Revolutionary Iran

A History of the Islamic Republic
Author: Michael Axworthy
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190468963
Category:
Page: 528
View: 2861
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In Revolutionary Iran, Michael Axworthy guides us through recent Iranian history from shortly before the 1979 Islamic revolution through the summer of 2009, when Iranians poured into the streets of Tehran by the hundreds of thousands, demanding free, democratic government. Axworthy explains how that outpouring of support for an end to tyranny in Iran paused and then moved on to other areas in the region like Egypt and Libya, leaving Iran's leadership unchanged. The Iranian Revolution of 1979 was a defining moment of the modern era. Its success unleashed a wave of Islamist fervor across the Middle East and signaled a sharp decline in the appeal of Western ideologies in the Islamic world. Axworthy takes readers through the major periods in Iranian history over the last thirty years: the overthrow of the old regime and the creation of the new one; the Iran-Iraq war; the reconstruction era following the war; the reformist wave led by Mohammed Khatami; and the present day, in which reactionaries have re-established control. Throughout, he emphasizes that the Iranian revolution was centrally important in modern history because it provided the world with a clear model of development that was not rooted in Western ideologies. Whereas the world's major revolutions of the previous two centuries had been fuelled by Western, secular ideologies, the Iranian Revolution drew its inspiration from Islam. Revolutionary Iran is both richly textured and from one of the leading authorities on the region; combining an expansive scope with the most accessible and definitive account of this epoch in all its humanity.

Revolutionary Iran

A History of the Islamic Republic
Author: Michael Axworthy
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199322279
Category: History
Page: 512
View: 1729
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In Revolutionary Iran, Michael Axworthy guides us through recent Iranian history from shortly before the 1979 Islamic revolution through the summer of 2009, when Iranians poured into the streets of Tehran by the hundreds of thousands, demanding free, democratic government. Axworthy explains how that outpouring of support for an end to tyranny in Iran paused and then moved on to other areas in the region like Egypt and Libya, leaving Iran's leadership unchanged. The Iranian Revolution of 1979 was a defining moment of the modern era. Its success unleashed a wave of Islamist fervor across the Middle East and signaled a sharp decline in the appeal of Western ideologies in the Islamic world. Axworthy takes readers through the major periods in Iranian history over the last thirty years: the overthrow of the old regime and the creation of the new one; the Iran-Iraq war; the reconstruction era following the war; the reformist wave led by Mohammed Khatami; and the present day, in which reactionaries have re-established control. Throughout, he emphasizes that the Iranian revolution was centrally important in modern history because it provided the world with a clear model of development that was not rooted in Western ideologies. Whereas the world's major revolutions of the previous two centuries had been fuelled by Western, secular ideologies, the Iranian Revolution drew its inspiration from Islam. Revolutionary Iran is both richly textured and from one of the leading authorities on the region; combining an expansive scope with the most accessible and definitive account of this epoch in all its humanity.

Revolutionary Iran

A History of the Islamic Republic
Author: Michael Axworthy
Publisher: Allen Lane
ISBN: 0199322260
Category: HISTORY
Page: 496
View: 7876
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The Iranian Revolution of 1979 was a defining moment of the modern era. Its success unleashed a wave of Islamist fervor across the Middle East and signaled a sharp decline in the appeal of Western ideologies in the Islamic world. And the reaction it inspired testified to its importance: aswith the Russian and French revolutions, outsiders tried to crush it in its crib. A year after the mullahs' assumption of power, Iraq, with aid from other Arab states and the US, declared war on Iran. Yet the revolution prevailed, and the Islamic Republic persists to this day. And despite the deeprifts separating Sunnis and Shiites, the regime motivated successive waves of revolutionary Islamism across the entire region, from Afghanistan in the 1980s to Lebanon in the 200s to Egypt to Algeria today. In Revolutionary Iran, Michael Axworthy offers a richly textured and authoritative history of Iran from the 1979 revolution to the present. After an opening section that focuses on the sources of the revolution, Axworthy takes readers through the major periods of the era: the overthrow of the oldregime and the creation of the new one; the Iran-Iraq war; the reconstruction era following the war; the reformist wave led by Mohammed Khatami; and the current era, in which reactionaries have re-established control. Throughout, he emphasizes that the Iranian revolution was centrally important inmodern history because it provided the world with a clear model of development that was not rooted in Western ideologies. Whereas the world's major revolutions of the previous two centuries had been fuelled by Western, secular ideologies, the Iranian Revolution drew its inspiration from Islam. Botherudite and accessible, Revolutionary Iran is the definitive account of this epoch in all its humanity.

Revolutionary Iran

Challenge and Response in the Middle East
Author: R. K. Ramazani
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 9780801836107
Category: History
Page: 331
View: 3555
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Describes the impact of the Iranian Revolution, asseses its goals, and reviews U.S. policy towards the region

The Unthinkable Revolution in Iran


Author: Charles Kurzman
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674039834
Category: History
Page: 304
View: 7296
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The shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, would remain on the throne for the foreseeable future: This was the firm conclusion of a top-secret CIA analysis issued in October 1978. One hundred days later the shah--despite his massive military, fearsome security police, and superpower support was overthrown by a popular and largely peaceful revolution. But the CIA was not alone in its myopia, as Charles Kurzman reveals in this penetrating work; Iranians themselves, except for a tiny minority, considered a revolution inconceivable until it actually occurred. Revisiting the circumstances surrounding the fall of the shah, Kurzman offers rare insight into the nature and evolution of the Iranian revolution and into the ultimate unpredictability of protest movements in general. As one Iranian recalls, "The future was up in the air." Through interviews and eyewitness accounts, declassified security documents and underground pamphlets, Kurzman documents the overwhelming sense of confusion that gripped pre-revolutionary Iran, and that characterizes major protest movements. His book provides a striking picture of the chaotic conditions under which Iranians acted, participating in protest only when they expected others to do so too, the process approaching critical mass in unforeseen and unforeseeable ways. Only when large numbers of Iranians began to "think the unthinkable," in the words of the U.S. ambassador, did revolutionary expectations become a self-fulfilling prophecy. A corrective to 20-20 hindsight, this book reveals shortcomings of analyses that make the Iranian revolution or any major protest movement seem inevitable in retrospect.

Parliamentary Politics in Revolutionary Iran

The Institutionalization of Factional Politics
Author: Bahman Baktiari
Publisher: University Press of Florida
ISBN: 9780813014616
Category: History
Page: 282
View: 7432
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"The first and . . . only extended examination of the politics of the Iranian Majles in the post-revolutionary period."--Gary G. Sick, Columbia University In this first major English-language study of the Iranian parliament, Bahman Baktiari analyzes the intense rivalry between competing factions in the parliament--known as the Majles--and describes the political battles that have set the tone for many of the key policy developments in Iran. He examines how elections are organized, how candidacies are approved, and how the parliament is structured internally. Since the revolution of 1979, the institutionalization of revolutionary politics has led to an assertive parliament as a major force in the Islamic Republic but with turnover ratio of 60 percent, one of the highest in the world. Thus the parliamentary politics described in this book is a microcosm of the wider factional politics in revolutionary Iran today. Incorporating personal interviews with more than sixty members of parliament, primary sources from various research centers in Iran, and first-hand observation of parliamentary deliberations, Baktiari's study illuminates an important dimension of the political evolution of this radical Islamic state. Bahman Baktiari is associate professor of political science at the University of Maine and author of studies in the Iranian Journal of International Affairs, Journal of Middle East and South Asian Studies, and Journal of Church and State.

In the Eye of the Storm

Women in Post-revolutionary Iran
Author: Mahnaz Afkhami,Erika Friedl
Publisher: Syracuse University Press
ISBN: 9780815626336
Category: History
Page: 227
View: 9315
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English in Post-Revolutionary Iran

From Indigenization to Internationalization
Author: Maryam Borjian
Publisher: Multilingual Matters
ISBN: 1847699081
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 189
View: 4105
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This book unravels the story of English, the language of "the enemies", in post-revolutionary Iran. Situating English within the nation's broader social, political, economic and historical contexts, the book explores the politics, causes, and agents of the two diverging trends of indigenization/localization and internationalization/Anglo-Americanization in English education in Iran over the past three decades.

Revolutionary Iran and the United States

Low-intensity Conflict in the Persian Gulf
Author: Joseph J. St. Marie,Shahdad Naghshpour
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317063368
Category: Religion
Page: 214
View: 687
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A unique and major contribution to the scholarly and policy debate on American foreign and economic policy toward the Islamic Republic of Iran. A volume that will be of interest to scholars and policy makers who struggle to understand the complex rivalry between these two nations and wish to analyze the Iranian/American relationship since 1979. Authors frame the conflicted relationship between Iran and the United States as a low intensity conflict, embodying elements of superpower gamesmanship, insurgent tactics and economic warfare. Revolutionary Iran and the United States is unique in its approach by exploring how diplomatic, military, and economic weapons are employed to bolster each nation's strategic and tactical advantage. This analysis encompasses the political, military, and economic facets of the rivalry.

Guardians of the Revolution

Iran and the World in the Age of the Ayatollahs
Author: Ray Takeyh
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199754101
Category: History
Page: 328
View: 5430
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For over a quarter century, Iran has been one of America's chief nemeses. Ever since Ayatollah Khomeini overthrew the Shah in 1979, the relationship between the two nations has been antagonistic: revolutionary guards chanting against the Great Satan, Bush fulminating against the Axis of Evil, Iranian support for Hezbollah, and President Ahmadinejad blaming the U.S. for the world's ills. The unending war of words suggests an intractable divide between Iran and the West, one that may very well lead to a shooting war in the near future. But as Ray Takeyh shows in this accessible and authoritative history of Iran's relations with the world since the revolution, behind the famous personalities and extremist slogans is a nation that is far more pragmatic--and complex--than many in the West have been led to believe. Takeyh explodes many of our simplistic myths of Iran as an intransigently Islamist foe of the West. Tracing the course of Iranian policy since the 1979 revolution, Takeyh identifies four distinct periods: the revolutionary era of the 1980s, the tempered gradualism following the death of Khomeini and the end of the Iran-Iraq war in 1989, the "reformist" period from 1997-2005 under President Khatami, and the shift toward confrontation and radicalism since the election of President Ahmadinejad in 2005. Takeyh shows that three powerful forces--Islamism, pragmatism, and great power pretensions--have competed in each of these periods, and that Iran's often paradoxical policies are in reality a series of compromises between the hardliners and the moderates, often with wild oscillations between pragmatism and ideological dogmatism. The U.S.'s task, Takeyh argues, is to find strategies that address Iran's objectionable behavior without demonizing this key player in an increasingly vital and volatile region. With its clear-sighted grasp of both nuance and historical sweep, Guardians of the Revolution will stand as the standard work on this controversial--and central--actor in world politics for years to come.

The Military in Post-Revolutionary Iran

The Evolution and Roles of the Revolutionary Guards
Author: Hesam Forozan
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317430735
Category: Political Science
Page: 268
View: 3086
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Iran's Revolutionary Guard Corps, also known as the 'Sepah', has wielded considerable and increasing power in Iran in recent decades. Established in 1979 by Ayatollah Khomeini as a paramilitary organisation charged with protecting the nascent Islamic regime and countering the untrustworthy Imperial army (or 'Artesh'), the Sepah has evolved into one of the most powerful political, ideological, military and economic players in Iran over recent years. The Sepah is entrusted with a diverse set of indoctrination apparatus, training programmes and system welfare provisions intended to broaden support for the regime. Although established as a paramilitary organisation, the Sepah developed to have its own ministry, complex bureaucracy and diversified functions, alongside its own network and personnel. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the Sepah and its role. It examines the position of the Sepah in Iranian state and society, explores the nature of the Sepah's involvement in politics, and discusses the impact of the Sepah's political rise on Iran's economy and foreign policy. Contemporary Iran can only be fully understood by an awareness of the ongoing in-fighting among regime factions and increasing popular demands for social change – knowing about the Sepah is central to all this.

Post-Revolutionary Iran


Author: Hooshang Amirahmadi
Publisher: Westview Pr
ISBN: N.A
Category: History
Page: 262
View: 1484
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Days of God

The Revolution in Iran and Its Consequences
Author: James Buchan
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1416597824
Category: History
Page: 432
View: 3891
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A myth-busting insider’s account of the Iranian Revolution of 1979 that destroyed US influence in the country and transformed the politics of the Middle East and the world. The 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran was one of the seminal events of our time. It inaugurated more than thirty years of war in the Middle East and fostered an Islamic radicalism that shapes foreign policy in the United States and Europe to this day. Drawing on his lifetime of engagement with Iran, James Buchan explains the history that gave rise to the Revolution, in which Ayatollah Khomeini and his supporters displaced the Shah with little diffi­culty. Mystifyingly to outsiders, the people of Iran turned their backs on a successful Westernized government for an amateurish religious regime. Buchan dispels myths about the Iranian Revolution and instead assesses the historical forces to which it responded. He puts the extremism of the Islamic regime in perspective: a truly radical revolution, it can be compared to the French or Russian Revolu­tions. Using recently declassified diplomatic papers and Persian-language news reports, diaries, memoirs, interviews, and theological tracts, Buchan illumi­nates both Khomeini and the Shah. His writing is always clear, dispassionate, and informative. The Iranian Revolution was a turning point in modern history, and James Buchan’s Days of God is, as London’s Independent put it, “a compelling, beautifully written history” of that event.

Revolutionary Iran

Civil Society and State in the Modernization Process
Author: Masoud Kamali
Publisher: Ashgate Pub Limited
ISBN: 9781840144499
Category: Political Science
Page: 318
View: 9693
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This work investigates two major political transformations in the modern history of Iran - the constitutional revolution of 1905-1909, and the Islamic revolution of 1976-1979 and their relation to the modernization of Iran this century. This study addresses a core question - why the clergy did not take political power in the constitutional revolution when Iran was a traditional society and the clergy played a leadership role in the revolution, but they succeeded in a much more modern Iran of 1979.

The Turban for the Crown

The Islamic Revolution in Iran
Author: Said Amir Arjomand
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0195042581
Category: Mathematics
Page: 283
View: 894
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Describes the background and causes of the Iranian Revolution, identifies the factors to Khomeini's successful return, and examines the impact of the Revolution

Revolutionary Ride

On the Road to Shiraz, the Heart of Iran
Author: Lois Pryce
Publisher: Nicholas Brealey
ISBN: 1473644895
Category: Travel
Page: 228
View: 7003
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In 2011, at the height of tension between the British and Iranian governments, travel writer Lois Pryce found a note left on her motorcycle outside the Iranian Embassy in London: ... I wish that you will visit Iran so you will see for yourself about my country. WE ARE NOT TERRORISTS!!! Please come to my city, Shiraz. It is very famous as the friendliest city in Iran, it is the city of poetry and gardens and wine!!! Your Persian friend, Habib Intrigued, Lois decides to ignore the official warnings against travel (and the warnings of her friends and family) and sets off alone on a 3,000 mile ride from Tabriz to Shiraz, to try to uncover the heart of this most complex and incongruous country. Along the way, she meets carpet sellers and drug addicts, war veterans and housewives, doctors and teachers - people living ordinary lives under the rule of an extraordinarily strict Islamic government. Revolutionary Ride is the story of a people and a country. Religious and hedonistic, practical and poetic, modern and rooted in tradition - and with a wild sense of humour and appreciation of beauty despite the comparative lack of freedom - this is real contemporary Iran.

Soundtrack of the Revolution

The Politics of Music in Iran
Author: Nahid Siamdoust
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 1503600963
Category: History
Page: 368
View: 3301
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Music was one of the first casualties of the Iranian Revolution. It was banned in 1979, but it quickly crept back into Iranian culture and politics. The state made use of music for its propaganda during the Iran–Iraq war. Over time music provided an important political space where artists and audiences could engage in social and political debate. Now, more than thirty-five years on, both the children of the revolution and their music have come of age. Soundtrack of the Revolution offers a striking account of Iranian culture, politics, and social change to provide an alternative history of the Islamic Republic. Drawing on over five years of research in Iran, including during the 2009 protests, Nahid Siamdoust introduces a full cast of characters, from musicians and audience members to state officials, and takes readers into concert halls and underground performances, as well as the state licensing and censorship offices. She closely follows the work of four musicians—a giant of Persian classical music, a government-supported pop star, a rebel rock-and-roller, and an underground rapper—each with markedly different political views and relations with the Iranian government. Taken together, these examinations of musicians and their music shed light on issues at the heart of debates in Iran—about its future and identity, changing notions of religious belief, and the quest for political freedom. Siamdoust shows that even as state authorities resolve, for now, to allow greater freedoms to Iran's majority young population, they retain control and can punish those who stray too far. But music will continue to offer an opening for debate and defiance. As the 2009 Green Uprising and the 1979 Revolution before it have proven, the invocation of a potent melody or musical verse can unite strangers into a powerful public.

Iran's Revolutionary Guard

The Threat That Grows While America Sleeps
Author: Steven O'Hern
Publisher: Potomac Books, Inc.
ISBN: 1597977012
Category: History
Page: 288
View: 4295
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Since the Iranian Revolution more than thirty years ago, the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC), also known as the Revolutionary Guard, has conducted covert and overt military operations, built an economic empire, and trained, financed, and guided terrorists to pursue one goalùthe preservation and expansion of the Islamic revolution. Inside Iran the IRGC influences the country's politics, economy, and foreign policy, and controls its nuclear program. Outside Iran the operations of the IRGC and its proxies, including Hezbollah in Lebanon and Shiite militias in Iraq, have left a trail of deathùfrom the 1983 truck bombings in Beirut that killed 241 U.S. peacekeepers and 58 French paratroopers to numerous attacks on U.S. (and allied) troops in Iraq and Afghanistan. Now, no longer content to strike in Iraq and Afghanistan or at targets in the Middle East and south Asia, the IRGC and Hezbollah operate throughout North and South America, developing the capability to strike the continental United States and deliver a blow to America's economy far worse than today's financial crisis. In Iran's Revolutionary Guard, Steven O'Hern reveals new information about the IRGC and Hezbollah operations inside America based on interviews with former and active members of the FBI, CIA, local law enforcement, military intelligence, and even one former Revolutionary Guard officer. The author details how the IRGC has grown into such a dangerous foe and explains how its members' activities have put the American economy and American lives at risk. His research suggests that the IRGC may be planning to explode, high above a Midwestern city, a nuclear weapon that would emit an electromagnetic pulse strong enough to render anything with a computer chip useless, including the hundreds of transformers that control the country's electrical grid. One thing is certain, according to O'Hern: the Revolutionary Guard is a serious threat to the well-being of all U.S. citizens.

The Soviet Union and Revolutionary Iran (RLE Iran D)


Author: Aryeh Yodfat
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1136833706
Category: Social Science
Page: 184
View: 2358
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Relations between the USSR and Iran during the period from the overthrow of the Shah and the establishment of the Islamic Republic up to early 1983 are reviewed in this book. It begins with a brief survey of Russian-Persian relations in earlier years, with a focus on the developments that served as a background to the current events. It examines Soviet attitudes and reactions to Iran’s foreign and internal policy and highlights the way in which the Soviets often raise events of which they do not approve in order to draw Iran closer to them. In particular, the book discusses the Soviet response to the Iran-Iraq war and the position of the Tudeh Party and the other leftists within Iran. Iran’s policy towards the USSR is treated at length and it is shown that it is suspicious of a tacit USA-USSR agreement over the fate of Iran. Khomeini’s attempts to isolate Iran from both East and West are also reviewed. This book was one of the first to discuss this crucial dimension in Middle East politics and it makes a significant contribution to our understanding of the forces driving the Iranian Revolution.

The Iranian Revolution


Author: Brendan January
Publisher: Twenty-First Century Books
ISBN: 0822575213
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
Page: 160
View: 9956
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Examines how the Iranian Revolution became a showdown between the ideas and values of Islam and those of the West and how it recast the face of the Middle East.