State Correspondence in the Ancient World

From New Kingdom Egypt to the Roman Empire
Author: Karen Radner
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199354774
Category: History
Page: 306
View: 4511
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Introduction : long-distance communication and the cohesion of early empires / Karen Radner -- Egyptian state correspondence of the New Kingdom : the letters of the Levantine client kings in the Amarna correspondence and contemporary evidence / Jana Mynarova -- State correspondence in the Hittite world / Mark Weeden -- An imperial communication network : the state correspondence of the neo-Assyrian empire / Karen Radner -- The lost state correspondence of the Babylonian empire as reflected in contemporary administrative letters / Michael Jursa -- State communications in the Persian Empire / Amelie Kuhrt -- The king's words : Hellenistic royal letters in inscriptions / Alice Bencivenni -- State correspondence in the Roman Empire from Augustus to Justinian / Simon Corcoran.

Material Aspects of Letter Writing in the Graeco-Roman World

c. 500 BC – c. AD 300
Author: Antonia Sarri
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110426951
Category: History
Page: 396
View: 4675
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Letter writing was widespread in the Graeco-Roman world, as indicated by the large number of surviving letters and their extensive coverage of all social categories. Despite a large amount of work that has been done on the topic of ancient epistolography, material and formatting conventions have remained underexplored, mainly due to the difficulty of accessing images of letters in the past. Thanks to the increasing availability of digital images and the appearance of more detailed and sophisticated editions, we are now in a position to study such aspects. This book examines the development of letter writing conventions from the archaic to Roman times, and is based on a wide corpus of letters that survive on their original material substrates. The bulk of the material is from Egypt, but the study takes account of comparative evidence from other regions of the Graeco-Roman world. Through analysis of developments in the use of letters, variations in formatting conventions, layout and authentication patterns according to the sociocultural background and communicational needs of writers, this book sheds light on changing trends in epistolary practice in Graeco-Roman society over a period of roughly eight hundred years. This book will appeal to scholars of Epistolography, Papyrology, Palaeography, Classics, Cultural History of the Graeco-Roman World.

Revolutionizing a World

From Small States to Universalism in the Pre-Islamic Near East
Author: Mark Altaweel,Andrea Squitieri
Publisher: UCL Press
ISBN: 1911576631
Category: History
Page: 336
View: 4938
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This book investigates the long-term continuity of large-scale states and empires, and its effect on the Near East’s social fabric, including the fundamental changes that occurred to major social institutions. Its geographical coverage spans, from east to west, modern-day Libya and Egypt to Central Asia, and from north to south, Anatolia to southern Arabia, incorporating modern-day Oman and Yemen. Its temporal coverage spans from the late eighth century BCE to the seventh century CE during the rise of Islam and collapse of the Sasanian Empire. The authors argue that the persistence of large states and empires starting in the eighth/seventh centuries BCE, which continued for many centuries, led to new socio-political structures and institutions emerging in the Near East. The primary processes that enabled this emergence were large-scale and long-distance movements, or population migrations. These patterns of social developments are analysed under different aspects: settlement patterns, urban structure, material culture, trade, governance, language spread and religion, all pointing at movement as the main catalyst for social change. This book’s argument is framed within a larger theoretical framework termed as ‘universalism’, a theory that explains many of the social transformations that happened to societies in the Near East, starting from the Neo-Assyrian period and continuing for centuries. Among other influences, the effects of these transformations are today manifested in modern languages, concepts of government, universal religions and monetized and globalized economies.

Introduction ;Introducing Assyria ;Assyrian places ;Assyrians at home ;Assyrians abroad ;Foreigners in Assyria ;Assyrian world domination ;Chronology ;Glossary ;References ;Further reading ;Index


Author: Karen Radner
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0198715900
Category: History
Page: 144
View: 2137
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Assyria was one of the most influential kingdoms of the Ancient Near East. In this Very Short Introduction, Karen Radner sketches the history of Assyria from city state to empire, from the early 2nd millennium BC to the end of the 7th century BC. Since the archaeological rediscovery of Assyria in the mid-19th century, its cities have been excavated extensively in Iraq, Syria, Turkey and Israel, with further sites in Iran, Lebanon, and Jordan providing important information. The Assyrian Empire was one of the most geographically vast, socially diverse, multicultural, and multi-ethnic states of the early first millennium BC. Using archaeological records, Radner provides insights into the lives of the inhabitants of the kingdom, highlighting the diversity of human experiences in the Assyrian Empire. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Scribal Repertoires in Egypt from the New Kingdom to the Early Islamic Period


Author: Jennifer Cromwell
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198768109
Category: History
Page: 416
View: 9736
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Scribal Repertoires in Egypt from the New Kingdom to the Early Islamic Period deals with the possibility of glimpsing pre-modern and early modern Egyptian scribes, the actual people who produced ancient documents, through the ways in which they organized and wrote those documents. While traditional research has focused on identifying a 'pure' or 'original' text behind the actual manuscripts that have come down to us from pre-modern Egypt, the volume looks instead at variation - different ways of saying the same thing - as a rich source for understanding the complex social and cultural environments in which scribes lived and worked, breaking with the traditional conception of variation in scribal texts as 'free' or indicative of 'corruption'. As such, it presents a novel reconceptualization of scribal variation in pre-modern Egypt from the point of view of contemporary historical sociolinguistics, seeing scribes as agents embedded in particular geographical, temporal, and socio-cultural environments. Introducing to Egyptology concepts such as scribal communities, networks, and repertoires, among others, the authors then apply them to a variety of phenomena, including features of lexicon, grammar, orthography, palaeography, layout, and format. After first presenting this conceptual framework, they demonstrate how it has been applied to better-studied pre-modern societies by drawing upon the well-established domain of scribal variation in pre-modern English, before proceeding to a series of case studies applying these concepts to scribal variation spanning thousands of years, from the languages and writing systems of Pharaonic times, to those of Late Antique and Islamic Egypt.

The Dynamics of Ancient Empires

State Power from Assyria to Byzantium
Author: Ian Morris,Walter Scheidel
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199707614
Category: History
Page: 400
View: 961
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The world's first known empires took shape in Mesopotamia between the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea and the Persian Gulf, beginning around 2350 BCE. The next 2,500 years witnessed sustained imperial growth, bringing a growing share of humanity under the control of ever-fewer states. Two thousand years ago, just four major powers--the Roman, Parthian, Kushan, and Han empires--ruled perhaps two-thirds of the earth's entire population. Yet despite empires' prominence in the early history of civilization, there have been surprisingly few attempts to study the dynamics of ancient empires in the western Old World comparatively. Such grand comparisons were popular in the eighteenth century, but scholars then had only Greek and Latin literature and the Hebrew Bible as evidence, and necessarily framed the problem in different, more limited, terms. Near Eastern texts, and knowledge of their languages, only appeared in large amounts in the later nineteenth century. Neither Karl Marx nor Max Weber could make much use of this material, and not until the 1920s were there enough archaeological data to make syntheses of early European and west Asian history possible. But one consequence of the increase in empirical knowledge was that twentieth-century scholars generally defined the disciplinary and geographical boundaries of their specialties more narrowly than their Enlightenment predecessors had done, shying away from large questions and cross-cultural comparisons. As a result, Greek and Roman empires have largely been studied in isolation from those of the Near East. This volume is designed to address these deficits and encourage dialogue across disciplinary boundaries by examining the fundamental features of the successive and partly overlapping imperial states that dominated much of the Near East and the Mediterranean in the first millennia BCE and CE. A substantial introductory discussion of recent thought on the mechanisms of imperial state formation prefaces the five newly commissioned case studies of the Neo-Assyrian, Achaemenid Persian, Athenian, Roman, and Byzantine empires. A final chapter draws on the findings of evolutionary psychology to improve our understanding of ultimate causation in imperial predation and exploitation in a wide range of historical systems from all over the globe. Contributors include John Haldon, Jack Goldstone, Peter Bedford, Josef Wieseh?fer, Ian Morris, Walter Scheidel, and Keith Hopkins, whose essay on Roman political economy was completed just before his death in 2004.

The Middle East

the cradle of civilization revealed
Author: Stephen Bourke
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Art
Page: 368
View: 7820
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Explores the history, religion, political and social organization, art, science, and architecture of the peoples' of the Middle East region. This text contains maps and photographs.

Letters of the Great Kings of the Ancient Near East

The Royal Correspondence of the Late Bronze Age
Author: Trevor Bryce
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134575866
Category: History
Page: 272
View: 385
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Offering fascinating insights into the people and politics of the ancient near Eastern kingdoms, Trevor Bryce uses the letters of the five Great Kings of Egypt, Babylon, Hatti, Mitanni and Assyria as the focus of a fresh look at this turbulent and volatile region in the late Bronze Age. Numerous extracts from the letters are constantly interwoven into the fabric of narrative and discussion, and this lively approach allows us to witness history through the eyes of the people who lived it, revealing the personalities and reactions of kings, queens, princes, princesses and royal officials more than 3500 years ago to the current events of the day.

Bookseller

The Organ of the Book Trade
Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Bibliography
Page: N.A
View: 5094
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Vols. for 1871-76, 1913-14 include an extra number, The Christmas bookseller, separately paged and not included in the consecutive numbering of the regular series.

Royal Courts in Dynastic States and Empires

A Global Perspective
Author: Jeroen Duindam,Tülay Artan,Metin Kunt
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004206221
Category: Political Science
Page: 444
View: 3697
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This volume presents new research on royal courts from antiquity to the modern world, from Asia to Europe. It addresses the interactions of rulers and and elites at court, as well as the multiple connections between court, capital, and realm.

Egypt and Africa

Nubia from Prehistory to Islam
Author: W. V. Davies
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Egypt
Page: 320
View: 8157
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Nomads, Tribes, and the State in the Ancient Near East

Cross-disciplinary Perspectives
Author: Jeffrey Szuchman
Publisher: Oriental Inst Publications Sales
ISBN: 9781885923615
Category: History
Page: 288
View: 7888
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For decades, scholars have struggled to understand the complex relationship between pastoral nomadic tribes and sedentary peoples of the Near East. The Oriental Institute's fourth annual post-doc seminar (March 7-8, 2008), Nomads, Tribes, and the State in the Ancient Near East, brought together archaeologists, historians, and anthropologists to discuss new approaches to enduring questions in the study of nomadic peoples, tribes, and states of the past: What social or political bonds link tribes and states? Could nomadic tribes exhibit elements of urbanism or social hierarchies? How can the tools of historical, archaeological, and ethnographic research be integrated to build a dynamic picture of the social landscape of the Near East? This volume presents a range of data and theoretical perspectives from a variety of regions and periods, including prehistoric Iran, ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt, seventh-century Arabia, and nineteenth-century Jordan.

Sapiens

A Brief History of Humankind
Author: Yuval Noah Harari
Publisher: Signal
ISBN: 9780771038518
Category:
Page: 464
View: 2761
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Destined to become a modern classic in the vein of Guns, Germs, and Steel, Sapiens is a lively, groundbreaking history of humankind told from a unique perspective. 100,000 years ago, at least six species of human inhabited the earth. Today there is just one. Us. Homo Sapiens. How did our species succeed in the battle for dominance? Why did our foraging ancestors come together to create cities and kingdoms? How did we come to believe in gods, nations, and human rights; to trust money, books, and laws; and to be enslaved by bureaucracy, timetables, and consumerism? And what will our world be like in the millennia to come? In Sapiens, Dr. Yuval Noah Harari spans the whole of human history, from the very first humans to walk the earth to the radical -- and sometimes devastating -- breakthroughs of the Cognitive, Agricultural, and Scientific Revolutions. Drawing on insights from biology, anthropology, palaeontology, and economics, he explores how the currents of history have shaped our human societies, the animals and plants around us, and even our personalities. Have we become happier as history has unfolded? Can we ever free our behaviour from the heritage of our ancestors? And what, if anything, can we do to influence the course of the centuries to come? Bold, wide-ranging and provocative, Sapiens challenges everything we thought we knew about being human: our thoughts, our actions, our power...and our future.

Empire and Communications


Author: Harold A. Innis
Publisher: Dundurn
ISBN: 1550026623
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 287
View: 3668
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"Empire and Communications" is one of Innis's most important contributions to the debate about how media influences the development of consciousness and societies.-This is one of Innis's most important contributions to the debate about how media influences the development of consciousness and societies.

State Power in Ancient China and Rome


Author: Walter Scheidel
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0190202246
Category: History
Page: 303
View: 987
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The Chinese and the Romans created the largest empires of the ancient world. Separated by thousands of miles of steppe, mountains and sea, these powerful states developed independently and with very limited awareness of each other's existence. This parallel process of state formation served as a massive natural experiment in social evolution that provides unique insight into the complexities of historical causation. Comparisons between the two empires shed new light on the factors that led to particular outcomes and help us understand similarities and differences in ancient state formation. The explicitly comparative perspective adopted in this volume opens up a dialogue between scholars from different areas of specialization, encouraging them to address big questions about the nature of imperial rule. In a series of interlocking case studies, leading experts of early China and the ancient Mediterranean explore the relationship between rulers and elite groups, the organization and funding of government, and the ways in which urban development reflected the interplay between state power and communal civic institutions.0Bureaucratization, famously associated with Qin and Han China but long less prominent in the Roman world, receives special attention as an index of the ambitions and capabilities of kings and emperors. The volume concludes with a look at the preconditions for the emergence of divine rulership. Taken together, these pioneering contributions lay the foundations for a systematic comparative history of early empires.

Rome and China

Comparative Perspectives on Ancient World Empires
Author: Walter Scheidel
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199714292
Category: History
Page: 256
View: 9181
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Transcending ethnic, linguistic, and religious boundaries, early empires shaped thousands of years of world history. Yet despite the global prominence of empire, individual cases are often studied in isolation. This series seeks to change the terms of the debate by promoting cross-cultural, comparative, and transdisciplinary perspectives on imperial state formation prior to the European colonial expansion. Two thousand years ago, up to one-half of the human species was contained within two political systems, the Roman empire in western Eurasia (centered on the Mediterranean Sea) and the Han empire in eastern Eurasia (centered on the great North China Plain). Both empires were broadly comparable in terms of size and population, and even largely coextensive in chronological terms (221 BCE to 220 CE for the Qin/Han empire, c. 200 BCE to 395 CE for the unified Roman empire). At the most basic level of resolution, the circumstances of their creation are not very different. In the East, the Shang and Western Zhou periods created a shared cultural framework for the Warring States, with the gradual consolidation of numerous small polities into a handful of large kingdoms which were finally united by the westernmost marcher state of Qin. In the Mediterranean, we can observe comparable political fragmentation and gradual expansion of a unifying civilization, Greek in this case, followed by the gradual formation of a handful of major warring states (the Hellenistic kingdoms in the east, Rome-Italy, Syracuse and Carthage in the west), and likewise eventual unification by the westernmost marcher state, the Roman-led Italian confederation. Subsequent destabilization occurred again in strikingly similar ways: both empires came to be divided into two halves, one that contained the original core but was more exposed to the main barbarian periphery (the west in the Roman case, the north in China), and a traditionalist half in the east (Rome) and south (China). These processes of initial convergence and subsequent divergence in Eurasian state formation have never been the object of systematic comparative analysis. This volume, which brings together experts in the history of the ancient Mediterranean and early China, makes a first step in this direction, by presenting a series of comparative case studies on clearly defined aspects of state formation in early eastern and western Eurasia, focusing on the process of initial developmental convergence. It includes a general introduction that makes the case for a comparative approach; a broad sketch of the character of state formation in western and eastern Eurasia during the final millennium of antiquity; and six thematically connected case studies of particularly salient aspects of this process.

Plutarch and His Roman Readers


Author: Philip A. Stadter
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0198718330
Category: Philosophy
Page: 394
View: 3146
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This collection of essays on Plutarch's Parallel Lives examines the moral issues he recognized behind political leadership, and relates his writings to the audience of leading generals and administrators of the Roman empire which Plutarch aimed to influence, and to the larger social and political context of the reigns of the Flavian emperors and their successors, Nerva and Trajan, during which he wrote.

Contested Monarchy

Integrating the Roman Empire in the Fourth Century AD
Author: Johannes Wienand
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199768994
Category: History
Page: 530
View: 3182
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"This volume aims to reappraise the wide-ranging and lasting transformation of the Roman monarchy between the Principate and Late Antiquity. The focus of the book will lie on the period from Diocletian to Theodosius I (284-395) and thus on a major developmental phase in the history of the Roman Empire. During this period, the stability of monarchical rule depended heavily on the emperor's mobility, on collegial or dynastic rule, and on the military resolution of internal political crises. At the same time, profound religious changes modified the premises of political interaction and symbolic communication between the emperor and his subjects, and administrative and military readjustments changed the institutional foundations of the Roman monarchy. This volume concentrates on the measures taken by Roman emperors of this period to cope with the changing framework of their rule. The collection will examine monarchy along three distinct yet intertwined fields: Administering the Empire, Performing the Monarchy, and Balancing Religious Change. Each field possesses its own historiography and methodology, and accordingly has usually been treated separately. This volume's multifaceted approach builds on recent trends to examine imperial rule in a more integrated fashion. A brief introductory article to each thematic section provides an overview of the major developments in the field, thereby providing a coherent framework for the contributions. Including new work from a wide range of European and American scholars, both established and junior, Contested Monarchy promises to provide a fresh survey of the role of the Roman monarch in a period of significant and enduring change"--Provided by publisher.

Ancient Syria

A Three Thousand Year History
Author: Trevor Bryce
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199646678
Category: History
Page: 379
View: 4271
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Syria has long been one of the most trouble-prone and politically volatile regions of the Near and Middle Eastern world, and indeed the world in general. This book looks back beyond the troubles of the present to tell the 3000-year story of Ancient Syria: of the peoples, cities, and kingdoms that arose, flourished, declined, and disappeared, from the time of the region's earliest written records in the third millennium BC, through to the reign of the Roman emperorDiocletian in the early 4th century AD. The conclusion then looks forward to the Muslim conquest in the 7th century AD: in many ways the opening chapter in the equally complex and equally troubledhistory of modern Syria.