Sociology and Complexity Science

A New Field of Inquiry
Author: Brian Castellani,Frederic William Hafferty
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540884629
Category: Science
Page: 277
View: 301
By now, most academics have heard something about the new science of complexity. In a manner reminiscent of Einstein and the last hundred years of physics, complexity science has captured the public imagination. ® One can go to Amazon. com and purchase books on complexification (Casti 1994), emergence (Holland 1998), small worlds (Barabási 2003), the web of life (Capra 1996), fuzzy thinking (Kosko 1993), global c- plexity (Urry 2003) and the business of long-tails (Anderson 2006). Even television has incorporated the topics of complexity science. Crime shows ® ® such as 24 or CSI typically feature investigators using the latest advances in computational modeling to “simulate scenarios” or “data mine” all p- sible suspects—all of which is done before the crime takes place. The ® World Wide Web is another example. A simple search on Google. Com using the phrase “complexity science” gets close to a million hits! C- plexity science is ubiquitous. What most scholars do not realize, however, is the remarkable role sociologists are playing in this new science. C- sider the following examples. 0. 1 Sociologists in Complexity Science The first example comes from the new science of networks (Barabási 2003). By now, most readers are familiar with the phenomena known as six-degrees of separation—the idea that, because most large networks are comprised of a significant number of non-random weak-ties, the nodes (e. g. , people, companies, etc.

Conceptual Profiles

A Theory of Teaching and Learning Scientific Concepts
Author: Eduardo F. Mortimer,Charbel N. El-Hani
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9048192463
Category: Science
Page: 330
View: 2353
The language of science has many words and phrases whose meaning either changes in differing contexts or alters to reflect developments in a given discipline. This book presents the authors’ theories on using ‘conceptual profiles’ to make the teaching of context-dependent meanings more effective. Developed over two decades, their theory begins with a recognition of the coexistence in the students’ discourse of those alternative meanings, even in the case of scientific concepts such as molecule, where the dissonance between the classical and modern views of the same phenomenon is an accepted norm. What began as an alternative model of conceptual change has evolved to incorporate a sociocultural approach, by drawing on ideas such as situated cognition and Vygotsky’s influential concept of culturally located learning. Also informed by pragmatist philosophy, the approach has grown into a well-rounded theory of teaching and learning scientific concepts. The authors have taken the opportunity in this book to develop their ideas further, anticipate and respond to criticisms—that of relativism, for example—and explain how their theory can be applied to analyze the teaching of core concepts in science such as heat and temperature, life and biological adaptation. They also report on the implementation of a research program that correlates the responsiveness of their methodology to all the main developments in the field of science education. This additional material will inform academic discussion, review, and further enhancement of their theory and research model.

e-Study Guide for: Sociology and Complexity Science: A New Field of Inquiry by Brian Castellani, ISBN 9783642100130

Author: Cram101 Textbook Reviews
Publisher: Cram101 Textbook Reviews
ISBN: 1467260541
Category: Education
Page: 9
View: 6797
Never Highlight a Book Again! Just the FACTS101 study guides give the student the textbook outlines, highlights, practice quizzes and optional access to the full practice tests for their textbook.

Redesigning Worldwide Connections

Author: Michele Bonazzi,Valentina Di Simone
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1443887730
Category: Political Science
Page: 220
View: 5030
In the next twenty years, the convergence of robotics, informatics, nano-bio-technologies, genetics, information technologies, and cognitive sciences will have a significant impact on society. This convergence will lead to a revolution in the way that science, health, energy, resources, production, consumption and environment are conceptualised. However, these technologies will also pose new and specific challenges in terms of sustainability, ethics, and even expectations of the future. Indeed, today, the word “future” is often associated with pessimism and fear, much more than it was in the past. In order to face all these technological, ethical and cultural challenges, governments, industries and societies will need a robust cognitive framework, in order to grasp the complex dimensions of the technological convergence in progress, and must rapidly develop effective strategies to face the situations that will, unavoidably, take place. This book provides, through systemic and complexity theories, some of the theoretical tools necessary to tackle the opportunities and risks of the future.

History and Event

Author: Nathan Coombs
Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
ISBN: 0748699007
Category: Philosophy
Page: 224
View: 7468
Nathan Coombs demonstrates that the Marxist science of history has been reimagined by a strand of contemporary French theory after Louis Althusser. Taking a comparative approach, Coombs explores the technical details of both traditions' historical sciences.

Applications of Complex Adaptive Systems

Author: Shan, Yin
Publisher: IGI Global
ISBN: 1599049635
Category: Computers
Page: 352
View: 4717
"This book provides an estimable global view of the most up-to-date research on the strategies, applications, practice, and implications of complex adaptive systems, to better understand the various critical systems that surround human life. Researchers will find this book an indispensable state-of-art reference"--Provided by publisher.

Hypernetworks in the Science of Complex Systems

Author: Jeffrey Johnson
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 1783264438
Category: Science
Page: 348
View: 1427
The modern world is complex beyond human understanding and control. The science of complex systems aims to find new ways of thinking about the many interconnected networks of interaction that defy traditional approaches. Thus far, research into networks has largely been restricted to pairwise relationships represented by links between two nodes. This volume marks a major extension of networks to multidimensional hypernetworks for modeling multi-element relationships, such as companies making up the stock market, the neighborhoods forming a city, people making up committees, divisions making up companies, computers making up the internet, men and machines making up armies, or robots working as teams. This volume makes an important contribution to the science of complex systems by: (i) extending network theory to include dynamic relationships between many elements; (ii) providing a mathematical theory able to integrate multilevel dynamics in a coherent way; (iii) providing a new methodological approach to analyze complex systems; and (iv) illustrating the theory with practical examples in the design, management and control of complex systems taken from many areas of application. Contents:IntroductionSets and RelationsHypergraphs and the Galois LatticeSimplicial Complexes and Q-AnalysisBackcloth and Traffic: Dynamics Constrained by TopologyHypernetworksMultilevel SystemsTime, Events, Prediction and ForecastingHypernetworks and DesignPolicy, Design, Planning and ScienceNotes and Reflections Readership: Academics: researchers, scientists, social scientists, complex systems scientists, economists, biologists; Industry: managers, planners, consultants, knowledge professionals, systems engineers, automation specialists, supply chain managers; Public services: Council Officers, city planners, transport planners, health professionals, welfare professionals. Key Features:A first book of its kind on 'hypernetworks', a term the author has coined to describe the mathematical structures he has worked on over the last 30 yearsIntroduces hypernetworks in the context of examples drawn from a wide range of fields, including design, planning, management, art, neural network, machine vision, robotics, traffic, road accidents, amongst othersThe emphasis of this volume is on useful and added-value applications. It will develop the necessary mathematics and assuming no pre-requisitesContains a myriad of illustrations to further understand the topics discussedReviews: “The mathematics is explicitly explained and no difficult theorems are included in this book in order to enable scientists, designers and policy makers to work together.” Zentralblatt MATH

Complexity Explained

Author: Péter Érdi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540357785
Category: Mathematics
Page: 397
View: 8381
This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. It illuminates how complex collective behavior emerges from the parts of a system, due to the interaction between the system and its environment. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research. The book is not highly technical mathematically, but teaches and uses the basic mathematical notions of dynamical system theory, making the book useful for students of science majors and graduate courses.

Handbook of Systems and Complexity in Health

Author: Joachim P Sturmberg,Carmel Martin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461449987
Category: Medical
Page: 954
View: 6464
This book is an introduction to health care as a complex adaptive system, a system that feeds back on itself. The first section introduces systems and complexity theory from a science, historical, epistemological, and technical perspective, describing the principles and mathematics. Subsequent sections build on the health applications of systems science theory, from human physiology to medical decision making, population health and health services research. The aim of the book is to introduce and expand on important population health issues from a systems and complexity perspective, highlight current research developments and their implications for health care delivery, consider their ethical implications, and to suggest directions for and potential pitfalls in the future.

Place and Health as Complex Systems

A Case Study and Empirical Test
Author: Brian Castellani,Rajeev Rajaram,J. Galen Buckwalter,Michael Ball,Frederic William Hafferty
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319097342
Category: Medical
Page: 82
View: 7594
The history of public health has focused on direct relationships between problems and solutions: vaccinations against diseases, ad campaigns targeting risky behaviors. But the accelerating pace and mounting intricacies of our lives are challenging the field to find new scientific methods for studying community health. The complexities of place (COP) approach is emerging as one such promising method. Place and Health as Complex Systems demonstrates how COP works, making an empirical case for its use in for designing and implementing interventions. This brief resource reviews the defining characteristics of places as dynamic and evolving social systems, rigorously testing them as well as the COP approach itself. The study, of twenty communities within one county in the Midwest, combines case-based methods and complexity science to determine whether COP improves upon traditional statistical methods of public health research. Its conclusions reveal strengths and limitations of the approach, immediate possibilities for its use, and challenges regarding future research. Included in the coverage: Characteristics of places and the complexities of place approach. The Definitional Test of Complex Systems. Case-based modeling using the SACS toolkit. Methods, maps, and measures used in the study. Places as nodes within larger networks. Places as power-based conflicted negotiations. Place and Health as Complex Systems brings COP into greater prominence in public health research, and is also valuable to researchers in related fields such as demography, health geography, community health, urban planning, and epidemiology.

Philosophy of Complex Systems

Author: N.A
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080931227
Category: Philosophy
Page: 952
View: 3775
The domain of nonlinear dynamical systems and its mathematical underpinnings has been developing exponentially for a century, the last 35 years seeing an outpouring of new ideas and applications and a concomitant confluence with ideas of complex systems and their applications from irreversible thermodynamics. A few examples are in meteorology, ecological dynamics, and social and economic dynamics. These new ideas have profound implications for our understanding and practice in domains involving complexity, predictability and determinism, equilibrium, control, planning, individuality, responsibility and so on. Our intention is to draw together in this volume, we believe for the first time, a comprehensive picture of the manifold philosophically interesting impacts of recent developments in understanding nonlinear systems and the unique aspects of their complexity. The book will focus specifically on the philosophical concepts, principles, judgments and problems distinctly raised by work in the domain of complex nonlinear dynamical systems, especially in recent years. -Comprehensive coverage of all main theories in the philosophy of Complex Systems -Clearly written expositions of fundamental ideas and concepts -Definitive discussions by leading researchers in the field -Summaries of leading-edge research in related fields are also included

Complexity Theory and the Social Sciences

The state of the art
Author: David Byrne,Gillian Callaghan
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134084986
Category: Social Science
Page: 312
View: 7379
For the past two decades, ‘complexity’ has informed a range of work across the social sciences. There are diverse schools of complexity thinking, and authors have used these ideas in a multiplicity of ways, from health inequalities to the organization of large scale firms. Some understand complexity as emergence from the rule-based interactions of simple agents and explore it through agent-based modelling. Others argue against such ‘restricted complexity’ and for the development of case-based narratives deploying a much wider set of approaches and techniques. Major social theorists have been reinterpreted through a complexity lens and the whole methodological programme of the social sciences has been recast in complexity terms. In four parts, this book seeks to establish ‘the state of the art’ of complexity-informed social science as it stands now, examining: the key issues in complexity theory the implications of complexity theory for social theory the methodology and methods of complexity theory complexity within disciplines and fields. It also points ways forward towards a complexity-informed social science for the twenty-first century, investigating the argument for a post-disciplinary, ‘open’ social science. Byrne and Callaghan consider how this might be developed as a programme of teaching and research within social science. This book will be particularly relevant for, and interesting to, students and scholars of social research methods, social theory, business and organization studies, health, education, urban studies and development studies.

Human Factors of a Global Society

A System of Systems Perspective
Author: Tadeusz Marek,Waldemar Karwowski,Marek Frankowicz,Jussi Kantola,Pavel Zgaga
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466572876
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 1177
View: 7329
During the last 60 years the discipline of human factors (HF) has evolved alongside progress in engineering, technology, and business. Contemporary HF is clearly shifting towards addressing the human-centered design paradigm for much larger and complex societal systems, the effectiveness of which is affected by recent advances in engineering, science, and education. Human Factors of a Global Society: A System of Systems Perspective explores the future challenges and potential contributions of the human factors discipline in the Conceptual Age of human creativity and social responsibility. Written by a team of experts and pioneers, this book examines the human aspects related to contemporary societal developments in science, engineering, and higher education in the context of unprecedented progress in those areas. It also discusses new paradigms for higher education, including education delivery, and administration from a systems of systems perspective. It then examines the future challenges and potential contributions of the human factors discipline. While there are other books that focus on systems engineering or on a specific area of human factors, this book unifies these different perspectives into a holistic point of view. It gives you an understanding of human factors as it relates to the global enterprise system and its newly emerging characteristics such as quality, system complexity, evolving management system and its role in social and behavioral changes. By exploring the human aspects related to actual societal developments in science, the book opens a new horizon for the HF community.

Complex Systems and Social Practices in Energy Transitions

Framing Energy Sustainability in the Time of Renewables
Author: Nicola Labanca
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331933753X
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 337
View: 3585
This book offers an interdisciplinary discussion of the fundamental issues concerning policies for sustainable transition to renewable energies from the perspectives of sociologists, physicists, engineers, economists, anthropologists, biologists, ecologists and policy analysts. Adopting a combined approach, these are analysed taking both complex systems and social practice theories into consideration to provide deeper insights into the evolution of energy systems. The book then draws a series of important conclusions and makes recommendations for the research community and policy makers involved in the design and implementation of policies for sustainable energy transitions.

Non-Equilibrium Social Science and Policy

Introduction and Essays on New and Changing Paradigms in Socio-Economic Thinking
Author: Jeffrey Johnson,Andrzej Nowak,Paul Ormerod,Bridget Rosewell,Yi-Cheng Zhang
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319424246
Category: Science
Page: 232
View: 1775
The overall aim of this book, an outcome of the European FP7 FET Open NESS project, is to contribute to the ongoing effort to put the quantitative social sciences on a proper footing for the 21st century. A key focus is economics, and its implications on policy making, where the still dominant traditional approach increasingly struggles to capture the economic realities we observe in the world today - with vested interests getting too often in the way of real advances. Insights into behavioral economics and modern computing techniques have made possible both the integration of larger information sets and the exploration of disequilibrium behavior. The domain-based chapters of this work illustrate how economic theory is the only branch of social sciences which still holds to its old paradigm of an equilibrium science - an assumption that has already been relaxed in all related fields of research in the light of recent advances in complex and dynamical systems theory and related data mining. The other chapters give various takes on policy and decision making in this context. Written in nontechnical style throughout, with a mix of tutorial and essay-like contributions, this book will benefit all researchers, scientists, professionals and practitioners interested in learning about the 'thinking in complexity' to understand how socio-economic systems really work.

Complex Science for a Complex World

Exploring Human Ecosystems with Agents
Author: Pascal Perez,David F. Batten
Publisher: ANU E Press
ISBN: 1920942394
Category: Science
Page: 334
View: 2296
It is well known that human activities are endangering the stability and sustainability of many fragile ecosystems. This title looks at the science that addresses the frontiers of interactions between human behavior and environmental responses.

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

50th Anniversary Edition
Author: Thomas S. Kuhn
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226458148
Category: Science
Page: 264
View: 4661
A good book may have the power to change the way we see the world, but a great book actually becomes part of our daily consciousness, pervading our thinking to the point that we take it for granted, and we forget how provocative and challenging its ideas once were—and still are. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is that kind of book. When it was first published in 1962, it was a landmark event in the history and philosophy of science. Fifty years later, it still has many lessons to teach. With The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn challenged long-standing linear notions of scientific progress, arguing that transformative ideas don’t arise from the day-to-day, gradual process of experimentation and data accumulation but that the revolutions in science, those breakthrough moments that disrupt accepted thinking and offer unanticipated ideas, occur outside of “normal science,” as he called it. Though Kuhn was writing when physics ruled the sciences, his ideas on how scientific revolutions bring order to the anomalies that amass over time in research experiments are still instructive in our biotech age. This new edition of Kuhn’s essential work in the history of science includes an insightful introduction by Ian Hacking, which clarifies terms popularized by Kuhn, including paradigm and incommensurability, and applies Kuhn’s ideas to the science of today. Usefully keyed to the separate sections of the book, Hacking’s introduction provides important background information as well as a contemporary context. Newly designed, with an expanded index, this edition will be eagerly welcomed by the next generation of readers seeking to understand the history of our perspectives on science.

Social Emergence

Societies As Complex Systems
Author: Robert Keith Sawyer
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521844642
Category: Philosophy
Page: 276
View: 9747
Can we understand important social issues by studying individual personalities and decisions? Or are societies somehow more than the people in them? Sociologists have long believed that psychology can't explain what happens when people work together in complex modern societies. In contrast, most psychologists and economists believe that if we have an accurate theory of how individuals make choices and act on them, we can explain pretty much everything about social life. Social Emergence takes a new approach to these longstanding questions. Sawyer argues that societies are complex dynamical systems, and that the best way to resolve these debates is by developing the concept of emergence, focusing on multiple levels of analysis - individuals, interactions, and groups - and with a dynamic focus on how social group phenomena emerge from communication processes among individual members. This book makes a unique contribution not only to complex systems research but also to social theory.

Systems Thinking For Social Change

A Practical Guide to Solving Complex Problems, Avoiding Unintended Consequences, and Achieving Lasting Results
Author: David Peter Stroh
Publisher: Chelsea Green Publishing
ISBN: 1603585818
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 264
View: 6493
Donors, leaders of nonprofits, and public policy makers usually have the best of intentions to serve society and improve social conditions. But often their solutions fall far short of what they want to accomplish and what is truly needed. Moreover, the answers they propose and fund often produce the opposite of what they want over time. We end up with temporary shelters that increase homelessness, drug busts that increase drug-related crime, or food aid that increases starvation. How do these unintended consequences come about and how can we avoid them? By applying conventional thinking to complex social problems, we often perpetuate the very problems we try so hard to solve, but it is possible to think differently, and get different results. Systems Thinking for Social Change enables readers to contribute more effectively to society by helping them understand what systems thinking is and why it is so important in their work. It also gives concrete guidance on how to incorporate systems thinking in problem solving, decision making, and strategic planning without becoming a technical expert. Systems thinking leader David Stroh walks readers through techniques he has used to help people improve their efforts to end homelessness, improve public health, strengthen education, design a system for early childhood development, protect child welfare, develop rural economies, facilitate the reentry of formerly incarcerated people into society, resolve identity-based conflicts, and more. The result is a highly readable, effective guide to understanding systems and using that knowledge to get the results you want.

Genetics, Health, and Society

Author: Brea L. Perry
Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing
ISBN: 1783505680
Category: Social Science
Page: 336
View: 3110
This volume focuses on critical issues surrounding the intersection of genetics, health, and society. It provides a critical examination of sociological and biomedical approaches to genomics, including strengths and limitations of each perspective.