Settlement and Subsistence in Early Formative Soconusco

El Varal and the Problem of Inter-site Assemblage Variation
Author: Richard G. Lesure
Publisher: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology
ISBN: 9781931745796
Category: History
Page: 292
View: 6115
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This volume volume sets archaeological excavations at a special-propose estuary site in coastal Chiapas, Mexico, into the larger anthropological context of the origins of agriculture and sedentary life in ancient Mesoamerica.

Early Mesoamerican Social Transformations

Archaic and Formative Lifeways in the Soconusco Region
Author: Richard G. Lesure
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520268997
Category: Social Science
Page: 290
View: 955
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"Data and interpretations generated from the Soconusco are critical but often fail to inform larger debates in Mesoamerica as frequently as they should. This book remedies that situation; it will be of interest to all Mesoamericanists who work on the Archaic and Formative periods."--Jeffrey P. Blomster, editor of After Monte Alban: Transformation and Negotiation in Oaxaca, Mexico "This volume will be crucial to our understanding of the origins of civilization in Mesoamerica. Its interpretations are innovative and present a wealth of new research on an early time period from a very important region. Its importance cannot be underestimated."--Terry G. Powis, Department of Anthropology, Kennesaw State University

Latin American Antiquity

A Journal of the Society for American Archaeology
Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Indians of Central America
Page: N.A
View: 2434
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Interpreting Ancient Figurines

Context, Comparison, and Prehistoric Art
Author: Richard G. Lesure
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139496158
Category: Social Science
Page: N.A
View: 7546
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This book examines ancient figurines from several world areas to address recurring challenges in the interpretation of prehistoric art. Sometimes figurines from one context are perceived to resemble those from another. Richard G. Lesure asks whether such resemblances play a role in our interpretations. Early interpreters seized on the idea that figurines were recurringly female and constructed the fanciful myth of a primordial Neolithic Goddess. Contemporary practice instead rejects interpretive leaps across contexts. Dr Lesure offers a middle path: a new framework for assessing the relevance of particular comparisons. He develops the argument in case studies that consider figurines from Paleolithic Europe, the Neolithic Near East and Formative Mesoamerica.

From Foraging to Farming in the Andes

New Perspectives on Food Production and Social Organization
Author: Tom D. Dillehay
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139495631
Category: Social Science
Page: N.A
View: 6294
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Archeologists have always considered the beginnings of Andean civilization from c.13,000 to 6,000 years ago to be important in terms of the appearance of domesticated plants and animals, social differentiation, and a sedentary lifestyle, but there is more to this period than just these developments. During this period, the spread of crop production and other technologies, kinship-based labor projects, mound-building, and population aggregation formed ever-changing conditions across the Andes. From Foraging to Farming in the Andes proposes a new and more complex model for understanding the transition from hunting and gathering to cultivation. It argues that such developments evolved regionally, were fluid and uneven, and were subject to reversal. This book develops these arguments from a large body of archaeological evidence, collected over 30 years in two valleys in northern Peru, and then places the valleys in the context of recent scholarship studying similar developments around the world.

The Early Olmec and Mesoamerica

The Material Record
Author: Jeffrey P. Blomster,David Cheetham
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316943062
Category: Social Science
Page: N.A
View: 1505
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The Early Formative Olmec are central in a wide variety of debates regarding the development of Mesoamerican societies. A fundamental issue in Olmec archaeology is the nature of interregional interaction among contemporaneous societies and the possible Olmec role in it. Previous debates have often not been informed by recent research and data, often relying on materials lacking archaeological context. In order to approach these issues from new perspectives, this book introduces readers to the full spectrum of the material culture of the Olmec and their contemporaries, relying primarily on archaeological data, much of which has not been previously published. For the first time, using a standard lexicon to consider the nature of the interaction among Early Formative societies, the authors, experts in diverse regions of Mesoamerican art and archaeology, provide carefully considered contrasts and comparisons that advance the understanding of the Early Formative origins of social complexity in Mesoamerica.

Ethnicity in Ancient Amazonia

Reconstructing Past Identities from Archaeology, Linguistics, and Ethnohistory
Author: Alf Hornborg,Jonathan D. Hill
Publisher: University Press of Colorado
ISBN: 1607320959
Category: Social Science
Page: 380
View: 7438
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A transdisciplinary collaboration among ethnologists, linguists, and archaeologists, Ethnicity in Ancient Amazonia traces the emergence, expansion, and decline of cultural identities in indigenous Amazonia. Hornborg and Hill argue that the tendency to link language, culture, and biology--essentialist notions of ethnic identities--is a Eurocentric bias that has characterized largely inaccurate explanations of the distribution of ethnic groups and languages in Amazonia. The evidence, however, suggests a much more fluid relationship among geography, language use, ethnic identity, and genetics. In Ethnicity in Ancient Amazonia, leading linguists, ethnographers, ethnohistorians, and archaeologists interpret their research from a unique nonessentialist perspective to form a more accurate picture of the ethnolinguistic diversity in this area. Revealing how ethnic identity construction is constantly in flux, contributors show how such processes can be traced through different ethnic markers such as pottery styles and languages. Scholars and students studying lowland South America will be especially interested, as will anthropologists intrigued by its cutting-edge, interdisciplinary approach.

Palaces and Power in the Americas

From Peru to the Northwest Coast
Author: Jessica Joyce Christie,Patricia Joan Sarro
Publisher: University of Texas Press
ISBN: 0292782616
Category: Social Science
Page: 432
View: 2452
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Ancient American palaces still captivate those who stand before them. Even in their fallen and ruined condition, the palaces project such power that, according to the editors of this new collection, it must have been deliberately drawn into their formal designs, spatial layouts, and choice of locations. Such messages separated palaces from other elite architecture and reinforced the power and privilege of those residing in them. Indeed, as Christie and Sarro write, "the relation between political power and architecture is a pervasive and intriguing theme in the Americas." Given the variety of cultures, time periods, and geographical locations examined within, the editors of this book have grouped the articles into four sections. The first looks at palaces in cultures where they have not previously been identified, including the Huaca of Moche Site, the Wari of Peru, and Chaco Canyon in the U.S. Southwest. The second section discusses palaces as "stage sets" that express power, such as those found among the Maya, among the Coast Salish of the Pacific Northwest, and at El Tajín on the Mexican Gulf Coast. The third part of the volume presents cases in which differences in elite residences imply differences in social status, with examples from Pasado de la Amada, the Valley of Oaxaca, Teotihuacan, and the Aztecs. The final section compares architectural strategies between cultures; the models here are Farfán, Peru, under both the Chimú and the Inka, and the separate states of the Maya and the Inka. Such scope, and the quality of the scholarship, make Palaces and Power in the Americas a must-have work on the subject.

Maya Zooarchaeology

New Directions in Method and Theory
Author: Kitty F. Emery
Publisher: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology
ISBN: 9781931745130
Category: Social Science
Page: 310
View: 9465
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Maya Zooarchaeology: New Directions in Method and Theory, edited by Kitty F. Emery, explores the latest research on the complex relationship between the ancient Maya and their animal neighbors. This comprehensive work combines fundamental zooarchaeological data from sites across the Maya world with critical histories and state-of-the-art summaries of the modern methods and theoretical perspectives of Maya zooarchaeology. The contributing authors emphasize new developments in technical methods, recent trends in Mesoamerican "social zooarchaeology," and new interpretations enhanced by the regional scope of modern zooarchaeological investigations in the Maya world. The volume fosters cooperation among Mesoamerican zooarchaeologists and archaeologists, from first recovery and analysis through final theoretical reconstruction.

The Beginnings of Mesoamerican Civilization

Inter-Regional Interaction and the Olmec
Author: Robert M. Rosenswig
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521111021
Category: History
Page: 374
View: 7824
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Rosenswig proposes that we understand Early Formative Mesoamerica as an archipelago of complex societies.

The Offerings of the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan


Author: Leonardo López Luján
Publisher: UNM Press
ISBN: 9780826329585
Category: History
Page: 421
View: 5085
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Between 1325 and 1521, the Mexica people of the Aztec capital ritually buried hundreds of offerings to their gods in the depths of the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan, where for more than five hundred years these gifts lay undiscovered. In complex religious ceremonies, sacred messages to the gods were expressed not only through these objects but through their exact and symbolic placement as well. In this revised edition ofThe Offerings of the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan, Leonardo López Luján shares and synthesizes the spectacular findings of the historic Templo Mayor Project, which took place in the heart of Mexico City from 1978 to 1997. Archaeologists found an astonishing array of items including masks, jewelry, skeletal remains of jaguars and alligators, statues of gods, precious stones, human remains, and countless objects from the oceans. López Luján's aim was to decipher the offerings' religious significance and explain the profound associations between the unearthed materials and ritual behavior. In doing so he relied on diverse data and several analytical techniques to determine such things as the exact date when the offerings were buried, the gods to whom they were dedicated, the festivals in which the gifts were made, and the meanings of the materials and their spatial distribution. The first edition ofThe Offerings of the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlanwas named "Outstanding Academic Book" byChoiceand received the Eugene M. Kayden Humanities Award.

Image and Imagination

A Global Prehistory of Figurative Representation
Author: Colin Renfrew,Iain Morley
Publisher: McDonald Inst of Archeological
ISBN: N.A
Category: Art
Page: 346
View: 8078
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The dawn of art is sometimes equated with the birth of the human spirit. But when and how did figuration - sculpture, painting, drawing - actually begin? And did these first figurative creations coincide with the emergence of our own species, Homo sapiens ? Is figuration a general and fundamental feature of the human condition? In this challenging volume leading experts review the evidence now available from the worldwide practice of prehistoric archaeology, and go on to formulate some important conclusions. The scope of this work is global. It sets out to explore the first stirrings of artistic endeavour and of figurative imagery on each continent, and to consider the social context in which they arose. It will be a fundamental resource for all those seeking to understand the origins of art and the beginnings of human spirituality.

Biological Diversity

Frontiers in Measurement and Assessment
Author: Anne E. Magurran,Brian J. McGill
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199580669
Category: Mathematics
Page: 345
View: 1484
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This research level text provides an up-to-date, authoritative review of the methods of measuring biological diversity, as well as the application of these methods.

Inca Rituals and Sacred Mountains

A Study of the World's Highest Archaeological Sites
Author: Johan Reinhard,María Constanza Ceruti
Publisher: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology
ISBN: N.A
Category: History
Page: 264
View: 3051
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The Incas carried out some of the most dramatic ceremonies known to us from ancient times. Groups of people walked hundreds of miles across arid and mountainous terrain to perform them on mountains over 6,096 m (20,000 feet) high. The most important offerings made during these pilgrimages involved human sacrifices (capacochas). Although Spanish chroniclers wrote about these offerings and the state sponsored processions of which they were a part, their accounts were based on second-hand sources, and the only direct evidence we have of the capacocha sacrifices comes to us from archaeological excavations. Some of the most thoroughly documented of these were undertaken on high mountain summits, where the material evidence has been exceptionally well preserved. In this study we describe the results of research undertaken on Mount Llullaillaco (6,739 m/22,109 feet), which has the world's highest archaeological site. The types of ruins and artifact assemblages recovered are described and analyzed. By comparing the archaeological evidence with the chroniclers' accounts and with findings from other mountaintop sites, common patterns are demonstrated; while at the same time previously little known elements contribute to our understanding of key aspects of Inca religion. This study illustrates the importance of archaeological sites being placed within the broader context of physical and sacred features of the natural landscape.

Stories in Red and Black

Pictorial Histories of the Aztecs and Mixtecs
Author: Elizabeth Hill Boone
Publisher: University of Texas Press
ISBN: 0292783124
Category: Social Science
Page: 312
View: 5742
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The Aztecs and Mixtecs of ancient Mexico recorded their histories pictorially in images painted on hide, paper, and cloth. The tradition of painting history continued even after the Spanish Conquest, as the Spaniards accepted the pictorial histories as valid records of the past. Five Pre-Columbian and some 150 early colonial painted histories survive today. This copiously illustrated book offers the first comprehensive analysis of the Mexican painted history as an intellectual, documentary, and pictorial genre. Elizabeth Hill Boone explores how the Mexican historians conceptualized and painted their past and introduces the major pictorial records: the Aztec annals and cartographic histories and the Mixtec screenfolds and lienzos. Boone focuses her analysis on the kinds of stories told in the histories and on how the manuscripts work pictorially to encode, organize, and preserve these narratives. This twofold investigation broadens our understanding of how preconquest Mexicans used pictographic history for political and social ends. It also demonstrates how graphic writing systems created a broadly understood visual "language" that communicated effectively across ethnic and linguistic boundaries.

Primeros Memoriales


Author: Bernardino de Sahagún,Henry B. Nicholson
Publisher: University of Oklahoma Press
ISBN: 9780806129099
Category: Social Science
Page: 334
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Primeros Memoriales is here published for the first time in its entirety both in the original Nahuatl and in English translation. The volume follows the manuscript order reconstructed for the Primeros Memoriales by Francisco del Paso y Troncoso in his 1905-1907 facsimile edition of the collection of Sahaguntine manuscripts he called Codices Matritenses. During the 1960s, Thelma D. Sullivan, a Nahuatl scholar living in Mexico, began a paleographic transcription of the Primeros Memoriales, along with an English translation. After Sullivan's death in 1981, a group of her colleagues finished, enlarged, and annotated her project. This long-awaited publication makes available to specialists and interested laypersons alike an invaluable portion of the remarkable Sahaguntine treasure of information on sixteenth-century Aztec society.

The Aztec Templo Mayor

A Symposium at Dumbarton Oaks, 8th and 9th October 1983
Author: Elizabeth Hill Boone
Publisher: Dumbarton Oaks
ISBN: 9780884021490
Category: History
Page: 513
View: 2472
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Pacific Latin America in Prehistory

The Evolution of Archaic and Formative Cultures
Author: Michael Blake
Publisher: Washington State University Press
ISBN: N.A
Category: History
Page: 223
View: 2535
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"A remarkable range of ancient societies and economies flourished in the environmentally diverse coastal regions of Pacific Latin America. This first ever synthesis from a Pacific perspective describes the archaeological investigations recently undertaken in the coastal littoral. Studying the similarities, and the many differences, of these varied prehistoric cultures can help us understand some central issues in archaeology - to what extent were cultural variations caused by different historical traditions, environmental conditions, and interactions with neighboring peoples, and how do civilizations arise?" "In this volume, specialists explain their latest findings in terms of archaic period adaptations, the development and spread of agriculture, the beginnings of sedentism, the formative periods of civilization, and the origins of socio-political inequality. The essays report on archaeological research in southern Mexico, Guatemala, Panama, Ecuador, and Peru - an area extending from the Marismas region of coastal Mexico to Chile's north coast."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Images in Action

The Southern Andean Iconographic Series
Author: William H. Isbell,Mauricio I. Uribe,Anne Tiballi,Edward P. Zegarra
Publisher: Cotsen Advanced Seminars
ISBN: 9781938770142
Category: History
Page: 812
View: 5453
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Emanating from a colloquium in pre-Columbian art and archaeology held at the University of Chile in Santiago, Images in Action presents interpretations of a large corpus of art and iconography from the Southern and South-Central Andes, bringing together some of the most esteemed scholars in the field. More than thirty authors, all with extensive experience in the Southern Andes, examine artifacts, artworks, textiles, archaeology and architecture to develop creative new insights on the cultural interactions between people in prehistoric western South America. The volume's nearly 700 images are archived in an online database with metadata, fully referenced in the text, and searchable.

Tangatatau Rockshelter

The Evolution of an Eastern Polynesian Socio-ecosystem
Author: Patrick Vinton Kirch
Publisher: Monumenta Archaeologica
ISBN: 9781938770104
Category: History
Page: 348
View: 2395
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Tangatatau Rockshelter on Mangaia Island (Southern Cook Islands), excavated by a multi-disciplinary team in 1989-1991, produced one of the richest stratigraphic sequences of artifacts, faunal assemblages, and archaeobotanical materials in Eastern Polynesia. More than 70 radiocarbon dates provide a tight chronology from AD 1000 to European contact (ca. 1800). The faunal assemblage provides compelling evidence for dramatic reductions in indigenous bird life following Polynesian colonization, one of the best documented cases for human-induced impacts on island biota. Tangatatau is unique among Polynesian archaeological sites in the extent to which fishing was dominated by freshwater fishes and eels. The site also yielded an extensive suite of carbonized plant materials, including sweet potato tubers, demonstrating that this South American domesticate had reached Eastern Polynesia by AD 1400. Mangaia illustrates the often far-reaching consequences of human land use and resource exploitation on small and vulnerable islands.