Sociology and Complexity Science

A New Field of Inquiry
Author: Brian Castellani,Frederic William Hafferty
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540884629
Category: Science
Page: 277
View: 2422
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By now, most academics have heard something about the new science of complexity. In a manner reminiscent of Einstein and the last hundred years of physics, complexity science has captured the public imagination. ® One can go to Amazon. com and purchase books on complexification (Casti 1994), emergence (Holland 1998), small worlds (Barabási 2003), the web of life (Capra 1996), fuzzy thinking (Kosko 1993), global c- plexity (Urry 2003) and the business of long-tails (Anderson 2006). Even television has incorporated the topics of complexity science. Crime shows ® ® such as 24 or CSI typically feature investigators using the latest advances in computational modeling to “simulate scenarios” or “data mine” all p- sible suspects—all of which is done before the crime takes place. The ® World Wide Web is another example. A simple search on Google. Com using the phrase “complexity science” gets close to a million hits! C- plexity science is ubiquitous. What most scholars do not realize, however, is the remarkable role sociologists are playing in this new science. C- sider the following examples. 0. 1 Sociologists in Complexity Science The first example comes from the new science of networks (Barabási 2003). By now, most readers are familiar with the phenomena known as six-degrees of separation—the idea that, because most large networks are comprised of a significant number of non-random weak-ties, the nodes (e. g. , people, companies, etc.

Handbuch Modellbildung und Simulation in den Sozialwissenschaften


Author: Norman Braun,Nicole J. Saam
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3658011645
Category: Social Science
Page: 1079
View: 5685
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Das Handbuch Modellbildung und Simulation in den Sozialwissenschaften bietet in 37 Artikeln einen umfassenden Überblick über sozialwissenschaftliche Modellbildung und Simulation. Es vermittelt wissenschaftstheoretische und methodische Grundlagen sowie den Stand der Forschung in den wichtigsten Anwendungsgebieten. Behandelt werden realistische, strukturalistische und konstruktivistische Zugriffe auf Modellbildung und Simulation, bedeutende Methoden und Typen der Modellierung (u.a. stochastische Prozesse und Bayes-Verfahren, nutzen- und spieltheoretische Modellierungen) und Ansätze der Computersimulation (z.B. Multi-Agenten-Modelle, zelluläre Automaten, neuronale Netze, Small Worlds). Die Anwendungskapitel befassen sich u.a. mit sozialen Dilemmata, sozialen Normen, Innovation und Diffusion, Herrschaft und Organisation, Gewalt und Krieg.

Conceptual Profiles

A Theory of Teaching and Learning Scientific Concepts
Author: Eduardo F. Mortimer,Charbel N. El-Hani
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9048192463
Category: Science
Page: 330
View: 5012
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The language of science has many words and phrases whose meaning either changes in differing contexts or alters to reflect developments in a given discipline. This book presents the authors’ theories on using ‘conceptual profiles’ to make the teaching of context-dependent meanings more effective. Developed over two decades, their theory begins with a recognition of the coexistence in the students’ discourse of those alternative meanings, even in the case of scientific concepts such as molecule, where the dissonance between the classical and modern views of the same phenomenon is an accepted norm. What began as an alternative model of conceptual change has evolved to incorporate a sociocultural approach, by drawing on ideas such as situated cognition and Vygotsky’s influential concept of culturally located learning. Also informed by pragmatist philosophy, the approach has grown into a well-rounded theory of teaching and learning scientific concepts. The authors have taken the opportunity in this book to develop their ideas further, anticipate and respond to criticisms—that of relativism, for example—and explain how their theory can be applied to analyze the teaching of core concepts in science such as heat and temperature, life and biological adaptation. They also report on the implementation of a research program that correlates the responsiveness of their methodology to all the main developments in the field of science education. This additional material will inform academic discussion, review, and further enhancement of their theory and research model.

Sociology and Complexity Science, A New Field of Inquiry


Author: CTI Reviews
Publisher: Cram101 Textbook Reviews
ISBN: 1497056586
Category: Education
Page: 20
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Facts101 is your complete guide to Sociology and Complexity Science, A New Field of Inquiry. In this book, you will learn topics such as as those in your book plus much more. With key features such as key terms, people and places, Facts101 gives you all the information you need to prepare for your next exam. Our practice tests are specific to the textbook and we have designed tools to make the most of your limited study time.

e-Study Guide for: Sociology and Complexity Science: A New Field of Inquiry by Brian Castellani, ISBN 9783642100130


Author: Cram101 Textbook Reviews
Publisher: Cram101 Textbook Reviews
ISBN: 1467260541
Category: Education
Page: 9
View: 9534
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Never Highlight a Book Again! Just the FACTS101 study guides give the student the textbook outlines, highlights, practice quizzes and optional access to the full practice tests for their textbook.

Place and Health as Complex Systems

A Case Study and Empirical Test
Author: Brian Castellani,Rajeev Rajaram,J. Galen Buckwalter,Michael Ball,Frederic Hafferty
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319097342
Category: Medical
Page: 82
View: 2599
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The history of public health has focused on direct relationships between problems and solutions: vaccinations against diseases, ad campaigns targeting risky behaviors. But the accelerating pace and mounting intricacies of our lives are challenging the field to find new scientific methods for studying community health. The complexities of place (COP) approach is emerging as one such promising method. Place and Health as Complex Systems demonstrates how COP works, making an empirical case for its use in for designing and implementing interventions. This brief resource reviews the defining characteristics of places as dynamic and evolving social systems, rigorously testing them as well as the COP approach itself. The study, of twenty communities within one county in the Midwest, combines case-based methods and complexity science to determine whether COP improves upon traditional statistical methods of public health research. Its conclusions reveal strengths and limitations of the approach, immediate possibilities for its use, and challenges regarding future research. Included in the coverage: Characteristics of places and the complexities of place approach. The Definitional Test of Complex Systems. Case-based modeling using the SACS toolkit. Methods, maps, and measures used in the study. Places as nodes within larger networks. Places as power-based conflicted negotiations. Place and Health as Complex Systems brings COP into greater prominence in public health research, and is also valuable to researchers in related fields such as demography, health geography, community health, urban planning, and epidemiology.

Die Wissenschaften vom Künstlichen


Author: Herbert A. Simon
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783709193839
Category: Computers
Page: 241
View: 9612
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Die Wissenschaften vom Künstlichen von Herbert A. Simon gilt seit dem Erscheinen der ersten Ausgabe im Jahr 1969 als "Klassiker" der Literatur zum Thema Künstliche Intelligenz. Simon hat zusammen mit den Computerwissenschaftlern Allen Newell, Marvin Minsky und John McCarthy Mitte der fünfziger Jahre das so bezeichnete - von Alan Turing antizipierte - Forschungsgebiet der Computerwissenschaft und der Psychologie ins Leben gerufen. Seine herausragende, allgemeinverständliche Darstellung von Grundüberlegungen und philosophischen Aspekten der Künstlichen Intelligenz ist heute aktueller denn je, nicht nur wegen der ständig zunehmenden Bedeutung der Forschung und Entwicklung auf diesem Gebiet, sondern auch aufgrund des verbreiteten Mangels an Grundkenntnissen für eine kritische Auseinandersetzung mit der Künstlichen Intelligenz.

Investing: The Last Liberal Art


Author: Robert G. Hagstrom
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 023153101X
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 216
View: 6841
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Robert G. Hagstrom is one of the best-known authors of investment books for general audiences. Turning his extensive experience as a portfolio manager at Legg Mason Capital Management into valuable guidance for professionals and nonprofessionals alike, he is the author of six successful books on investment, including The Warren Buffett Way, a New York Times best-seller that has sold more than a million copies. In this updated second edition of Investing: The Last Liberal Art, Hagstrom explores basic and fundamental investing concepts in a range of fields outside of economics, including physics, biology, sociology, psychology, philosophy, and literature. He discusses, for instance, how the theory of evolution disrupts the notion of the efficient market and how reading strategies for literature can be gainfully applied to investing research. Building on Charlie Munger's famous "latticework of mental models" concept, Hagstrom argues that it is impossible to make good investment decisions based solely on a strong knowledge of finance theory alone. He reinforces his concepts with additional data and a new chapter on mathematics, and updates his text throughout to reflect the developments of the past decade, particularly the seismic economic upheaval of 2008. He has also added a hundred new titles to the invaluable reading list concluding the book. Praise for the first edition: "I read this book in one sitting: I could not put it down."—Peter L. Bernstein, author of Against the Gods: The Remarkable Story of Risk "Elegant and irresistible. Robert G. Hagstrom makes the complex clear as he confidently crisscrosses through the disciplines of finance, biology, physics, and literature. The only way to understand investing better, [Investing] shows, is to understand the world better. Ideas spark off the page at every turn. This is simply a gem of a book."—James Surowiecki, New Yorker "Investing is a brisk and engaging read, and it is a pleasure to be in the presence of Hagstrom's agile mind."—International Herald Tribune

Sociology 2009

International Bibliography of the Social Sciences
Author: British Library
Publisher: International Bibliography of
ISBN: 9780415599283
Category: Reference
Page: 625
View: 3013
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First published in 1952, the International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology) is well established as a major bibliographic reference for students, researchers & librarians.

Approaches to Social Enquiry

Advancing Knowledge
Author: Norman Blaikie
Publisher: Polity
ISBN: 0745634494
Category: Psychology
Page: 243
View: 3610
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Since its initial publication, this highly respected book has provided students with a much needed critical review of the major research paradigms in the social sciences and the logics or strategies of enquiry associated with them. Approaches to Social Enquiry draws together a vast body of literature from the philosophy of science, the philosophy of social science, social theory and research methodology. It focuses on questions such as: How is new social scientific knowledge produced or existing knowledge further developed? What status does this knowledge have and how can this be established? To what extent can the ways of advancing knowledge in the natural sciences be used in the social sciences? What major dilemmas do social researchers face in the development of new knowledge? No other text offers such a clear and accessible, but still rigorous, account of these sometimes complex debates. This second edition has been thoroughly updated to encompass the most contemporary debates about the conduct and underpinnings of social research. More attention is also paid to research practice. In addition, integrated empirical examples have been included to illustrate and extend the philosophical and theoretical discussion. Approaches to Social Enquiry will be invaluable to advanced undergraduate and graduate students who are planning their own research or studying research methods, and to researchers across a wide range of disciplines.

The Design of Everyday Things

Psychologie und Design der alltäglichen Dinge
Author: Norman Don
Publisher: Vahlen
ISBN: 3800648105
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 320
View: 7486
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Apple, Audi, Braun oder Samsung machen es vor: Gutes Design ist heute eine kritische Voraussetzung für erfolgreiche Produkte. Dieser Klassiker beschreibt die fundamentalen Prinzipien, um Dinge des täglichen Gebrauchs umzuwandeln in unterhaltsame und zufriedenstellende Produkte. Don Norman fordert ein Zusammenspiel von Mensch und Technologie mit dem Ziel, dass Designer und Produktentwickler die Bedürfnisse, Fähigkeiten und Handlungsweisen der Nutzer in den Vordergrund stellen und Designs an diesen angepasst werden. The Design of Everyday Things ist eine informative und spannende Einführung für Designer, Marketer, Produktentwickler und für alle an gutem Design interessierten Menschen. Zum Autor Don Norman ist emeritierter Professor für Kognitionswissenschaften. Er lehrte an der University of California in San Diego und der Northwest University in Illinois. Mitte der Neunzigerjahre leitete Don Norman die Advanced Technology Group bei Apple. Dort prägte er den Begriff der User Experience, um über die reine Benutzbarkeit hinaus eine ganzheitliche Erfahrung der Anwender im Umgang mit Technik in den Vordergrund zu stellen. Norman ist Mitbegründer der Beratungsfirma Nielsen Norman Group und hat unter anderem Autohersteller von BMW bis Toyota beraten. „Keiner kommt an Don Norman vorbei, wenn es um Fragen zu einem Design geht, das sich am Menschen orientiert.“ Brand Eins 7/2013 „Design ist einer der wichtigsten Wettbewerbsvorteile. Dieses Buch macht Spaß zu lesen und ist von größter Bedeutung.” Tom Peters, Co-Autor von „Auf der Suche nach Spitzenleistungen“

Eine wissenschaftliche Theorie der Kultur


Author: Bronislaw Malinowski
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783518277041
Category: Anthropology
Page: 268
View: 9102
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Soziologische Aufklärung 4

Beiträge zur funktionalen Differenzierung der Gesellschaft
Author: Niklas Luhmann
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3663013413
Category: Social Science
Page: 276
View: 657
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Dieser Band setzt eine Reihe fort, die im Interesse an "soziologischer Aufklärung" gesellschaftstheoretische Grundlagen mit Analysen sehr verschiedenartiger Probleme der modernen Gesellschaft zu vermitteln sucht. Er enthält Aufsätze und Vorträge des Verfassers aus den Jahren 1981 - 1986 mit der Absicht, schwer zugängliche Publikationen sowie unpublizierte Arbeiten im Zusammenhang sichtbar zu machen. Die Auswahl konzentriert sich auf Arbeiten zu den Funktionssystemen für Politik, Erziehung und Religion. Ihre Themen reichen von soziologischen Analysen des Staatsbegriffs und Problemen der rechtsstaatlichen Demokratie über Fragen der Ausdifferenzierung eines besonderen Systems für Erziehung in Schulen und Universitäten bis hin zu Problemen, die die Kontinuierung der Gottesvorstellung in der modernen Gesellschaft betreffen.

Was heißt "soziale Konstruktion"?

zur Konjunktur einer Kampfvokabel in den Wissenschaften
Author: Ian Hacking
Publisher: Frankfurt am Main : Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag
ISBN: 9783596144341
Category: Knowledge, Sociology of
Page: 207
View: 8135
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Dynamics of Complex Systems


Author: Yaneer Bar-Yam
Publisher: Perseus Books
ISBN: N.A
Category: Science
Page: 848
View: 6258
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Dynamics of Complex Systems is the first text describing the modern unified study of complex systems. It is designed for upper-undergraduate/beginning graduate-level students, and covers a broad range of applications in a broad array of disciplines. A central goal of this text is to develop models and modeling techniques that are useful when applied to all complex systems. This is done by adopting both analytic tools, including statistical mechanics and stochastic dynamics, and computer simulation techniques, such as cellular automata and Monte Carlo. In four sets of paired, self-contained chapters, Yaneer Bar-Yam discusses complex systems in the context of neural networks, protein folding, living organisms, and finally, human civilization itself.

Die Evolution der Kooperation

Aus dem Amerikanischen übersetzt und mit einem Nachwort von Werner Raub und Thomas Voss
Author: Robert Axelrod
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3486851748
Category: Philosophy
Page: 245
View: 706
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Wie ist Kooperation möglich in einer Welt von Egoisten, in der es keine zentrale Autorität gibt? Axelrod entwickelt aus der Spieltheorie - auf der Basis des "Gefangenendilemmas" - eine verblüffende Lösung. Nicht die raffinierteste, auch nicht die aggressivste, nicht die sanfteste Strategie sichert langfristig Erfolg, sondern die grundsätzlich wohlwollende, aber stets vergeltungsbereite: TIT FOR TAT, "wie Du mir, so ich Dir". Axelrod schließt daraus, dass in der globalen arbeitsteiligen Wirtschaftsweise geradezu ein innerer Zwang zur Kooperation besteht. Gewinnbringende Kooperationen sind für Unternehmen nützlicher als blinder Wettbewerb.

South


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Developing countries
Page: N.A
View: 7247
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Applications of Complex Adaptive Systems


Author: Shan, Yin
Publisher: IGI Global
ISBN: 1599049635
Category: Computers
Page: 352
View: 7133
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"This book provides an estimable global view of the most up-to-date research on the strategies, applications, practice, and implications of complex adaptive systems, to better understand the various critical systems that surround human life. Researchers will find this book an indispensable state-of-art reference"--Provided by publisher.

Synergetik

Eine Einführung Nichtgleichgewichts-Phasenübergänge und Selbstorganisation in Physik, Chemie und Biologie
Author: Hermann Haken
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3642967752
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 1528
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