doing, she explores how the Tibetans living in India imagine, organise and negotiate governance that is modern and democratic, but uniquely Tibetan. This is an important book for those with an interest in Tibet, diaspora communities and democracy.

The Oxford Handbook of Secularism


Author: Phil Zuckerman,John Shook
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199988463
Category: Religion
Page: 752
View: 9024
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As recent headlines reveal, conflicts and debates around the world increasingly involve secularism. National borders and traditional religions cannot keep people in tidy boxes as political struggles, doctrinal divergences, and demographic trends are sweeping across regions and entire continents. And secularity is increasing in society, with a growing number of people in many regions having no religious affiliation or lacking interest in religion. Simultaneously, there is a resurgence of religious participation in the politics of many countries. How might these diverse phenomena be better understood? Long-reigning theories about the pace of secularization and ideal church-state relations are under invigorated scrutiny by scholars studying secularism with new questions, better data, and fresh perspectives. The Oxford Handbook of Secularism offers a wide-ranging and in-depth examination of this global conversation, bringing together the views of an international collection of prominent experts in their respective fields. This is the essential volume for comprehending the core issues and methodological approaches to the demographics and sociology of secularity; the history and variety of political secularisms; the comparison of constitutional secularisms across many countries from America to Asia; the key problems now convulsing church-state relations; the intersections of liberalism, multiculturalism, and religion; the latest psychological research into secular lives and lifestyles; and the naturalistic and humanistic worldviews available to nonreligious people.

Laizität und Gewissensfreiheit


Author: Charles Taylor,Jocelyn Maclure
Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag
ISBN: 3518758403
Category: Political Science
Page: 148
View: 6822
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Der Kopftuchstreit in Deutschland und Frankreich, der Mord an Theo van Gogh in den Niederlanden, der Karikaturenstreit in Dänemark: die politische Dimension religiöser Haltungen ist in den letzten Jahren allgegenwärtig. Der Philosoph Charles Taylor gilt als einer der besten Kenner der modernen Religionsgeschichte und als Experte in Sachen Multikulturalismus. Zusammen mit seinem kanadischen Kollegen Jocelyn Maclure versucht er, eine Antwort auf die Frage zu finden, wie sich eine politische Gemeinschaft gegenüber religiösen Mehrheiten und Minderheiten verhalten sollte. Im Zentrum der Untersuchung steht die Frage der religiösen Neutralität des Staates, die in der Moderne unter dem Begriff des Laizismus diskutiert wird. Mit ihr ist das Problem der individuellen Religions- und Gewissensfreiheit aufs engste verbunden. Taylor und Maclure zeigen eindrucksvoll, daß alleine eine »liberal-pluralistische Politik«, die Religion nicht prinzipiell aus der öffentlichen Sphäre ausschließt, unter den Bedingungen heutiger multikultureller Gesellschaften geeignet ist, ein friedliches Zusammenleben und das fundamentale Recht der freien Religionsausübung und Gewissensfreiheit zu gewährleisten.

Democracy, Islam, and Secularism in Turkey


Author: Ahmet T. Kuru,Alfred Stepan
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231530250
Category: Political Science
Page: 240
View: 444
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While Turkey has grown as a world power, promoting the image of a progressive and stable nation, several choices in policy have strained its relationship with the East and the West. Providing historical, social, and religious context for this behavior, the essays in Democracy, Islam, and Secularism in Turkey examine issues relevant to Turkish debates and global concerns, from the state's position on religion to its involvement with the European Union. Written by experts in a range of disciplines, the chapters explore the toleration of diversity during the Ottoman Empire's classical period; the erosion of ethno-religious heterogeneity in modern, pre-democratic times; Kemalism and its role in modernization and nation building; the changing political strategies of the military; and the effect of possible EU membership on domestic reforms. The essays also offer a cross-Continental comparison of "multiple secularisms," as well as political parties, considering especially Turkey's Justice and Development Party in relation to Europe's Christian Democratic parties. Contributors tackle critical research questions, such as the legacy of the Ottoman Empire's ethno-religious plurality and the way in which Turkey's assertive secularism can be softened to allow greater space for religious actors. They address the military's "guardian" role in Turkey's secularism, the implications of recent constitutional amendments for democratization, and the consequences and benefits of Islamic activism's presence within a democratic system. No other collection confronts Turkey's contemporary evolution so vividly and thoroughly or offers such expert analysis of its crucial social and political systems. Contributors: Karen Barkey (Columbia University) Ümit Cizre (Istanbul Sehir University) M. Sükrü Hanioglu (Princeton University) Stathis N. Kalyvas (Yale University) Ahmet T. Kuru (San Diego State University) Joost Lagendijk (Sabanc University) Ergun Özbudun (Bilkent University) Alfred Stepan (Columbia University)

Religion, Gender, and the Public Sphere


Author: Niamh Reilly,Stacey Scriver
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135014248
Category: Religion
Page: 308
View: 9020
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The re-emergence of religion as a significant cultural, social and political, force is not gender neutral. Tensions between claims for women’s equality and the rights of sexual minorities on one side and the claims of religions on the other side are well-documented across all major religions and regions. It is also well recognized in feminist scholarship that gender identities and ethno-religious identities work together in complex ways that are often exploited by dominant groups. Hence, a more comprehensive understanding of the changing role and influence of religion in the public sphere more widely requires complex, multidisciplinary and comparative gender analyses. Most recent discussion on these matters, however, especially in Europe, has focused primarily on the perceived subordinate status of Muslim women. These debates are a reminder of the deep interrelation of questions of gender, identity, human rights and religious freedom more generally. The relatively narrow (albeit important) purview of such discussions so far, however, underscores the need to extend the horizon of enquiry vis-à-vis religion, gender and the public sphere beyond the binary of ‘Islam versus the West’. Religion, Gender and the Public Sphere moves gender from the periphery to the centre of contemporary debates about the role of religion in public and political life. It offers a timely, multidisciplinary collection of gender-focused essays that address an array of challenges arising from the changing role and influence of religious organisations, identities, actors and values in the public sphere in contemporary multicultural and democratic societies.

Religion und Öffentlichkeit


Author: Eduardo Mendieta,Jonathan VanAntwerpen
Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag
ISBN: 3518763407
Category: Philosophy
Page: 180
View: 1152
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Lange Zeit hatte es den Anschein, als sei die Säkularisierung, also die schwindende Bedeutung des Religiösen, ein ebenso stabiler gesellschaftlicher Trend wie die Individualisierung und die Globalisierung. Doch spätestens seit dem 11. September erleben wir eine Renaissance der Religionen: Die Debatten um Kruzifixe in Schulen, die mediale Hysterie nach der Wahl Papst Benedikts XVI. und den Islam in Europa zwingen uns nun, die Bedeutung von Begriffen wie religiös und säkular und die öffentliche Rolle der Religion zu überdenken. Zu diesem Zweck fand im Oktober 2009 in New York eine Art Gipfeltreffen der Philosophie statt, an dem mit Judith Butler, Craig Calhoun, Jürgen Habermas, Charles Taylor und Cornel West fünf der wichtigsten Denkerinnen und Denker der Gegenwart teilnahmen. Dieser Band dokumentiert die Beiträge des Symposiums sowie die anschließende Diskussion.

Confronting Secularism in Europe and India

Legitimacy and Disenchantment in Contemporary Times
Author: Brian Black,Gavin Hyman,Graham M. Smith
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 1780937318
Category: Religion
Page: 224
View: 1641
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Can secularism continue to provide a foundation for political legitimacy? It is often claimed that one of the cultural achievements of the West has been its establishment of secular democracy, wherein religious belief is respected but confined to the sphere of private belief. In more recent times, however, political secularism has been increasingly called into question. Religious believers, in numerous traditions, have protested against the distortion and confinement that secularism imposes on their faith. Others have become uneasily aware of the way in which secularism no longer commands universal assent in the way it once did. Confronting Secularism in Europe and India adds to this debate by staging a creative encounter between European and Indian conceptions of secularism with a view to continuing new and distinctive trajectories of thought about the place and role of secularism in contemporary times. Looking at political secularism, the relationship between secularism and religion, and religious and secular violence, this book considers whether there are viable alternatives to secularism in Europe and in India.

After Secularism

Rethinking Religion in Global Politics
Author: Erin K. Wilson
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
ISBN: 023029037X
Category: Political Science
Page: 222
View: 1086
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Having destabilized dominant assumptions about the nature of religion, there is now a need to develop new ways of thinking about this ever-present phenomenon in global politics. This book outlines a new approach to understanding religion and its relationship with politics in the West and globally for International Relations.

Dialogue Derailed

Joseph Ratzinger's War against Pluralist Theology
Author: Ambrose Ih-Ren Mong
Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers
ISBN: 1630877131
Category: Religion
Page: 358
View: 4209
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Joseph Ratzinger has shaped and guided the church's understanding of its mission to proclaim the good news, as well as to forge good relations with non-Catholic Christian communities, other religious traditions, and the secular world at large. Through a critique of Ratzinger's theology, this book draws attention to the importance of theological discourses originating from non-European contexts. Mong highlights the gap between a dogmatic understanding of the faith and the pastoral realities of the Asian church, as well as the difficulties faced by Asian theologians trying to make their voices heard in a church still dominated by Western thinking. While Mong concurs with much of Ratzinger's analysis of the problems in modern society--such as the aggressive secularism and crisis of faith in Europe--he focuses attention on the realities of religious pluralism in Asia, which require the church to adopt a different approach in its theological formulations and pastoral practices.

Religion and Ecology

Developing a Planetary Ethic
Author: Whitney A. Bauman
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231537107
Category: Philosophy
Page: 256
View: 7639
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Moving beyond identity politics while continuing to respect diverse entities and concerns, Whitney A. Bauman builds a planetary politics that better responds to the realities of a pluralistic world. Calling attention to the historical, political, and ecological influences shaping our understanding of nature, religion, humanity, and identity, Bauman collapses the boundaries separating male from female, biology from machine, human from more than human, and religion from science, encouraging readers to embrace hybridity and the inherent fluctuations of an open, evolving global community. As he outlines his planetary ethic, Bauman concurrently develops an environmental ethic of movement that relies not on place but on the daily connections we make across the planet. He shows how both identity politics and environmental ethics fail to realize planetary politics and action, limited as they are by foundational modes of thought that create entire worlds out of their own logic. Introducing a postfoundational vision not rooted in the formal principles of "nature" or "God" and not based in the idea of human exceptionalism, Bauman draws on cutting-edge insights from queer, poststructural, and deconstructive theory and makes a major contribution to the study of religion, science, politics, and ecology.

Beyond Religion

Ethics for a Whole World
Author: Dalai Lama
Publisher: Random House
ISBN: 1446459268
Category: Philosophy
Page: 208
View: 9864
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In 1999 His Holiness The Dalai Lama published the bestselling Ancient Wisdom: Modern World, which addressed the question of ethics for the new millennium. A decade later, His Holiness enters the contemporary debate about religion vs atheism, and returns to the theme of ethics with a major new work: Beyond Religion: ethics for a whole world. In this thought-provoking new book he argues that religion is not a necessity for pursuing a spiritual life. Rather, focusing on tolerance and understanding between religions, as well as tolerance and understanding between believers (of any faith) and non-believers is the way forward. The way to achieve such an approach, he proposes, is through a system of secular ethics grounded in a deep appreciation of our common humanity. Aimed particularly at the general reader, Beyond Religion: ethics for a whole world is a modern-day polemic which outlines those ethics he believes should be central to our lives.

Power, Postcolonialism and International Relations

Reading Race, Gender and Class
Author: Chowdhry Geeta,Sheila Nair
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134486820
Category: History
Page: 340
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"Chowdhry and Nair, along with the authors of this volume, make a timely, vital, and deeply necessary intervention in international relations - one that informs theoretically, enriches our knowledge of the world through its narratives, and forces us to confront the differentiated wholeness of our humanity. Readers will want to emulate the skills and sensibilities they offer.." Naeem Inayatullah, Ithaca College This work uses postcolonial theory to examine the implications of race, class and gender relations for the structuring or world politics. It addresses further themes central to postcolonial theory, such as the impact of representation on power relations, the relationship between global capital and power and the space for resistance and agency in the context of global power asymmetries.

Democracy and Pluralism

The Political Thought of William E. Connolly
Author: Alan Finlayson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113525608X
Category: Philosophy
Page: 264
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William E. Connolly’s political theory forms a distinct and influential contribution to contemporary debates about the nature and prospects of democratic life in the twenty-first century. His original conceptualisations of pluralism, naturalism, the politics of the body, religion, secularism and his daring incorporation of contemporary neurobiology into political theory and analysis, have opened new paths for intellectual enquiry. Connolly has brought an American tradition of pragmatist political thinking into fruitful conversation with the best of contemporary continental European philosophy and given to both a new energy and focus. In this edited collection, a distinguished panel of political theorists from both Europe and the US provide a critical and nuanced assessment of his contribution to the discipline, especially in the field of democratic theory. They identify the sources of Connolly’s work, its connections to other ways of thinking about the political and they evaluate his continuing contribution to our understanding of the problems and promises of the present and to our appreciation of what it might mean to fulfil the promise of the democratic way of life. The final chapter provides space for Connolly himself to reflect on his interlocutors and further develop his conception of a ‘world of becoming’ considering the links between political theory and the science of complexity while focusing on the immediate challenges facing both American and world politics. Democracy and Pluralism provides a critical introduction to the work of William E. Connolly and to contemporary debates in political theory encompassing topics such as radical democracy, the body, religion, time and contingency.

Secularisation

New Historical Perspectives
Author: Christopher Hartney
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1443861200
Category: Religion
Page: 280
View: 5799
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Secularisation: New Historical Perspectives unveils an exciting range of case studies exploring emerging research in secularisation with an international outlook. Inspired by scholarship conducted by the Religious History Association, this collected volume questions the paradigm of secularisation by exploring its historical manifestations and making projections as to the future divide between religious life and the secular world. A must-read for anyone interested in events and personalities that shaped the religious landscape of the present, this volume contains meticulous historical research. It also presents a strong focus on the Southern Hemisphere, which is often largely absent in discussions of secularity. Topics covered here include schisms between secularism and Christianity in Australia and on a global scale; Jesuit frontier missions in Ibero-America; the publically religious displays of the Salvation Army; competition between church life and emerging recreational pursuits at the turn of the century; Joseph Fletcher’s contributions ethical secularity; the privileged place of Christianity within the Queensland educational system; notions of religiously justified violence amongst the ANZAC forces; and the ongoing debate between constitutional secularity and Christian nationhood in the United States of America from its foundation up until the present day. The latter part of the volume explores the secularisation paradigm as a cultural creation in its own right – an important consideration for any scholar in this field. To this end, the authors explore the mythic status of secularisation as a social and historical concept; question the validity of historical approaches to this discourse; explore whether or not definitions of ‘religion’ are too conservative to be workable; and pose the question of whether or not secular institutions like state museums are really what they claim to be. The role of religion in public life is a fascinating question to explore, and one that must be tackled via a truly international exploration of secularisation. So too must the inquisitive scholar consider the very nature of the terms employed in research. Secularisation: New Historical Perspectives is the perfect toolkit for such investigations.

The Politics of Ethnic Diversity in the British Isles


Author: R. Garbaye,P. Schnapper
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137351543
Category: Political Science
Page: 217
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This book explores continuity and change in British multiculturalism. It offers an original perspective on British multiculturalism and also presents an exploration of the politics of ethnic diversity in all the national contexts of the British Isles as well as the United Kingdom.

The Sacred Project of American Sociology


Author: Christian Smith
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199377154
Category: Social Science
Page: 176
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Counter to popular perceptions, contemporary American sociology is and promotes a profoundly sacred project at heart. Sociology today is in fact animated by sacred impulses, driven by sacred commitments, and serves a sacred project. Sociology appears on the surface to be a secular, scientific enterprise--its founding fathers were mostly atheists. Its basic operating premises are secular and naturalistic. Sociologists today are disproportionately not religious, compared to all Americans, and often irreligious. The Sacred Project of American Sociology shows, counter-intuitively, that the secular enterprise that everyday sociology appears to be pursuing is actually not what is really going on at sociology's deepest level. Christian Smith conducts a self-reflexive, tables-turning, cultural and institutional sociology of the profession of American sociology itself, showing that this allegedly secular discipline ironically expresses Emile Durkheim's inescapable sacred, exemplifies its own versions of Marxist false consciousness, and generates a spirited reaction against Max Weber's melancholically observed disenchantment of the world. American sociology does not escape the analytical net that it casts over the rest of the ordinary world. Sociology itself is a part of that very human, very social, often very sacred and spiritual world. And sociology's ironic mis-recognition of its own sacred project leads to a variety of arguably self-destructive and distorting tendencies. This book re-asserts a vision for what sociology is most important for, in contrast with its current commitments, and calls sociologists back to a more honest, fair, and healthy vision of its purpose.

Religion, the Secular, and the Politics of Sexual Difference


Author: Linell E. Cady,Tracy Fessenden
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231536046
Category: Religion
Page: 344
View: 1242
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Global struggles over women's roles, rights, and dress increasingly cast the secular and the religious in tense if not violent opposition. When advocates for equality speak in terms of rights and modern progress, or reactionaries ground their authority in religious and scriptural appeals, both tend to presume women's emancipation is ineluctably tied to secularization. Religion, the Secular, and the Politics of Sexual Difference upsets this certainty by drawing on diverse voices and traditions in studies that historicize, question, and test the implicit links between secularism and expanded freedoms for women. Rather than position secularism as the answer to conflicts over gender and sexuality, this volume shows both religion and the secular collaborate in creating the conditions that generate them.

Religiously Oriented Parties and Democratization


Author: Luca Ozzano,Francesco Cavatorta
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317682394
Category: Political Science
Page: 192
View: 9150
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To the surprise of both academics and policy-makers, religion has not been relegated entirely to the private sphere; quite the contrary. Over the last few decades, religion has begun to play a significant role in public affairs and, in many cases, directly in political systems. This edited volume analyses in detail how religion and religious precepts inform the ideology, strategies and electoral behaviour of political parties. Working with an original and innovative typology of religiously oriented political parties, the book examines cases from different regions of the world and different religious traditions to highlight the significance of religion for party politics. This interest for religiously oriented parties is combined with an interest in processes of democratic change and democratic consolidation. Political parties are central to the success of processes of democratization while religion is seen in many circles as an element that prevents such success because it is perceived to be a polarising factor detrimental to the consensus necessary to build a liberal-democratic system. Through the different case-studies presented here, a much more complex picture emerges, where religiously oriented political parties perform very different and often contradicting roles with respect to democratic change. This book was published as a special issue of Democratization.

Explaining Indian Democracy: A Fifty Year Perspective, 1956-2006

Volume II: The Realm of Institutions: State Formation and Institutional Change
Author: Lloyd I. Rudolph,Susanne Hoeber Rudolph
Publisher: OUP India
ISBN: 9780195693652
Category: Political Science
Page: 358
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These essays reflect the works of the authors over a period of 50 years since their first visit to India in 1956. They re-emphasize the importance of area studies challenging American parochialism in the social sciences. They challenge the use of statistics to identify universal patterns that underlie economic and political systems. 9/11 reinforced the authors' methods and modes of inquiry. It challenged America's parochialism. It reminded America that it was a part of a diverse world and that they did not have the means to grasp its complexities.