Sociology of Shiʿite Islam

Collected Essays
Author: Saïd Amir Arjomand
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004326278
Category: History
Page: 498
View: 7274
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Sociology of Shiʿite Islam is a comprehensive study of the development of Shiʿism from its sectarian formation in the eighth century through its establishment as Iran’s national religion in the sixteenth to the Islamic revolution Iran in the twentieth century.

The Sociology of Islam

Knowledge, Power and Civility
Author: Armando Salvatore
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118662636
Category: Religion
Page: 344
View: 7167
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The Sociology of Islam provides an accessible introduction to this emerging field of inquiry, teaching and debate. The study is located at the crucial intersection between a variety of disciplines in the social sciences and the humanities. It discusses the long-term dynamics of Islam as both a religion and as a social, political and cultural force. The volume focuses on ideas of knowledge, power and civility to provide students and readers with analytic and critical thinking frameworks for understanding the complex social facets of Islamic traditions and institutions. The study of the sociology of Islam improves the understanding of Islam as a diverse force that drives a variety of social and political arrangements. Delving into both conceptual questions and historical interpretations, The Sociology of Islam is a transdisciplinary, comparative resource for students, scholars, and policy makers seeking to understand Islam’s complex changes throughout history and its impact on the modern world.

The Sociology of Islam

Secularism, Economy and Politics
Author: Tugrul Keskin
Publisher: UWA Publishing
ISBN: 9780863724251
Category: History
Page: 528
View: 2302
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The contributions of Islam to world civilization are undeniable. However, in the last 100 years, Muslims have been confronted with the effects and ramifications of modernity, caused by the emergence of global capitalism. What does modernity ultimately mean for Muslims? How will the historical precepts of Islam meet the changes in our globalized world? To date, most scholars on Islam have tried to understand Muslim societies from historical observation alone. This simplistic academic approach does not allow us to understand the entire transformation that has taken place in Muslim societies. Sociological scholarship, on the other hand, argues that it would be difficult to understand Islam without first understanding the theoretical and practical underpinnings of the social structure of Muslim societies, which are embedded in the relationship between religion, the economy, politics, and society. This book - now available in paperback - makes a connection between the economic system and its social and political consequences in Muslim societies. It examines the role of Islam within Muslim societies in the context of ongoing and increasingly powerful, neoliberal, economic processes in a globalized world, and the way in which Islam influences the West because of the interdependent relations brought about by the global economy. These interdependencies create social and political transformation on both sides.

Invitation to the Sociology of Religion


Author: Phil Zuckerman
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113594816X
Category: Religion
Page: 168
View: 1379
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This book intends to serve as a conversational, colorful, engaging, and provocative introduction to the sociology of religion for undergraduates. Written in lively prose, this volume aims to introduce students to the major themes, problems and goals of the sociological study of religion while also summoning the sense of wonder and curiosity for the enterprise itself.

The Dynamics of Sunni-Shia Relationships

Doctrine, Transnationalism, Intellectuals and the Media
Author: Sabrina Mervin,Rainer Brunner,Jean-François Legrain,Joseph Alagha,Reidar Visser,Thomas Pierret,Roel Meijer,Joas Wagemakers,Stéphane A. Dudoignon,Farian Sabahi,Mariam Abou Zahab,Bayram Balci,Altay Goyushov,Brecht De Smet
Publisher: Hurst Publishers
ISBN: 1849042179
Category: Religion
Page: 355
View: 2583
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Before the immense changes of the 2011 'Arab Spring', it was Sunni-Shia sectarian rivalry that preoccupied most political analyses of the Middle East. This book presents wide-ranging and up-to-date research that sheds light on the political, sociological and ideological processes that are affecting the dynamics within the Shia and Sunni worlds.

A History of Islamic Societies


Author: Ira M. Lapidus
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521514304
Category: History
Page: 1020
View: 1742
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An accessible worldwide history of Muslim societies provides updated coverage of each country and region, in a volume that discusses their origins and evolution while offering insight into historical processes that shaped contemporary Islam and surveying its growing influence. Simultaneous. (Social Science)

Beyond Sunni and Shia

The Roots of Sectarianism in a Changing Middle East
Author: Frederic Wehrey
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190911190
Category: Political Science
Page: N.A
View: 7623
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This collection seeks to advance our understanding of intra-Islamic identity conflict during a period of upheaval in the Middle East. Instead of treating distinctions between and within Sunni and Shia Islam as primordial and immutable, it examines how political economy, geopolitics, domestic governance, social media, non- and sub-state groups, and clerical elites have affected the transformation and diffusion of sectarian identities. Particular attention is paid to how conflicts over distribution of political and economic power have taken on a sectarian quality, and how a variety of actors have instrumentalized sectarianism. The volume, covering Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia and the Gulf, Iran, and Egypt, includes contributors from a broad array of disciplines including political science, history, sociology, and Islamic studies. Beyond Sunni and Shia draws on extensive fieldwork and primary sources to offer insights that are empirically rich and theoretically grounded, but also accessible for policy audiences and the informed public.

A Concise History of Sunnis and Shi'is


Author: John McHugo
Publisher: Georgetown University Press
ISBN: 1626165882
Category: Religion
Page: 352
View: 5475
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The 1,400-year-old schism between Sunnis and Shi’is is currently reflected in the destructive struggle for hegemony between Saudi Arabia and Iran—with no apparent end in sight. But how did this conflict begin, and why is it now the focus of so much attention? Charting the history of Islam from the death of the Prophet Muhammad to the present day, John McHugo describes the conflicts that raged over the succession to the Prophet, how Sunnism and Shi’ism evolved as different sects during the Abbasid caliphate, and how the rivalry between the Sunni Ottomans and Shi’i Safavids ensured that the split would continue into the modern age. In recent decades, this centuries-old divide has acquired a new toxicity that has resulted in violence across the Arab world and other Muslim countries. Definitive, insightful, and accessible, A Concise History of Sunnis and Shi'is is an essential guide to understanding the genesis, development, and manipulation of the schism that for far too many people has come to define Islam and the Muslim world.

Max Weber and Islam


Author: Toby E. Huff,Wolfgang Schluchter
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
ISBN: 9781412828215
Category: Religion
Page: 332
View: 5571
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Max Weber and Islam is a major effort by Islamic-studies specialists to reexamine and appraise Max Weber's perspectives on Islam and its historical development. Eight specialists on Islam and two sociologists explore many dimensions of Weber's comments on Islam, along with Weber's conceptual framework. The volume's introduction links the discussions to contemporary issues and debates. Wolfgang Schluchter reconstructs Weber's conceptual apparatus as it applies to Islam and its historical development. In subsequent chapters, Islamic specialists consider such major topics as the developmental history of Islam, Islamic fundamentalism, Islamic reform, Islamic law and capitalism, secularization in Islam, as well as the value of attempting to apply Weber's concept of sects to Islam. While some authors find flaws in Weber's factual knowledge of Islam, they also find considerable merit in the kinds of questions Weber raised. Contributors to the volume include highly respected contemporary international scholars of Islam: Ira Lapidus, Nehemia Levtzion, Richard M. Eaton, Peter Hardy, Rudolph Peters, Barbara Metcalf, Francis Robinson, Patricia Crone, Michael Cook, and S.N. Eisenstadt. Toby Huff's introduction not only knits the thematics of the separate essays together but adds its own stresses while engaging the contributors in dialogue and debate about fundamental issues. This acute collective analysis establishes a new benchmark for understanding Weber and Islam. This book also provides an up-to-date overview of the developmental history of many aspects of Islam. A major reappraisal of the entire span of Max Weber's sociological thought on Islam, this book will appeal to a wide range of scholars and laymen interested in the Islamic world. It will be of particular interest to sociologists specializing in religion and Middle East area specialists. Toby E. Huff is professor of sociology at the University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth. He is editor of On the Roads to Modernity: Conscience, Science and Civilization--Selected Writings by Benjamin Nelson and the author of Max Weber and the Methodology of the Social Sciences and The Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China, and the West. Wolfgang Schluchter is professor of sociology at the University of Heidelberg and dean of the Max Weber Center for Advanced Studies at the University of Erfurt.

The Formative Period of Twelver Shi'ism

Hadith as Discourse Between Qum and Baghdad
Author: Andrew J. Newman
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136837051
Category: Social Science
Page: 320
View: 1783
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Shows how the frictions and disparities between the different pockets of believers scattered throughout the Eastern Islamic world in the late ninth and tenth centuries, the relations between each of these and the Abbasid political institution favoured the narration of different bodies of the Imams' traditions

Islam and Assisted Reproductive Technologies

Sunni and Shia Perspectives
Author: Marcia C. Inhorn,Soraya Tremayne
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 0857454919
Category: Medical
Page: 346
View: 830
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How and to what extent have Islamic legal scholars and Middle Eastern lawmakers, as well as Middle Eastern Muslim physicians and patients, grappled with the complex bioethical, legal, and social issues that are raised in the process of attempting to conceive life in the face of infertility? This path-breaking volume explores the influence of Islamic attitudes on Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) and reveals the variations in both the Islamic jurisprudence and the cultural responses to ARTs.

Religious Secularity

A Theological Challenge to the Islamic State
Author: Naser Ghobadzadeh
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190664894
Category:
Page: 288
View: 4604
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Renewed authoritarianism, national disintegration, sectarian violence, and the increasing radicalization of Jihadi-Salafism since the Arab uprisings have significantly blurred visions for constructive religion-state-society relations in the MENA region. The dissolution of the 'Arab Spring'seems to have revived the questionable notion of Islamic exceptionalism. In sharp contrast, this book seeks to invalidate the supposed incompatibility of Islam and secular democracy. It outlines a complex Islamic political theology that undermines the religious basis of the unification of religionand state, offering religious justification for their separation. Naser Ghobadzadeh coins the seemingly oxymoronic notion 'religious secularity' to encapsulate the Islamic quest to emancipate religion from state. In simultaneous opposition to both the politicisation of Islam and authoritarian secularism, religious secularity employs Islamic sources such as theQuran and Hadiths to articulate a robust religious rationale for state secularism. Whereas mainstream literature frequently presents being secular as 'antithetical to being religious', religious secularity blurs the boundaries between the 'religious' and the 'secular'. This book suggests that therift between the religious and the secular is no more pronounced than the relationship between the two understood in dualistic terms, as evinced by Islamic history. Thus, religious secularity supports a theoretical shift away from the religious-secular dichotomy.

Engineers of Jihad

The Curious Connection between Violent Extremism and Education
Author: Diego Gambetta,Steffen Hertog
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400888123
Category: Political Science
Page: 208
View: 3792
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The violent actions of a few extremists can alter the course of history, yet there persists a yawning gap between the potential impact of these individuals and what we understand about them. In Engineers of Jihad, Diego Gambetta and Steffen Hertog uncover two unexpected facts, which they imaginatively leverage to narrow that gap: they find that a disproportionate share of Islamist radicals come from an engineering background, and that Islamist and right-wing extremism have more in common than either does with left-wing extremism, in which engineers are absent while social scientists and humanities students are prominent. Searching for an explanation, they tackle four general questions about extremism: Under which socioeconomic conditions do people join extremist groups? Does the profile of extremists reflect how they self-select into extremism or how groups recruit them? Does ideology matter in sorting who joins which group? Lastly, is there a mindset susceptible to certain types of extremism? Using rigorous methods and several new datasets, they explain the link between educational discipline and type of radicalism by looking at two key factors: the social mobility (or lack thereof) for engineers in the Muslim world, and a particular mindset seeking order and hierarchy that is found more frequently among engineers. Engineers' presence in some extremist groups and not others, the authors argue, is a proxy for individual traits that may account for the much larger question of selective recruitment to radical activism. Opening up markedly new perspectives on the motivations of political violence, Engineers of Jihad yields unexpected answers about the nature and emergence of extremism.

The Shīʻite Movement in Iraq


Author: Fāliḥ ʻAbd al-Jabbār
Publisher: Saqi Books
ISBN: 9780863563959
Category: Political Science
Page: 391
View: 1383
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Long oppressed despite their majority status, the Shi'is of Iraq have seen their leaders assassinated or exiled and their rituals debased. But they are a force to be reckoned with, and will play a key role in the reshaping of Iraq. This book is a thorough investigation by one of the foremost experts on the region into the origins and development of Iraqi Shi'ite political activism. Tracing the course of the Shi'is' quest for self-representation, the book shows how their political formation has historically intersected with a variety of religious and geopolitical forces, contending with a series of modern-era strongman regimes culminating in the most violent of them all, the Ba'th rule under Saddam Hussein. Almost alone amongst observers of the region, Faleh A. Jabar greatly enlarges our understanding of Shi'ism in its social, cultural, political and economic dimensions, and underscores the fact that Iraq's Shi'is have never constituted the homogeneous group that political analysts have too often insisted upon. Timely and exhaustively researched, this book offers a perspective on the complexities of the Iraqi situation before and after the fall of Saddam Hussein. Long oppressed despite their majority status, the Shi'is of Iraq have seen their leaders assassinated or exiled and their rituals debased. But they are a force to be reckoned with, and will play a key role in the reshaping of Iraq. This book is a thorough investigation by one of the foremost experts on the region into the origins and development of Iraqi Shi'ite political activism. Tracing the course of the Shi'is' quest for self-representation, the book shows how their political formation has historically intersected with a variety of religious and geopolitical forces, contending with a series of modern-era strongman regimes culminating in the most violent of them all, the Ba'th rule under Saddam Hussein. Almost alone amongst observers of the region, Faleh A. Jabar greatly enlarges our understanding of Shi'ism in its social, cultural, political and economic dimensions, and underscores the fact that Iraq's Shi'is have never constituted the homogeneous group that political analysts have too often insisted upon. Timely and exhaustively researched, this book offers a perspective on the complexities of the Iraqi situation before and after the fall of Saddam Hussein.

Horse of Karbala

Muslim Devotional Life in India
Author: D. Pinault
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137047658
Category: Social Science
Page: 257
View: 1648
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Horse of Karbala is a study of Muharram rituals and interfaith relations in three locations in India: Ladakh, Darjeeling, and Hyderabad. These rituals commemorate an event of vital importance to Shia Muslims: the seventh-century death of the Imam Husain, grandson of the Prophet Muhammad, at the battlefield of Karbala in Iraq. Pinault examines three different forms of ritual commemoration of Husain's death - poetry-recital and self-flagellation in Hyderabad; stick-fighting in Darjeeling; and the 'Horse of Karbala' procession, in which a stallion representing the mount ridden in battle by Husain is made the center of a public parade in Ladakh and other Indian localities. The book looks at how publicly staged rituals serve to mediate communal relations: in Hyderabad and Darjeeling, between Muslim and Hindu populations; in Ladakh, between Muslims and Buddhists. Attention is also given to controversies within Muslim communities over issues related to Muharram such as the belief in intercession by the Karbala Martyrs on behalf of individual believers.

Religion and State in Syria

The Sunni Ulama from Coup to Revolution
Author: Thomas Pierret
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139620061
Category: Political Science
Page: N.A
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While Syria has been dominated since the 1960s by a determinedly secular regime, the 2011 uprising has raised many questions about the role of Islam in the country's politics. This book demonstrates that with the eradication of the Muslim Brothers after the failed insurrection of 1982, Sunni men of religion became the only voice of the Islamic trend in the country. Through educational programs, charitable foundations and their deft handling of tribal and merchant networks, they took advantage of popular disaffection with secular ideologies to increase their influence over society. In recent years, with the Islamic resurgence, the Alawi-dominated Ba'thist regime was compelled to bring the clergy into the political fold. This relationship was exposed in 2011 by the division of the Sunni clergy between regime supporters, bystanders and opponents. This book affords a new perspective on Syrian society as it stands at the crossroads of political and social fragmentation.

American Islam

The Struggle for the Soul of a Religion
Author: Paul M. Barrett
Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux
ISBN: 9780374708306
Category: Religion
Page: 320
View: 1736
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Vivid, dramatic portraits of Muslims in America in the years after 9/11, as they define themselves in a religious subculture torn between moderation and extremism There are as many as six million Muslims in the United States today. Islam (together with Christianity and Judaism) is now an American faith, and the challenges Muslims face as they reconcile their intense and demanding faith with our chaotic and permissive society are recognizable to all of us. From West Virginia to northern Idaho, American Islam takes readers into Muslim homes, mosques, and private gatherings to introduce a population of striking variety. The central characters range from a charismatic black imam schooled in the militancy of the Nation of Islam to the daughter of an Indian immigrant family whose feminist views divided her father's mosque in West Virginia. Here are lives in conflict, reflecting in different ways the turmoil affecting the religion worldwide. An intricate mixture of ideologies and cultures, American Muslims include immigrants and native born, black and white converts, those who are well integrated into the larger society and those who are alienated and extreme in their political views. Even as many American Muslims succeed in material terms and enrich our society, Islam is enmeshed in controversy in the United States, as thousands of American Muslims have been investigated and interrogated in the wake of 9/11. American Islam is an intimate and vivid group portrait of American Muslims in a time of turmoil and promise.

Partners of Zaynab

A Gendered Perspective of Shia Muslim Faith
Author: Diane D'Souza
Publisher: Univ of South Carolina Press
ISBN: 1611173787
Category: Social Science
Page: 264
View: 8083
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How do pious Shia Muslim women nurture and sustain their religious lives? How do their experiences and beliefs differ from or overlap with those of men? What do gender-based religious roles and interactions reveal about the Shia Muslim faith? In Partners of Zaynab, Diane D’Souza presents a rich ethnography of urban Shia women in India, exploring women’s devotional lives through the lens of religious narrative, sacred space, ritual performance, leadership, and iconic symbols. Religious scholars have tended to devalue women’s religious expressions, confining them to the periphery of a male-centered ritual world. This viewpoint often assumes that women’s ritual behaviors are the unsophisticated product of limited education and experience and even a less developed female nature. By illuminating vibrant female narratives within Shia religious teachings, the fascinating history of a shrine led by women, the contemporary lives of dynamic female preachers, and women’s popular prayers and rituals of petition, Partners of Zaynab demonstrates that the religious lives of women are not a flawed approximation of male-defined norms and behaviors, but a vigorous, authentic affirmation of faith within the religious mainstream. D’Souza questions the distinction between normative and popular religious behavior, arguing that such a categorization not only isolates and devalues female ritual expressions, but also weakens our understanding of religion as a whole. Partners of Zaynab offers a compelling glimpse of Muslim faith and practice and a more complete understanding of the interplay of gender within Shia Islam.

Shi'ite Islam


Author: Yann Richard
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
ISBN: 9781557864703
Category: Religion
Page: 256
View: 5232
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The return of Ayatollah Khomeyni to power and the installation of a Shi'i theocracy in Iran in 1979 brought the revolutionary aspects of Shi'ite Islam to the Western centre stage. Fuelled by pictures of bloodshed and atrocities, images of violence linked to Shia states have left their mark on Western perceptions. Shi'ism has today become synonymous with militancy and violence - Hezbollah, Islamic Jehad, hostage taking... Yet, the media has taken merely one aspect of this important phenomenon: namely a contempory Shi'ism firmly anchored in militancy. Yann Richard's careful narrative counters naive explanation, offering both a portrait of the spiritual and mystical faith which explains the deep history and mythology of Shi'ism up to the present. Islam is no more an Arab religion than Chritianity is a uniquely Western religion - not confined to the Arab world, the largest number of Muslims today are found in Asia, Indonesia, and the Indo-Pakistan peninsula, whilst the Iranian nation today represents the great centre of Shi'ite Islam. Not only does the narrative chart the spread of Shi'ite influence over the Imanite communities, it uncovers the fundamental beliefs of Shi'ite identity on which a polity has been built. Richard examines both the development of Shi'i as theology and as a cultural history. This book will stand the test of time to become a seminal text in Middle Eastern history and the study of world religions.

Everyday Jihad

The Rise of Militant Islam Among Palestinians in Lebanon
Author: Bernard Rougier
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674025295
Category: History
Page: 333
View: 9653
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Revealing how jihadist networks take hold in communities wracked by poverty, despair, and unemployment, a study of the rise of Islamic extremism in southern Lebanon journeys inside the Palestinian refugee camp at Ain al-Helweh, a recruitment ground for young, disenfranchised Palestinians, and discusses the growth of Hezbollah and the contributions of such players as Syria and Iran.