Social Origins of the Iranian Revolution


Author: Misagh Parsa
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
ISBN: 9780813514123
Category: History
Page: 348
View: 9684
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Dynamics of the Iranian Revolution

The Pahlavis' Triumph and Tragedy
Author: Jahangir Amuzegar
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 9780791407318
Category: History
Page: 355
View: 6498
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Going back to the turn of the century, this book offers a cogent analysis and an objective assessment of the origins and dimensions of the 1979 Iranian Revolution. It reassesses the narrowly focused post-revolution explanations, as it traces the fate of the Pahlavi dynasty to deep-rooted and structural weaknesses and contradictions in Iranian society, economy, and politics. This critical examination leaves the reader with a deeper understanding of Iran's modern history and an appreciation for the interplay of forces currently at work within the Islamic Republic. It also provides persuasive commentary on the inherent plight of other Third World countries plagued with similar legacies and pre-revolutionary conditions.

The SAGE Handbook of Comparative Politics


Author: Todd Landman,Neil Robinson
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1446206556
Category: Political Science
Page: 560
View: 8809
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'Editors Landman and Robinson have compiled an excellent tour d'horizon of comparative politics. Distinguished contributors explore theoretical and methodological issues as well as examine the critical substantive domains that animate today's comparativists. Graduate students and academics will want to keep this volume on their book shelf' - Professor Mark Irving Lichbach, University of Maryland 'The SAGE Handbook of Comparative Politics is a major new resource for scholars of comparative politics, and of political science more generally. The Handbook covers the field with admirable thoroughness, but does not sacrifice depth for breadth. The chapters are written by notable scholars who provide rich discussions of their topics, and help to move the sub-discipline forward' - B. Guy Peters, Professor, University of Pittsburgh The SAGE Handbook of Comparative Politics presents; in one volume, an authoritative overview of the theoretical, methodological and substantive elements of comparative political science. The 28 specially commissioned chapters, written by renowned comparative scholars, guide the reader through the central issues and debates, presenting a state-of-the-art guide to the past, present and possible futures of the field. The Handbook is divided into three parts. The first considers comparative methodologies and reviews the interactions between various sub-fields of comparative politics: political economy; political sociology; area studies; international relations; and institutional analysis. The second section examines nine 'classic' issues of concern to comparativists, including government formation, political behaviour and democratization. In the final section, nine new and emerging areas of comparative research are considered, such as terrorism, electoral corruption, human rights and regional integration. The SAGE Handbook of Comparative Politics is an essential resource for researchers in political science, political sociology, political economy, international relations, area studies and all other fields with a comparative political dimension.

Arrival City

How the Largest Migration in History is Reshaping Our World
Author: Doug Saunders
Publisher: Random House
ISBN: 1407071785
Category: Social Science
Page: 384
View: 1368
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* A third of the world's people are in the midst of the largest population move in human history, as the last of the word's rural populations abandons agriculture and moves to the urban areas of the developing world and of the wealthy West. *Both a groundbreaking work of reportage and an exciting, vivid travelogue, Arrival City sees award-winning journalist Doug Saunders offering a detailed tour of the key points in the Great Migration, and considers the actions that have turned this enormous population shift into either a success or a violent failure.

Encyclopedia of the Cold War


Author: Ruud van Dijk,William Glenn Gray,Svetlana Savranskaya,Jeremi Suri,Qiang Zhai
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135923108
Category: Reference
Page: 1146
View: 7277
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Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War – a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the Cold War discusses how this state of perpetual tensions arose, developed, and was resolved. This work examines the military, economic, diplomatic, and political evolution of the conflict as well as its impact on the different regions and cultures of the world. Using a unique geopolitical approach that will present Russian perspectives and others, the work covers all aspects of the Cold War, from communism to nuclear escalation and from UFOs to red diaper babies, highlighting its vast-ranging and lasting impact on international relations as well as on daily life. Although the work will focus on the 1945–1991 period, it will explore the roots of the conflict, starting with the formation of the Soviet state, and its legacy to the present day.

Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit


Author: Yuval Noah Harari
Publisher: DVA
ISBN: 364110498X
Category: History
Page: 528
View: 8646
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Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.

Colonialism and Revolution in the Middle East

Social and Cultural Origins of Egypt's 'Urabi Movement
Author: Juan Ricardo Cole
Publisher: American Univ in Cairo Press
ISBN: 9789774245183
Category: History
Page: 341
View: 9804
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In this stimulating study, Juan R. I. Cole challenges traditional elite-centered conceptions of the conflict that led to the British occupation of Egypt in 1882. For a year before the British intervened, Egypt's government and the country's influential European community had been locked in a struggle with the nationalist supporters of General Ahmad 'Urabi. Although most Western observers still see the 'Urabi movement as a 'revolt' of junior military officers with only limited support among the Egyptian people, Cole maintains that it was a full-scale revolution with a broad social base. While arguing this fresh point of view, he also proposes a theory of revolution against informal or neocolonial empires, drawing parallels between Egypt in 1882, the early twentieth-century Boxer Rebellion in China, and the Islamic Revolution in modern Iran. In a thorough examination of the changing Egyptian political culture from 1858 through the 'Urabi episode, Cole shows how various social strata--urban guilds, the intelligentsia, and village notables--became 'revolutionary.' Addressing issues raised by such scholars as Barrington Moore and Theda Skocpol, his book combines four complementary approaches: social structure and its socioeconomic context, organization, ideology, and the ways in which unexpected conjunctures of events help drive a revolution. "The resulting account of the origins of the 1881-82 revolution is original and persuasive. The book will make a significant contribution to the comparative study of social revolution, in particular by explaining how neocolonial revolutions differ from the kinds of revolution previous theorists have studied." --Timothy P. Mitchell, New York University

The Oil Kings

How the U.S., Iran, and Saudi Arabia Changed the Balance of Power in the Middle East
Author: Andrew Scott Cooper
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1439157138
Category: History
Page: 544
View: 1277
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struggling with a recession . . . European nations at risk of defaulting on their loans . . . A possible global financial crisis. It happened before, in the 1970s. Oil Kings is the story of how oil came to dominate U.S. domestic and international affairs. As Richard Nixon fought off Watergate inquiries in 1973, the U.S. economy reacted to an oil shortage initiated by Arab nations in retaliation for American support of Israel in the Arab- Israeli war. The price of oil skyrocketed, causing serious inflation. One man the U.S. could rely on in the Middle East was the Shah of Iran, a loyal ally whose grand ambitions had made him a leading customer for American weapons. Iran sold the U.S. oil; the U.S. sold Iran missiles and fighter jets. But the Shah’s economy depended almost entirely on oil, and the U.S. economy could not tolerate annual double-digit increases in the price of this essential commodity. European economies were hit even harder by the soaring oil prices, and several NATO allies were at risk of default on their debt. In 1976, with the U.S. economy in peril, President Gerald Ford, locked in a tight election race, decided he had to find a country that would sell oil to the U.S. more cheaply and break the OPEC monopoly, which the Shah refused to do. On the advice of Treasury Secretary William Simon and against the advice of Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, Ford made a deal to sell advanced weaponry to the Saudis in exchange for a modest price hike on oil. Ford lost the election, but the deal had lasting consequences. The Shah’s economy was destabilized, and disaffected elements in Iran mobilized to overthrow him. The U.S. had embarked on a long relationship with the autocratic Saudi kingdom that continues to this day. Andrew Scott Cooper draws on newly declassified documents and interviews with some key figures of the time to show how Nixon, Ford, Kissinger, the CIA, and the State and Treasury departments—as well as the Shah and the Saudi royal family— maneuvered to control events in the Middle East. He details the secret U.S.-Saudi plan to circumvent OPEC that destabilized the Shah. He reveals how close the U.S. came to sending troops into the Persian Gulf to break the Arab oil embargo. The Oil Kings provides solid evidence that U.S. officials ignored warning signs of a potential hostage crisis in Iran. It discloses that U.S. officials offered to sell nuclear power and nuclear fuel to the Shah. And it shows how the Ford Administration barely averted a European debt crisis that could have triggered a financial catastrophe in the U.S. Brilliantly reported and filled with astonishing details about some of the key figures of the time, The Oil Kings is the history of an era that we thought we knew, an era whose momentous reverberations still influence events at home and abroad today.

International History of the Twentieth Century and Beyond


Author: Antony Best,Jussi Hanhimaki,Joseph A. Maiolo,Kirsten E. Schulze
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317577817
Category: History
Page: 696
View: 5253
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This hugely successful global history of the twentieth century is written by four prominent international historians for first-year undergraduate level and upward. Using their thematic and regional expertise, the authors have produced an authoritative yet accessible and seamless account of the history of international relations in the last century, covering events in Europe, Asia, the Middle East, Africa and the Americas. They focus on the history of relations between states and on the broad ideological, economic and cultural forces that have influenced the evolution of international politics over the past one hundred years. The third edition is thoroughly updated throughout to take account of the most recent research and global developments, and includes a new chapter on the international history of human rights and its advocacy organizations, including NGOs. Additional new features include: New material on the Arab Spring, including specific focus on Libya and Syria Increased debate on the question of US decline and the rise of China. A timeline to give increased context to those studying the topic for the first time. A fully revised companion website including links to further resources and self-testing material can be found at www.routledge.com/cw/best Antony Best is Associate Professor in International History at the London School of Economics. Jussi M. Hanhimäki is Professor of International History and Politics at the Graduate Institute of International Studies, Geneva. Joseph A. Maiolo is Professor of International History at the Department of War Studies, Kings College London. Kirsten E. Schulze is Associate Professor in International History at the London School of Economics.

Navigating Iran

From Carter to Obama
Author: O. Seliktar
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137010886
Category: Political Science
Page: 228
View: 1473
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This book provides the first full account of America's relations with the Islamic Republic of Iran from Jimmy Carter's presidency to Barack Obama's. It discusses all major facets of Iranian policy of interest to the United States: nuclear proliferation, revolutionary export and support for international terrorism, efforts to undermine the Israeli-Palestinian peace process, and violations of human rights. It compares developments in Iran to their perception in Washington, providing the clearest picture available yet of the discrepancies between the complex and elusive Iranian reality and its understanding in the United States.

The Revolution in Iran


Author: Akbar Husain
Publisher: Rourke Publishing Group
ISBN: 9780865920385
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
Page: 77
View: 5915
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Discusses the origins, events, conclusion, and aftermath of the conflict in Iran after Ayatollah Khomeini returned from exile to lead the 1979 revolution.

Sexual Politics in Modern Iran


Author: Janet Afary
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521898463
Category: History
Page: 423
View: 488
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Charts the history of Iran's sexual revolution from the nineteenth century to today. The resilience of the Iranian people forms the basis of this sexual revolution, one that is promoting reforms in marriage and family laws, and demanding more egalitarian gender and sexual relations.

The Unthinkable Revolution in Iran


Author: Charles Kurzman
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674039834
Category: History
Page: 304
View: 4979
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The shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, would remain on the throne for the foreseeable future: This was the firm conclusion of a top-secret CIA analysis issued in October 1978. One hundred days later the shah--despite his massive military, fearsome security police, and superpower support was overthrown by a popular and largely peaceful revolution. But the CIA was not alone in its myopia, as Charles Kurzman reveals in this penetrating work; Iranians themselves, except for a tiny minority, considered a revolution inconceivable until it actually occurred. Revisiting the circumstances surrounding the fall of the shah, Kurzman offers rare insight into the nature and evolution of the Iranian revolution and into the ultimate unpredictability of protest movements in general. As one Iranian recalls, "The future was up in the air." Through interviews and eyewitness accounts, declassified security documents and underground pamphlets, Kurzman documents the overwhelming sense of confusion that gripped pre-revolutionary Iran, and that characterizes major protest movements. His book provides a striking picture of the chaotic conditions under which Iranians acted, participating in protest only when they expected others to do so too, the process approaching critical mass in unforeseen and unforeseeable ways. Only when large numbers of Iranians began to "think the unthinkable," in the words of the U.S. ambassador, did revolutionary expectations become a self-fulfilling prophecy. A corrective to 20-20 hindsight, this book reveals shortcomings of analyses that make the Iranian revolution or any major protest movement seem inevitable in retrospect.

Failing the Crystal Ball Test

The Carter Administration and the Fundamentalist Revolution in Iran
Author: Ofira Seliktar
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
ISBN: 9780275968724
Category: History
Page: 245
View: 9243
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Offers a systematic analysis of predictive failure in one of Americas greatest foreign policy debacles.

Social Revolutions in the Modern World


Author: Theda Skocpol
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521409384
Category: History
Page: 354
View: 439
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In this collection of essays, Theda Skocpol, author of the award-winning States and Social Revolutions (CUP, 1979), updates her arguments about social revolutions. How are we to understand recent revolutionary upheavals in countries across the globe? Why have social revolutions happened in some countries, but not in others that seem similar? Skocpol shows how she and other scholars have used ideas about states and societies to identify the particular types of regimes that are susceptible to the growth of revolutionary movements and vulnerable to transfers of state power to revolutionary challengers.

Weltordnung


Author: Henry A. Kissinger
Publisher: C. Bertelsmann Verlag
ISBN: 3641155487
Category: Political Science
Page: 480
View: 9289
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Henry Kissinger über die größte Herausforderung des 21. Jahrhunderts Hat das westlich geprägte Wertesystem im 21. Jahrhundert angesichts aufstrebender Mächte mit gänzlich anderem Menschenbild und Gesellschaftskonzept als Basis einer Frieden stiftenden Weltordnung ausgedient? Henry Kissinger, über Jahrzehnte zentrale Figur der US-Außenpolitik und Autorität für Fragen der internationalen Beziehungen, sieht unsere Epoche vor existenziellen Herausforderungen angesichts zunehmender Spannungen. In der heutigen global eng vernetzten Welt wäre eine Ordnung vonnöten, die von Menschen unterschiedlicher Kultur, Geschichte und Tradition akzeptiert wird und auf einem Regelwerk beruht, das in der Lage ist, regionale wie globale Kriege einzudämmen. Der Autor analysiert die Entstehung der unterschiedlichen Ordnungssysteme etwa in China, den islamischen Ländern oder im Westen und unternimmt den Versuch, das Trennende zwischen ihnen zusammenzuführen und den Grundstein für eine zukünftige friedliche Weltordnung zu legen.

Bis wir frei sind

Mein Kampf für Menschenrechte im Iran
Author: Shirin Ebadi
Publisher: Piper ebooks
ISBN: 3492974813
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 304
View: 9143
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Shirin Ebadi, die erste muslimische Friedensnobelpreisträgerin, wurde wegen ihres Engagements für Menschenrechte in ihrem Heimatland jahrelang von der iranischen Regierung bedroht und schikaniert – und verlor dabei alles: ihren Ehemann, ihr Zuhause, ihre Freunde, ihr Hab und Gut. Nur eines konnte man der Menschenrechtsaktivistin nicht nehmen: den Glauben an eine bessere Zukunft und den Willen, für ihre Überzeugungen zu kämpfen. Nun erzählt sie auf bewegende und erschütternde Weise von ihrem unablässigen Kampf für Freiheit und Gerechtigkeit, den sie trotz aller Widrigkeiten auch im Exil unerschrocken fortführt. Nach dem großen Erfolg von »Mein Iran« ist dies der zweite Teil ihrer beeindruckenden Geschichte.

Die Vernetzung der Welt

Ein Blick in unsere Zukunft
Author: Eric Schmidt,Jared Cohen
Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH
ISBN: 3644030618
Category: Political Science
Page: 448
View: 3310
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Welche Konsequenzen wird es haben, wenn in Zukunft die überwiegende Mehrheit der Weltbevölkerung online ist? Wenn Informationstechnologien so allgegenwärtig sind wie Elektrizität? Was bedeutet das für die Politik, die Wirtschaft – und für uns selbst? Diese Fragen beantwortet ein außergewöhnliches Autorenduo: Eric Schmidt, der Mann, der Google zu einem Weltunternehmen gemacht hat, und Jared Cohen, ehemaliger Berater von Hillary Clinton und Condoleezza Rice und jetzt Chef von Googles Denkfabrik. In diesem aufregenden Buch führen sie uns die Chancen und Gefahren jener eng vernetzten Welt vor Augen, die die meisten von uns noch erleben werden. Es ist die sehr konkrete Vision einer Zukunft, die bereits begonnen hat. Und ein engagiertes Plädoyer dafür, sie jetzt zu gestalten – weil Technologie der leitenden Hand des Menschen bedarf, um Positives zu bewirken.

Taking Power

On the Origins of Third World Revolutions
Author: John Foran
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521629843
Category: History
Page: 395
View: 5422
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Analyzing the causes behind thirty six revolutions in the Third World between 1910 and the present, this text attempts to explain why so few revolutions have succeeded, while so many have failed. The book is divided into chapters that treat particular sets of revolutions including the great social revolutions of Mexico (1910), China (1949), Cuba (1959), Iran (1979)and Nicaragua (1979), the anticolonial revolutions in Algeria, Vietnam, Angola, Mozambique, and Zimbabwe from the 1940s to the 1970s, and the failed revolutionary attempts in El Salvador, Peru, and elsewhere.