Spotlight Synthetic Aperture Radar

Signal Processing Algorithms
Author: Walter G. Carrara,Ron S. Goodman,Ronald M. Majewski
Publisher: Artech House on Demand
ISBN: 9780890067284
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 554
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?The book gives an excellent theoretical and practical background of SAR in general and specifically of spotlight SAR. The rich experience of the authors in spotlight SAR processing is reflected by a very detailed summary of the associated theory as well as a lot of SAR image examples. These images illustrate the techniques described in the book and provide a valuable connection to practice. This book can be highly recommended to all scientists and engineers involved in SAR system design and SAR data evaluation.?---International Journal of Electronics and Communications

Digital Processing of Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

Algorithms and Implementation
Author: Ian G. Cumming,Frank Hay-chee Wong
Publisher: Artech House Publishers
ISBN: 9781580530583
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 625
View: 6482
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Written from a signal processing point of view, this authoritative volume on digital processing of synthetic aperture radar data is geared toward professionals and students with a general electrical engineering background.

Spotlight-Mode Synthetic Aperture Radar: A Signal Processing Approach

A Signal Processing Approach
Author: Charles V. J. Jakowatz,Daniel E. Wahl,Paul H. Eichel,Dennis C. Ghiglia,Paul A. Thompson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461313333
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 430
View: 9082
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Modern airborne and spaceborne imaging radars, known as synthetic aperture radars (SARs), are capable of producing high-quality pictures of the earth's surface while avoiding some of the shortcomings of certain other forms of remote imaging systems. Primarily, radar overcomes the nighttime limitations of optical cameras, and the cloud- cover limitations of both optical and infrared imagers. In addition, because imaging radars use a form of coherent illumination, they can be used in certain special modes such as interferometry, to produce some unique derivative image products that incoherent systems cannot. One such product is a highly accurate digital terrain elevation map (DTEM). The most recent (ca. 1980) version of imaging radar, known as spotlight-mode SAR, can produce imagery with spatial resolution that begins to approach that of remote optical imagers. For all of these reasons, synthetic aperture radar imaging is rapidly becoming a key technology in the world of modern remote sensing. Much of the basic `workings' of synthetic aperture radars is rooted in the concepts of signal processing. Starting with that premise, this book explores in depth the fundamental principles upon which the spotlight mode of SAR imaging is constructed, using almost exclusively the language, concepts, and major building blocks of signal processing. Spotlight-Mode Synthetic Aperture Radar: A Signal Processing Approach is intended for a variety of audiences. Engineers and scientists working in the field of remote sensing but who do not have experience with SAR imaging will find an easy entrance into what can seem at times a very complicated subject. Experienced radar engineers will find that the book describes several modern areas of SAR processing that they might not have explored previously, e.g. interferometric SAR for change detection and terrain elevation mapping, or modern non-parametric approaches to SAR autofocus. Senior undergraduates (primarily in electrical engineering) who have had courses in digital signal and image processing, but who have had no exposure to SAR could find the book useful in a one-semester course as a reference.

Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging With MATLAB Algorithms


Author: Caner Ozdemir
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 111817805X
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 408
View: 9500
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This book provides a full representation of Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) imagery, which is a popular and important radar signal processing tool. The book covers all possible aspects of ISAR imaging. The book offers a fair amount of signal processing techniques and radar basics before introducing the inverse problem of ISAR and the forward problem of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Important concepts of SAR such as resolution, pulse compression and image formation are given together with associated MATLAB codes. After providing the fundamentals for ISAR imaging, the book gives the detailed imaging procedures for ISAR imaging with associated MATLAB functions and codes. To enhance the image quality in ISAR imaging, several imaging tricks and fine-tuning procedures such as zero-padding and windowing are also presented. Finally, various real applications of ISAR imagery, like imaging the antenna-platform scattering, are given in a separate chapter. For all these algorithms, MATLAB codes and figures are included. The final chapter considers advanced concepts and trends in ISAR imaging.

Synthetic Aperture Radar Signal Processing with MATLAB Algorithms


Author: Mehrdad Soumekh
Publisher: Wiley-Interscience
ISBN: 9780471297062
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 648
View: 991
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An up-to-date analysis of the SAR wavefront reconstruction signal theory and its digital implementation With the advent of fast computing and digital information processing techniques, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology has become both more powerful and more accurate. Synthetic Aperture Radar Signal Processing with MATLAB Algorithms addresses these recent developments, providing a complete, up-to-date analysis of SAR and its associated digital signal processing algorithms. This book introduces the wavefront reconstruction signal theory that underlies the best SAR imaging methods and provides clear guidelines to system design, implementation, and applications in diverse areas-from airborne reconnaissance to topographic imaging of ocean floors to surveillance and air traffic control to medical imaging techniques, and numerous others. Enabling professionals in radar signal and image processing to use synthetic aperture technology to its fullest potential, this work: * Includes M-files to supplement this book that can be retrieved from The MathWorks anonymous FTP server at ftp://ftp.mathworks.com/pub/books/soumekh * Provides practical examples and results from real SAR, ISAR, and CSAR databases * Outlines unique properties of the SAR signal that cannot be found in other information processing systems * Examines spotlight SAR, stripmap SAR, circular SAR, and monopulse SAR modalities * Discusses classical SAR processing issues such as motion compensation and radar calibration

Synthetic Aperture Radar Polarimetry


Author: Jakob J. van Zyl
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118116097
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 313
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This book describes the application of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar to earth remote sensing based on research at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). This book synthesizes all current research to provide practical information for both the newcomer and the expert in radar polarimetry. The text offers a concise description of the mathematical fundamentals illustrated with many examples using SAR data, with a main focus on remote sensing of the earth. The book begins with basics of synthetic aperture radar to provide the basis for understanding how polarimetric SAR images are formed and gives an introduction to the fundamentals of radar polarimetry. It goes on to discuss more advanced polarimetric concepts that allow one to infer more information about the terrain being imaged. In order to analyze data quantitatively, the signals must be calibrated carefully, which the book addresses in a chapter summarizing the basic calibration algorithms. The book concludes with examples of applying polarimetric analysis to scattering from rough surfaces, to infer soil moisture from radar signals.

Principles of Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging

A System Simulation Approach
Author: Kun-Shan Chen
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466593156
Category: Computers
Page: 203
View: 3078
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Principles of Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging: A System Simulation Approach demonstrates the use of image simulation for SAR. It covers the various applications of SAR (including feature extraction, target classification, and change detection), provides a complete understanding of SAR principles, and illustrates the complete chain of a SAR operation. The book places special emphasis on a ground-based SAR, but also explains space and air-borne systems. It contains chapters on signal speckle, radar-signal models, sensor-trajectory models, SAR-image focusing, platform-motion compensation, and microwave-scattering from random media. While discussing SAR image focusing and motion compensation, it presents processing algorithms and applications that feature extraction, target classification, and change detection. It also provides samples of simulation on various scenarios, and includes simulation flowcharts and results that are detailed throughout the book. Introducing SAR imaging from a systems point of view, the author: Considers the recent development of MIMO SAR technology Includes selected GPU implementation Provides a numerical analysis of system parameters (including platforms, sensor, and image focusing, and their influence) Explores wave-target interactions, signal transmission and reception, image formation, motion compensation Covers all platform motion compensation and error analysis, and their impact on final image radiometric and geometric quality Describes a ground-based SFMCW system Principles of Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging: A System Simulation Approach is dedicated to the use, study, and development of SAR systems. The book focuses on image formation or focusing, treats platform motion and image focusing, and is suitable for students, radar engineers, and microwave remote sensing researchers.

Radar Imaging for Maritime Observation


Author: Fabrizio Berizzi,Marco Martorella,Elisa Giusti
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1315356678
Category: Political Science
Page: 383
View: 3913
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Based on the experiences of the Department of Information Engineering of the University of Pisa and the Radar and Surveillance System (RaSS) national laboratory of the National Interuniversity Consortium of Telecommunication (CNIT), Radar Imaging for Maritime Observation presents the most recent results in radar imaging for maritime observation. The book explores both the areas of sea surface remote sensing and maritime surveillance providing key theoretical concepts of SAR and ISAR imaging and more advanced and ad-hoc techniques for applications in maritime scenarios. The book is organized in two sections. The first section discusses the fundamentals of standard SAR/ISAR processing and novel imaging techniques, such as Bistatic, Passive, and, 3D Interferometric ISAR. The second section focuses on the applications and results obtained by processing real data from maritime observations like SAR image processing for oil spill, detection in SAR images and fractal analysis. Useful to both beginners and experts in maritime observation, this book provides several examples of (mainly space-borne) radar imaging of maritime targets. Nevertheless, the same principles and techniques apply to the case of manned or unmanned carriers and to ground and air moving targets.

Beamforming

Sensor Signal Processing for Defence Applications
Author: Athanassios Manikas
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 1783262761
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 312
View: 8444
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Beamforming: Sensor Signal Processing for Defence Applications presents a range of important research contributions concerned with sensor array signal processing and, in particular, with the superresolution beamformers fundamental to many civilian and defence applications. Both space and space-time (STAP) beamforming algorithms and their application to radar systems are considered with emphasis given to "look-down" airborne radars, synthetic aperture radar (SAR), arrayed MIMO radar and a number of common wake-wave detection algorithms for two-dimensional SAR imagery. Furthermore, ocean towed arrays, which find applications in a variety of areas such as defence, oil and gas exploration, and geological and marine life studies, are also considered paying particular attention to receiver positional uncertainties resulting from the array's flexible structure. Array geometrical and electrical uncertainties, design of auto-calibration algorithms, beamforming "pointing" error uncertainties and robustification issues are also presented. This book is self-contained and unified in its presentation, and comprehensively covers some of the classic and fundamental models of beamforming for sensor signal processing. It is suitable as an advanced textbook for graduate students and researchers in the area of signal processing, as well as a reference book for engineers in the defence industry. Contents:Space-Time Adaptive Beamforming Algorithms for Airborne Radar Systems (Rodrigo de Lamare)Transmit Beamforming for Forward-Looking Space-Time Radars (Mathini Sellathurai and David Wilcox)Digital Beamforming for Synthetic Aperture Radar (Karen Mak and Athanassios Manikas)Arrayed MIMO Radar: Multi-target Parameter Estimation for Beamforming (Harry Commin, Kai Luo and Athanassios Manikas)Beamforming for Wake Wave Detection and Estimation — An Overview (Karen Mak and Athanassios Manikas)Towed Arrays: Channel Estimation, Tracking and Beamforming (Vidhya Sridhar, Marc Willerton and Athanassios Manikas)Array Uncertainties and Auto-calibration (Marc Willerton, Evangelos Venieris and Athanassios Manikas)Robust Beamforming to Pointing Errors (Jie Zhuang and Athanassios Manikas) Readership: Postgraduate students and researchers working in the area of signal processing as well researchers working in the defence industry. The UDRC runs a series of short courses in signal processing for PhD students and industrial researchers and this book is recommended reading. Key Features:Unique treatment of beamformingUnique modelling techniques using array processing of modern radar systems suchs as MIMO, SAR, etc.New material related to the research carried out at UDRC. This book is considered as one of the academic outcomes of the UDRC in Signal ProcessingKeywords:Space-Time Algorithms;Adaptive Beamforming;Transmit Beamforming;Robust Beamforming;Digital Beamforming;Spatiotemporal Beamforming;Forward-Looking STAP Radar;Airborne Radar;Synthetic Aperture Radar;MIMO Radar;Array Calibration;Array Uncertainties

Fundamentals of Radar Imaging


Author: Margaret Cheney,Brett Borden
Publisher: SIAM
ISBN: 0898719291
Category: Radar
Page: 140
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Signal and Image Processing for Remote Sensing, Second Edition


Author: C.H. Chen
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439855978
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 619
View: 929
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Continuing in the footsteps of the pioneering first edition, Signal and Image Processing for Remote Sensing, Second Edition explores the most up-to-date signal and image processing methods for dealing with remote sensing problems. Although most data from satellites are in image form, signal processing can contribute significantly in extracting information from remotely sensed waveforms or time series data. This book combines both, providing a unique balance between the role of signal processing and image processing. Featuring contributions from worldwide experts, this book continues to emphasize mathematical approaches. Not limited to satellite data, it also considers signals and images from hydroacoustic, seismic, microwave, and other sensors. Chapters cover important topics in signal and image processing and discuss techniques for dealing with remote sensing problems. Each chapter offers an introduction to the topic before delving into research results, making the book accessible to a broad audience. This second edition reflects the considerable advances that have occurred in the field, with 23 of 27 chapters being new or entirely rewritten. Coverage includes new mathematical developments such as compressive sensing, empirical mode decomposition, and sparse representation, as well as new component analysis methods such as non-negative matrix and tensor factorization. The book also presents new experimental results on SAR and hyperspectral image processing. The emphasis is on mathematical techniques that will far outlast the rapidly changing sensor, software, and hardware technologies. Written for industrial and academic researchers and graduate students alike, this book helps readers connect the "dots" in image and signal processing. New in This Edition The second edition includes four chapters from the first edition, plus 23 new or entirely rewritten chapters, and 190 new figures. New topics covered include: Compressive sensing The mixed pixel problem with hyperspectral images Hyperspectral image (HSI) target detection and classification based on sparse representation An ISAR technique for refocusing moving targets in SAR images Empirical mode decomposition for signal processing Feature extraction for classification of remote sensing signals and images Active learning methods in classification of remote sensing images Signal subspace identification of hyperspectral data Wavelet-based multi/hyperspectral image restoration and fusion The second edition is not intended to replace the first edition entirely and readers are encouraged to read both editions of the book for a more complete picture of signal and image processing in remote sensing. See Signal and Image Processing for Remote Sensing (CRC Press 2006).

Transionospheric Synthetic Aperture Imaging


Author: Mikhail Gilman,Erick Smith,Semyon Tsynkov
Publisher: Birkhäuser
ISBN: 3319521276
Category: Mathematics
Page: 458
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This landmark monograph presents the most recent mathematical developments in the analysis of ionospheric distortions of SAR images and offers innovative new strategies for their mitigation. As a prerequisite to addressing these topics, the book also discusses the radar ambiguity theory as it applies to synthetic aperture imaging and the propagation of radio waves through the ionospheric plasma, including the anisotropic and turbulent cases. In addition, it covers a host of related subjects, such as the mathematical modeling of extended radar targets (as opposed to point-wise targets) and the scattering of radio waves off those targets, as well as the theoretical analysis of the start-stop approximation, which is used routinely in SAR signal processing but often without proper justification. The mathematics in this volume is clean and rigorous – no assumptions are hidden or ambiguously stated. The resulting work is truly interdisciplinary, providing both a comprehensive and thorough exposition of the field, as well as an accurate account of a range of relevant physical processes and phenomena. The book is intended for applied mathematicians interested in the area of radar imaging or, more generally, remote sensing, as well as physicists and electrical/electronic engineers who develop/operate spaceborne SAR sensors and perform the data processing. The methods in the book are also useful for researchers and practitioners working on other types of imaging. Moreover, the book is accessible to graduate students in applied mathematics, physics, engineering, and related disciplines. Praise for Transionospheric Synthetic Aperture Imaging: “I perceive that this text will mark a turning point in the field of synthetic aperture radar research and practice. I believe this text will instigate a new era of more rigorous image formation relieving the research, development and practitioner communities of inconsistent physical assumptions and numerical approaches.” – Richard Albanese, Senior Scientist, Albanese Defense and Energy Development LLC

Unexploded Ordnance Detection and Mitigation


Author: James Byrnes
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402092539
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 286
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The chapters in this volume were presented at the July–August 2008 NATO Advanced Study Institute on Unexploded Ordnance Detection and Mitigation. The conference was held at the beautiful Il Ciocco resort near Lucca, in the glorious Tuscany region of northern Italy. For the ninth time we gathered at this idyllic spot to explore and extend the reciprocity between mathematics and engineering. The dynamic interaction between world-renowned scientists from the usually disparate communities of pure mathematicians and applied scientists which occurred at our eight previous ASI’s continued at this meeting. The detection and neutralization of unexploded ordnance (UXO) has been of major concern for very many decades; at least since the First World war. UXO continues to be the subject of intensive research in many ?elds of science, incl- ing mathematics, signal processing (mainly radar and sonar) and chemistry. While today’s headlines emphasize the mayhem resulting from the placement of imp- vised explosive devices (IEDs), humanitarian landmine clearing continues to draw signi?cant global attention as well. In many countries of the world, landmines threaten the population and hinder reconstruction and fast, ef?cient utilization of large areas of the mined land in the aftermath of military con?icts.

Radar Remote Sensing of Urban Areas


Author: Uwe Soergel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048137510
Category: Science
Page: 278
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One of the key milestones of radar remote sensing for civil applications was the launch of the European Remote Sensing Satellite 1 (ERS 1) in 1991. The platform carried a variety of sensors; the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is widely cons- ered to be the most important. This active sensing technique provides all-day and all-weather mapping capability of considerably ?ne spatial resolution. ERS 1 and its sister system ERS 2 (launch 1995) were primarily designed for ocean app- cations, but soon the focus of attention turned to onshore mapping. Examples for typical applications are land cover classi?cation also in tropical zones and mo- toring of glaciers or urban growth. In parallel, international Space Shuttle Missions dedicated to radar remote sensing were conducted starting already in the 1980s. The most prominent were the SIR-C/X-SAR mission focussing on the investigation of multi-frequency and multi-polarization SAR data and the famous Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Data acquired during the latter enabled to derive a DEM of almost global coverage by means of SAR Interferometry. It is indispe- ableeventodayandformanyregionsthebestelevationmodelavailable. Differential SAR Interferometry based on time series of imagery of the ERS satellites and their successor Envisat became an important and unique technique for surface defor- tion monitoring. The spatial resolution of those devices is in the order of some tens of meters.

Distributed Space Missions for Earth System Monitoring


Author: Marco D'Errico
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461445418
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 678
View: 8805
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This title analyzes distributed Earth observation missions from different perspectives. In particular, the issues arising when the payloads are distributed on different satellites are considered from both the theoretical and practical points of view. Moreover, the problems of designing, measuring, and controlling relative trajectories are thoroughly presented in relation to theory and applicable technologies. Then, the technological challenges to design satellites able to support such missions are tackled. An ample and detailed description of missions and studies complements the book subject.

Design and analysis of a content-based image retrieval system


Author: Hernández Mesa, Pilar
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
ISBN: 3731506920
Category:
Page: 270
View: 5712
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Bistatic Radars

Emerging Technology
Author: Mikhail Cherniakov
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470985748
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 406
View: 5060
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The impact of bistatic radar technology on remote sensing is increasing as bistatic systems cross the theoretical threshold into practical embodiment. The wide spectrum of radar applications, including space exploration, defence, transport, aerospace, and meteorology, provides persistent impetus for this progress. This book is dedicated to the more advanced studies in bistatic radar which are currently the subject of intensive research activity and development. With contributions from the leading experts in the field of bistatic radar research, this book collates the latest developments in the field focusing particularly on bistatic synthetic aperture radar (BSAR) and passive bistatic radar systems (PBRS). Within these two areas the text: addresses the main BSAR topologies: spaceborne BSAR, airborne BSAR and space-surface BSAR; analyses the resurgent interest in, and practical applications of, PBRS; introduces passive BSAR technology; covers research of systems used in aircraft detection and tracking, and passive radar remote sensing of the ionosphere and the upper atmosphere. Bistatic Radar: Emerging Technology is an invaluable resource for practising engineers and researchers involved in the design and implementation of advanced bistatic radar systems in aerospace, communications, defence, transport and meteorology. Following on from Bistatic Radar: Principles and Practice it is also a comprehensive reference on the latest research for postgraduate students taking specialist courses in radar technology.

GeoSpatial Visual Analytics

Geographical Information Processing and Visual Analytics for Environmental Security
Author: Raffaele de Amicis,R. Stojanovic,Giuseppe Conti
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9048128994
Category: Science
Page: 508
View: 7838
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Access, distribution and processing of Geographic Information (GI) are basic preconditions to support strategic environmental decision-making. The heterogeneity of information on the environment today available is driving a wide number of initiatives, on both sides of the Atlantic, all advocating both the strategic role of proper management and processing of environme- related data as well as the importance of harmonized IT infrastructures designed to better monitor and manage the environment. The extremely wide range of often multidimensional environmental information made available at the global scale poses a great challenge to technologists and scientists to find extremely sophisticated yet effective ways to provide access to relevant data patterns within such a vast and highly dynamic information flow. In the past years the domain of 3D scientific visualization has developed several solutions designed for operators requiring to access results of a simulation through the use of 3D visualization that could support the understanding of an evolving phenomenon. However 3D data visualization alone does not provide model and hypothesis-making neither it provide tools to validate results. In order overcome this shortcoming, in recent years scientists have developed a discipline that combines the benefits of data mining and information visualization, which is often referred to as Visual Analytics (VA).

Emerging Research in Computing, Information, Communication and Applications

ERCICA 2016
Author: N. R. Shetty,L. M. Patnaik,N. H. Prasad,N. Nalini
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811047413
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 761
View: 2536
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This book presents the proceedings of International Conference on Emerging Research in Computing, Information, Communication and Applications, ERCICA 2016. ERCICA provides an interdisciplinary forum for researchers, professional engineers and scientists, educators, and technologists to discuss, debate and promote research and technology in the upcoming areas of computing, information, communication and their applications. The book discusses these emerging research areas, providing a valuable resource for researchers and practicing engineers alike.