Revolutionary Iran

A History of the Islamic Republic
Author: Michael Axworthy
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190468963
Page: 528
View: 7113
In Revolutionary Iran, Michael Axworthy guides us through recent Iranian history from shortly before the 1979 Islamic revolution through the summer of 2009, when Iranians poured into the streets of Tehran by the hundreds of thousands, demanding free, democratic government. Axworthy explains how that outpouring of support for an end to tyranny in Iran paused and then moved on to other areas in the region like Egypt and Libya, leaving Iran's leadership unchanged. The Iranian Revolution of 1979 was a defining moment of the modern era. Its success unleashed a wave of Islamist fervor across the Middle East and signaled a sharp decline in the appeal of Western ideologies in the Islamic world. Axworthy takes readers through the major periods in Iranian history over the last thirty years: the overthrow of the old regime and the creation of the new one; the Iran-Iraq war; the reconstruction era following the war; the reformist wave led by Mohammed Khatami; and the present day, in which reactionaries have re-established control. Throughout, he emphasizes that the Iranian revolution was centrally important in modern history because it provided the world with a clear model of development that was not rooted in Western ideologies. Whereas the world's major revolutions of the previous two centuries had been fuelled by Western, secular ideologies, the Iranian Revolution drew its inspiration from Islam. Revolutionary Iran is both richly textured and from one of the leading authorities on the region; combining an expansive scope with the most accessible and definitive account of this epoch in all its humanity.

English in Post-Revolutionary Iran

From Indigenization to Internationalization
Author: Maryam Borjian
Publisher: Multilingual Matters
ISBN: 1847699081
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 189
View: 9257
This book unravels the story of English, the language of "the enemies", in post-revolutionary Iran. Situating English within the nation's broader social, political, economic and historical contexts, the book explores the politics, causes, and agents of the two diverging trends of indigenization/localization and internationalization/Anglo-Americanization in English education in Iran over the past three decades.

Revolutionary Iran

Challenge and Response in the Middle East
Author: R. K. Ramazani
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 9780801836107
Category: History
Page: 331
View: 2856
Describes the impact of the Iranian Revolution, asseses its goals, and reviews U.S. policy towards the region

Revolutionary Iran and the United States

Low-intensity Conflict in the Persian Gulf
Author: Joseph J. St. Marie,Shahdad Naghshpour
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317063368
Category: Religion
Page: 214
View: 7355
A unique and major contribution to the scholarly and policy debate on American foreign and economic policy toward the Islamic Republic of Iran. A volume that will be of interest to scholars and policy makers who struggle to understand the complex rivalry between these two nations and wish to analyze the Iranian/American relationship since 1979. Authors frame the conflicted relationship between Iran and the United States as a low intensity conflict, embodying elements of superpower gamesmanship, insurgent tactics and economic warfare. Revolutionary Iran and the United States is unique in its approach by exploring how diplomatic, military, and economic weapons are employed to bolster each nation's strategic and tactical advantage. This analysis encompasses the political, military, and economic facets of the rivalry.

Revolutionary Iran

Civil Society and State in the Modernization Process
Author: Masoud Kamali
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0429824998
Category: Political Science
Page: 318
View: 9979
First published in 1998, Revolutionary Iran investigates two major political transformations in the modern history of Iran: the Constitutional Revolution of 1905-09 and the Islamic Revolution 1976-79 and their relation to the modernization of Iran in this century. It addresses a core question: Why did the clergy not take political power in the Constitutional Revolution when Iran was a traditional society and they played a key leadership role in the revolution; yet they succeeded in the more modern Iran of 1979. Characterization of socio-economic relationships between the two major influential groups of civil society in Iran and their role in political transformation is considered central for answering such a question. The book deals with revolution in terms of relationships between civil society and state; which, it is argued, are central to analysing and understanding modern movements in Iran and other Islamic countries. The major contribution of the book can be summarized as follows: It identifies a socio-political division of power and influence between state and civil society during a long period of Iran’s Islamic history as the key theoretical basis for understanding modern transformations of Iranian society. Such a division has, so far, been largely ignored. It explores the clergy and bazaris as the social basis of civil society in Iran, and challenges Gellner’s viewpoint that an Islamic civil society is an impossibility. It argues that the modernization of religion and the creation of modern political theories by the clergy were both crucial means for defeating a modern authoritarian state and seizing political power. It identifies the main social group without whom the Islamic Revolution of Iran would not have achieved political victory, i.e., the dispossessed. It presents a theoretical basis for analysing and understanding new Islamic movements in the Islamic world.

The Unthinkable Revolution in Iran

Author: Charles Kurzman
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674039834
Category: History
Page: 304
View: 3280
The shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, would remain on the throne for the foreseeable future: This was the firm conclusion of a top-secret CIA analysis issued in October 1978. One hundred days later the shah--despite his massive military, fearsome security police, and superpower support was overthrown by a popular and largely peaceful revolution. But the CIA was not alone in its myopia, as Charles Kurzman reveals in this penetrating work; Iranians themselves, except for a tiny minority, considered a revolution inconceivable until it actually occurred. Revisiting the circumstances surrounding the fall of the shah, Kurzman offers rare insight into the nature and evolution of the Iranian revolution and into the ultimate unpredictability of protest movements in general. As one Iranian recalls, "The future was up in the air." Through interviews and eyewitness accounts, declassified security documents and underground pamphlets, Kurzman documents the overwhelming sense of confusion that gripped pre-revolutionary Iran, and that characterizes major protest movements. His book provides a striking picture of the chaotic conditions under which Iranians acted, participating in protest only when they expected others to do so too, the process approaching critical mass in unforeseen and unforeseeable ways. Only when large numbers of Iranians began to "think the unthinkable," in the words of the U.S. ambassador, did revolutionary expectations become a self-fulfilling prophecy. A corrective to 20-20 hindsight, this book reveals shortcomings of analyses that make the Iranian revolution or any major protest movement seem inevitable in retrospect.

The Soviet Union and Revolutionary Iran (RLE Iran D)

Author: Aryeh Yodfat
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1136833706
Category: Social Science
Page: 184
View: 2074
Relations between the USSR and Iran during the period from the overthrow of the Shah and the establishment of the Islamic Republic up to early 1983 are reviewed in this book. It begins with a brief survey of Russian-Persian relations in earlier years, with a focus on the developments that served as a background to the current events. It examines Soviet attitudes and reactions to Iran’s foreign and internal policy and highlights the way in which the Soviets often raise events of which they do not approve in order to draw Iran closer to them. In particular, the book discusses the Soviet response to the Iran-Iraq war and the position of the Tudeh Party and the other leftists within Iran. Iran’s policy towards the USSR is treated at length and it is shown that it is suspicious of a tacit USA-USSR agreement over the fate of Iran. Khomeini’s attempts to isolate Iran from both East and West are also reviewed. This book was one of the first to discuss this crucial dimension in Middle East politics and it makes a significant contribution to our understanding of the forces driving the Iranian Revolution.

In the Eye of the Storm

Women in Post-revolutionary Iran
Author: Mahnaz Afkhami,Erika Friedl
Publisher: Syracuse University Press
ISBN: 9780815626336
Category: History
Page: 227
View: 2593

Post-Revolutionary Iran

Author: Hooshang Amirahmadi
Publisher: Westview Pr
Category: History
Page: 262
View: 5860

The Military in Post-Revolutionary Iran

The Evolution and Roles of the Revolutionary Guards
Author: Hesam Forozan
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317430743
Category: Political Science
Page: 256
View: 5506
Iran's Revolutionary Guard Corps, also known as the 'Sepah', has wielded considerable and increasing power in Iran in recent decades. Established in 1979 by Ayatollah Khomeini as a paramilitary organisation charged with protecting the nascent Islamic regime and countering the untrustworthy Imperial army (or 'Artesh'), the Sepah has evolved into one of the most powerful political, ideological, military and economic players in Iran over recent years. The Sepah is entrusted with a diverse set of indoctrination apparatus, training programmes and system welfare provisions intended to broaden support for the regime. Although established as a paramilitary organisation, the Sepah developed to have its own ministry, complex bureaucracy and diversified functions, alongside its own network and personnel. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the Sepah and its role. It examines the position of the Sepah in Iranian state and society, explores the nature of the Sepah's involvement in politics, and discusses the impact of the Sepah's political rise on Iran's economy and foreign policy. Contemporary Iran can only be fully understood by an awareness of the ongoing in-fighting among regime factions and increasing popular demands for social change – knowing about the Sepah is central to all this.

World View in Pre-revolutionary Iran

Literary Analysis of Five Iranian Authors in the Context of the History of Ideas
Author: Claus V. Pedersen
Publisher: Otto Harrassowitz Verlag
ISBN: 9783447045698
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 221
View: 398
The Iranian revolution of 1978-1979 and its transformation into an Islamic revolution has been an object of study the last couple of decades. The book does not attempt to explain the revolution and the theocrasy it resulted in, but takes interest in the modes of thought (world views) that preceded the revolution in order to understand the cultural context in which the revolution happened. However, only a limited part of the Iranian culture is studied, namely the literary part, more precisely, five of the leading shortstory writers, Seyyed Mohammad Al Jamalzadeh, Sadeq Hedayat Sadeq Chubak, Jamal A-le Ahmad, and Hu?ang Gol?hiri. The analyses of the short stories show that the underlying world views are strictly secular. As a contextualisation of the literary works, four Iranian thinkers and ideologists, Jamal al-Din Afghani (1838-1897), Ahmad Kasravi (1890-1946), Seyyed Hoseyn Nasr (b. 1933), and Ali ?hariati (1933-1977) are presented. With Seyyed Hoseyn Nasr as an exception, the study of the world views of these four shows a development towards secular modes of thought.

The Turban for the Crown

The Islamic Revolution in Iran
Author: Said Amir Arjomand
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0195042581
Category: Mathematics
Page: 283
View: 4522
Describes the background and causes of the Iranian Revolution, identifies the factors to Khomeini's successful return, and examines the impact of the Revolution

Politics of Confrontation

The Foreign Policy of the USA and Revolutionary Iran
Author: Babak Ganji
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857715755
Category: Political Science
Page: 328
View: 8659
Did the United States know more than it acknowledges about growing unrest under the Shah in mid-1970s Iran? Have historians of American-Iranian relations focused too narrowly on prevailing historical theory and personal recollection? In a period of escalating tension between the United States and Iran, what can the two nations’ history of conflict tell us about their diplomatic future? Covering Carter’s policy from the end of the Shah’s reign to the revolution under Ayatollah Khomeini, Babak Ganji explores the nature of their perpetually antagonistic relations and the mistrust and misunderstanding that fuels it. Politics of Confrontation is a penetrating critique of international relations theory within the historical framework of US-Iranian relations, as well as a thorough examination of American policy towards Iran. It is the first in-depth look at documents seized by revolutionary students from the American Embassy during the infamous hostage crisis, and debunks the myth that US officials were unaware of the nature of opposition to the Shah or of Soviet influence on senior clerics. These findings are an essential addition to the discourse of foreign policy theorists and invaluable for historians of the US, Iran and the Cold War.

Political Islam in Post-Revolutionary Iran

Shi'i Ideologies in Islamist Discourse
Author: Majid Mohammadi
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857736787
Category: Political Science
Page: 336
View: 7409
In the wake of the Iranian Revolution of 1978/79, the regime that took power sought to establish a form of government modelled on a particular understanding of political Islam. And since this revolution, Shi‘i Islam has been used in various ways to justify political activity, both by those in government and those in opposition. As a result, outsiders often see ‘Islamist ideology’ in Iran as a monolith: unchanging and uniform. But as Majid Mohammadi shows in this book, the field of Islamist discourse is actually extremely wide, varied and in constant flux. By charting the central concepts and nuances of the ideological map of post-revolutionary Iran, he demonstrates how Iranian clerics, religious and secular intellectuals, and political theoreticians and activists have responded to cultural, political and social transformations since the revolution. With analysis of key thinkers such as Ali Shari’ati, Ayatollah Khomeini, Mohammad Taqi Mesbah Yazdi and Abdolkarim Soroush, this book is a comprehensive account of the diversity of Islamist ideologies in Iran, and how they interact with political reality.

State and Rural Development in the Post-Revolutionary Iran

Author: A. Shakoori
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230513433
Category: Social Science
Page: 217
View: 2348
Rural reform policy has been an important part of the government policy in post-revolutionary Iran. This book seeks to examine the post-revolutionary rural policies and their socio-economic impact on rural people. After reviewing the main debates on rural development literature and providing the historical background of agrarian change in the pre-revolutionary era, it examines the post-revolutionary rural reforms in separate parts: the effects of the government agricultural policies on agricultural performance and the post-revolutionary reorganisational policies and the impact of rural strategies on the socio-economy of the rural life at village level.

Flight of the Patriot

Escape from Revolutionary Iran
Author: Yadollah Sharifirad
ISBN: 0887628184
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 320
View: 4008
A gripping account of an Iranian fighter pilot’s daring escape to Canada from Iran.

The political economy of revolutionary Iran

Author: Mihssen Kadhim
Publisher: N.A
Category: Iran
Page: 91
View: 426

Iran After the Revolution

Crisis of an Islamic State
Author: Saeed Rahnema,Sohrab Behdad
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 9781860641282
Category: History
Page: 292
View: 9652
In this work writers on Iran explore the ideological and political divisions within the Islamic movement and explain the post-revolutionary period in terms of economic policy, education, attitudes to women, and national and religious policies.

Parliamentary Politics in Revolutionary Iran

The Institutionalization of Factional Politics
Author: Bahman Baktiari
Publisher: University Press of Florida
ISBN: 9780813014616
Category: History
Page: 282
View: 7322
"The first and . . . only extended examination of the politics of the Iranian Majles in the post-revolutionary period."--Gary G. Sick, Columbia University In this first major English-language study of the Iranian parliament, Bahman Baktiari analyzes the intense rivalry between competing factions in the parliament--known as the Majles--and describes the political battles that have set the tone for many of the key policy developments in Iran. He examines how elections are organized, how candidacies are approved, and how the parliament is structured internally. Since the revolution of 1979, the institutionalization of revolutionary politics has led to an assertive parliament as a major force in the Islamic Republic but with turnover ratio of 60 percent, one of the highest in the world. Thus the parliamentary politics described in this book is a microcosm of the wider factional politics in revolutionary Iran today. Incorporating personal interviews with more than sixty members of parliament, primary sources from various research centers in Iran, and first-hand observation of parliamentary deliberations, Baktiari's study illuminates an important dimension of the political evolution of this radical Islamic state. Bahman Baktiari is associate professor of political science at the University of Maine and author of studies in the Iranian Journal of International Affairs, Journal of Middle East and South Asian Studies, and Journal of Church and State.

Journey from the Land of No

A Girlhood Caught in Revolutionary Iran
Author: Roya Hakakian
Publisher: Crown
ISBN: 9780307421142
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 272
View: 3781
“We stormed every classroom, inscribed our slogans on the blackboard . . . Never had mayhem brought more peace. All our lives we had been taught the virtues of behaving, and now we were discovering the importance of misbehaving. Too much fear had tainted our days. Too many afternoons had passed in silence, listening to a fanatic’s diatribes. We were rebelling because we were not evil, we had not sinned, and we knew nothing of the apocalypse. . . . This was 1979, the year that showed us we could make our own destinies. We were rebelling because rebelling was all we could do to quell the rage in our teenage veins. Together as girls we found the courage we had been told was not in us.” In Journey from the Land of No Roya Hakakian recalls her childhood and adolescence in prerevolutionary Iran with candor and verve. The result is a beautifully written coming-of-age story about one deeply intelligent and perceptive girl’s attempt to find an authentic voice of her own at a time of cultural closing and repression. Remarkably, she manages to re-create a time and place dominated by religious fanaticism, violence, and fear with an open heart and often with great humor. Hakakian was twelve years old in 1979 when the revolution swept through Tehran. The daughter of an esteemed poet, she grew up in a household that hummed with intellectual life. Family gatherings were punctuated by witty, satirical exchanges and spontaneous recitations of poetry. But the Hakakians were also part of the very small Jewish population in Iran who witnessed the iron fist of the Islamic fundamentalists increasingly tightening its grip. It is with the innocent confusion of youth that Roya describes her discovery of a swastika—“a plus sign gone awry, a dark reptile with four hungry claws”—painted on the wall near her home. As a schoolgirl she watched as friends accused of reading blasphemous books were escorted from class by Islamic Society guards, never to return. Only much later did Roya learn that she was spared a similar fate because her teacher admired her writing. Hakakian relates in the most poignant, and at times painful, ways what life was like for women after the country fell into the hands of Islamic fundamentalists who had declared an insidious war against them, but we see it all through the eyes of a strong, youthful optimist who somehow came up in the world believing that she was different, knowing she was special. At her loneliest, Roya discovers the consolations of writing while sitting on the rooftop of her house late at night. There, “pen in hand, I led my own chorus of words, with a melody of my own making.” And she discovers the craft that would ultimately enable her to find her own voice and become her own person. A wonderfully evocative story, Journey from the Land of No reveals an Iran most readers have not encountered and marks the debut of a stunning new talent. From the Hardcover edition.