Statistics for Ecologists Using R and Excel

Data Collection, Exploration, Analysis and Presentation
Author: Mark Gardener
Publisher: Pelagic Publishing Ltd
ISBN: 1784271411
Category: Science
Page: 406
View: 2766

This is a book about the scientific process and how you apply it to data in ecology. You will learn how to plan for data collection, how to assemble data, how to analyze data and finally how to present the results. The book uses Microsoft Excel and the powerful Open Source R program to carry out data handling as well as producing graphs.Statistical approaches covered include: data exploration; tests for difference – t-test and U-test; correlation – Spearman’s rank test and Pearson product-moment; association including Chi-squared tests and goodness of fit; multivariate testing using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal–Wallis test; and multiple regression.Key skills taught in this book include: how to plan ecological projects; how to record and assemble your data; how to use R and Excel for data analysis and graphs; how to carry out a wide range of statistical analyses including analysis of variance and regression; how to create professional looking graphs; and how to present your results.New in this edition: a completely revised chapter on graphics including graph types and their uses, Excel Chart Tools, R graphics commands and producing different chart types in Excel and in R; an expanded range of support material online, including; example data, exercises and additional notes & explanations; a new chapter on basic community statistics, biodiversity and similarity; chapter summaries and end-of-chapter exercises.Praise for the first edition:This book is a superb way in for all those looking at how to design investigations and collect data to support their findings. – Sue Townsend, Biodiversity Learning Manager, Field Studies Council[M]akes it easy for the reader to synthesise R and Excel and there is extra help and sample data available on the free companion webpage if needed. I recommended this text to the university library as well as to colleagues at my student workshops on R. Although I initially bought this book when I wanted to discover R I actually also learned new techniques for data manipulation and management in Excel – Mark Edwards, EcoBloggingA must for anyone getting to grips with data analysis using R and excel. – Amazon 5-star reviewIt has been very easy to follow and will be perfect for anyone. – Amazon 5-star reviewA solid introduction to working with Excel and R. The writing is clear and informative, the book provides plenty of examples and figures so that each string of code in R or step in Excel is understood by the reader. – Goodreads, 4-star review

Statistics for Ecologists Using R and Excel

Data Collection, Exploration, Analysis and Presentation
Author: Mark Gardener
Publisher: Pelagic Publishing
ISBN: 1907807276
Category: Science
Page: 324
View: 1698

This is a book about the scientific process and how we apply it to data in ecology. We will learn how to plan for data collection, how to assemble data, how to analyse data and finally how to present the results. The book uses Microsoft Excel and the powerful Open Source R program to carry out data handling as well as producing graphs. Who this book is for Students of ecology and environmental science will find this book aimed at them although many other scientists will find the text useful as the principles and data analysis are the same in many disciplines. No prior knowledge is assumed and the reader can develop their skills to degree level and beyond. What you will learn from this book How to plan ecological projects How to record and assemble your data How to use Excel for data analysis and graphs How to use R for data analysis and graphs How to carry out a wide range of statistical analyses How to create professional looking graphs How to present your results

Statistics for Ecologists Using R and Excel

Data Collection, Exploration, Analysis and Presentation
Author: Mark Gardener
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781784271398
Category: Computers
Page: 406
View: 2578

This is a book about the scientific process and how you apply it to data in ecology. You will learn how to plan for data collection, how to assemble data, how to analyze data and finally how to present the results. The book uses Microsoft Excel and the powerful Open Source R program to carry out data handling as well as producing graphs. Statistical approaches covered include: data exploration; tests for difference - t-test and U-test; correlation - Spearman's rank test and Pearson product-moment; association including Chi-squared tests and goodness of fit; multivariate testing using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis test; and multiple regression. Key skills taught in this book include: how to plan ecological projects; how to record and assemble your data; how to use R and Excel for data analysis and graphs; how to carry out a wide range of statistical analyses including analysis of variance and regression; how to create professional looking graphs; and how to present your results. New in this edition: a completely revised chapter on graphics including graph types and their uses, Excel Chart Tools, R graphics commands and producing different chart types in Excel and in R; an expanded range of support material online, including; example data, exercises and additional notes & explanations; a new chapter on basic community statistics, biodiversity and similarity; chapter summaries and end-of-chapter exercises. Praise for the first edition: This book is a superb way in for all those looking at how to design investigations and collect data to support their findings. - Sue Townsend, Biodiversity Learning Manager, Field Studies Council [M]akes it easy for the reader to synthesise R and Excel and there is extra help and sample data available on the free companion webpage if needed. I recommended this text to the university library as well as to colleagues at my student workshops on R. Although I initially bought this book when I wanted to discover R I actually also learned new techniques for data manipulation and management in Excel - Mark Edwards, EcoBlogging A must for anyone getting to grips with data analysis using R and excel. - Amazon 5-star review It has been very easy to follow and will be perfect for anyone. - Amazon 5-star review A solid introduction to working with Excel and R. The writing is clear and informative, the book provides plenty of examples and figures so that each string of code in R or step in Excel is understood by the reader. - Goodreads, 4-star review

Managing Data Using Excel


Author: Mark Gardener
Publisher: Pelagic Publishing Ltd
ISBN: 1784270296
Category: Computers
Page: 326
View: 935

Microsoft Excel is a powerful tool that can transform the way you use data. This book explains in comprehensive and user-friendly detail how to manage, make sense of, explore and share data, giving scientists at all levels the skills they need to maximize the usefulness of their data. Readers will learn how to use Excel to: * Build a dataset – how to handle variables and notes, rearrangements and edits to data. * Check datasets – dealing with typographic errors, data validation and numerical errors. * Make sense of data – including datasets for regression and correlation; summarizing data with averages and variability; and visualizing data with graphs, pivot charts and sparklines. * Explore regression data – finding, highlighting and visualizing correlations. * Explore time-related data – using pivot tables, sparklines and line plots. * Explore association data – creating and visualizing contingency tables. * Explore differences – pivot tables and data visualizations including box-whisker plots. * Share data – methods for exporting and sharing your datasets, summaries and graphs. Alongside the text, Have a Go exercises, Tips and Notes give readers practical experience and highlight important points, and helpful self-assessment exercises and summary tables can be found at the end of each chapter. Supplementary material can also be downloaded on the companion website. Managing Data Using Excel is an essential book for all scientists and students who use data and are seeking to manage data more effectively. It is aimed at scientists at all levels but it is especially useful for university-level research, from undergraduates to postdoctoral researchers.

Remote Sensing and GIS for Ecologists

Using Open Source Software
Author: Martin Wegmann,Benjamin Leutner,Stefan Dech
Publisher: Pelagic Publishing Ltd
ISBN: 1784270245
Category: Science
Page: 352
View: 1079

This is a book about how ecologists can integrate remote sensing and GIS in their daily work. It will allow ecologists to get started with the application of remote sensing and to understand its potential and limitations. Using practical examples, the book covers all necessary steps from planning field campaigns to deriving ecologically relevant information through remote sensing and modelling of species distributions.All practical examples in this book rely on OpenSource software and freely available data sets. Quantum GIS (QGIS) is introduced for basic GIS data handling, and in-depth spatial analytics and statistics are conducted with the software packages R and GRASS.Readers will learn how to apply remote sensing within ecological research projects, how to approach spatial data sampling and how to interpret remote sensing derived products. The authors discuss a wide range of statistical analyses with regard to satellite data as well as specialised topics such as time-series analysis. Extended scripts on how to create professional looking maps and graphics are also provided.This book is a valuable resource for students and scientists in the fields of conservation and ecology interested in learning how to get started in applying remote sensing in ecological research and conservation planning.

Community Ecology

Analytical Methods Using R and Excel
Author: Mark Gardener
Publisher: Pelagic Publishing Ltd
ISBN: 1907807632
Category: Science
Page: 425
View: 2504

Interactions between species are of fundamental importance to all living systems and the framework we have for studying these interactions is community ecology. This is important to our understanding of the planets biological diversity and how species interactions relate to the functioning of ecosystems at all scales. Species do not live in isolation and the study of community ecology is of practical application in a wide range of conservation issues. The study of ecological community data involves many methods of analysis. In this book you will learn many of the mainstays of community analysis including: diversity, similarity and cluster analysis, ordination and multivariate analyses. This book is for undergraduate and postgraduate students and researchers seeking a step-by-step methodology for analysing plant and animal communities using R and Excel. Microsoft's Excel spreadsheet is virtually ubiquitous and familiar to most computer users. It is a robust program that makes an excellent storage and manipulation system for many kinds of data, including community data. The R program is a powerful and flexible analytical system able to conduct a huge variety of analytical methods, which means that the user only has to learn one program to address many research questions. Its other advantage is that it is open source and therefore completely free. Novel analytical methods are being added constantly to the already comprehensive suite of tools available in R. Mark Gardener is both an ecologist and an analyst. He has worked in a range of ecosystems around the world and has been involved in research across a spectrum of community types. His knowledge of R is largely self-taught and this gives him insight into the needs of students learning to use R for complicated analyses.

Camera Trapping for Wildlife Research


Author: Francesco Rovero,Fridolin Zimmermann
Publisher: Pelagic Publishing Ltd
ISBN: 1784270644
Category: Photography
Page: 320
View: 2399

Camera trapping is a powerful and now widely used tool in scientific research on wildlife ecology and management. It provides a unique opportunity for collecting knowledge, investigating the presence of animals, or recording and studying behaviour. Its visual nature makes it easy to successfully convey findings to a wide audience.This book provides a much-needed guide to the sound use of camera trapping for the most common ecological applications to wildlife research. Each phase involved in the use of camera trapping is covered:- Selecting the right camera type - Set-up and field deployment of your camera trap - Defining the sampling design: presence/absence, species inventory, abundance; occupancy at species level; capture-mark-recapture for density estimation; behavioural studies; community-level analysis - Data storage, management and analysis for your research topic, with illustrative examples for using R and Excel - Using camera trapping for monitoring, conservation and public engagement.Each chapter in this edited volume is essential reading for students, scientists, ecologists, educators and professionals involved in wildlife research or management.Camera trapping is a powerful and now widely used tool in scientific research on wildlife ecology and management. It provides a unique opportunity for collecting knowledge, investigating the presence of animals, or recording and studying behaviour. Its visual nature makes it easy to successfully convey findings to a wide audience.This book provides a much-needed guide to the sound use of camera trapping for the most common ecological applications to wildlife research. Each phase involved in the use of camera trapping is covered:- Selecting the right camera type - Set-up and field deployment of your camera trap - Defining the sampling design: presence/absence, species inventory, abundance; occupancy at species level; capture-mark-recapture for density estimation; behavioural studies; community-level analysis - Data storage, management and analysis for your research topic, with illustrative examples for using R and Excel - Using camera trapping for monitoring, conservation and public engagement.Each chapter in this edited volume is essential reading for students, scientists, ecologists, educators and professionals involved in wildlife research or management.Camera trapping is a powerful and now widely used tool in scientific research on wildlife ecology and management. It provides a unique opportunity for collecting knowledge, investigating the presence of animals, or recording and studying behaviour. Its visual nature makes it easy to successfully convey findings to a wide audience.This book provides a much-needed guide to the sound use of camera trapping for the most common ecological applications to wildlife research. Each phase involved in the use of camera trapping is covered:- Selecting the right camera type - Set-up and field deployment of your camera trap - Defining the sampling design: presence/absence, species inventory, abundance; occupancy at species level; capture-mark-recapture for density estimation; behavioural studies; community-level analysis - Data storage, management and analysis for your research topic, with illustrative examples for using R and Excel - Using camera trapping for monitoring, conservation and public engagement.Each chapter in this edited volume is essential reading for students, scientists, ecologists, educators and professionals involved in wildlife research or management.Camera trapping is a powerful and now widely used tool in scientific research on wildlife ecology and management. It provides a unique opportunity for collecting knowledge, investigating the presence of animals, or recording and studying behaviour. Its visual nature makes it easy to successfully convey findings to a wide audience.This book provides a much-needed guide to the sound use of camera trapping for the most common ecological applications to wildlife research. Each phase involved in the use of camera trapping is covered:- Selecting the right camera type - Set-up and field deployment of your camera trap - Defining the sampling design: presence/absence, species inventory, abundance; occupancy at species level; capture-mark-recapture for density estimation; behavioural studies; community-level analysis - Data storage, management and analysis for your research topic, with illustrative examples for using R and Excel - Using camera trapping for monitoring, conservation and public engagement.Each chapter in this edited volume is essential reading for students, scientists, ecologists, educators and professionals involved in wildlife research or management.

Handbook of Meta-analysis in Ecology and Evolution


Author: Julia Koricheva,Jessica Gurevitch,Kerrie Mengersen
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400846188
Category: Science
Page: 520
View: 426

Meta-analysis is a powerful statistical methodology for synthesizing research evidence across independent studies. This is the first comprehensive handbook of meta-analysis written specifically for ecologists and evolutionary biologists, and it provides an invaluable introduction for beginners as well as an up-to-date guide for experienced meta-analysts. The chapters, written by renowned experts, walk readers through every step of meta-analysis, from problem formulation to the presentation of the results. The handbook identifies both the advantages of using meta-analysis for research synthesis and the potential pitfalls and limitations of meta-analysis (including when it should not be used). Different approaches to carrying out a meta-analysis are described, and include moment and least-square, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian approaches, all illustrated using worked examples based on real biological datasets. This one-of-a-kind resource is uniquely tailored to the biological sciences, and will provide an invaluable text for practitioners from graduate students and senior scientists to policymakers in conservation and environmental management. Walks you through every step of carrying out a meta-analysis in ecology and evolutionary biology, from problem formulation to result presentation Brings together experts from a broad range of fields Shows how to avoid, minimize, or resolve pitfalls such as missing data, publication bias, varying data quality, nonindependence of observations, and phylogenetic dependencies among species Helps you choose the right software Draws on numerous examples based on real biological datasets

Mixed Effects Models and Extensions in Ecology with R


Author: Alain Zuur,Elena N. Ieno,Neil Walker,Anatoly A. Saveliev,Graham M. Smith
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387874586
Category: Science
Page: 574
View: 4950

This book discusses advanced statistical methods that can be used to analyse ecological data. Most environmental collected data are measured repeatedly over time, or space and this requires the use of GLMM or GAMM methods. The book starts by revising regression, additive modelling, GAM and GLM, and then discusses dealing with spatial or temporal dependencies and nested data.

The Essential R Reference


Author: Mark Gardener
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118391381
Category: Computers
Page: 576
View: 4898

An essential library of basic commands you can copy and paste into R The powerful and open-source statistical programming language R is rapidly growing in popularity, but it requires that you type in commands at the keyboard rather than use a mouse, so you have to learn the language of R. But there is a shortcut, and that's where this unique book comes in. A companion book to Visualize This: The FlowingData Guide to Design, Visualization, and Statistics, this practical reference is a library of basic R commands that you can copy and paste into R to perform many types of statistical analyses. Whether you're in technology, science, medicine, business, or engineering, you can quickly turn to your topic in this handy book and find the commands you need. Comprehensive command reference for the R programming language and a companion book to Visualize This: The FlowingData Guide to Design, Visualization, and Statistics Combines elements of a dictionary, glossary, and thesaurus for the R language Provides easy accessibility to the commands you need, by topic, which you can cut and paste into R as needed Covers getting, saving, examining, and manipulating data; statistical test and math; and all the things you can do with graphs Also includes a collection of utilities that you'll find useful Simplify the complex statistical R programming language with The Essential R Reference. .

Habitat Suitability and Distribution Models

with Applications in R
Author: Antoine Guisan,Wilfried Thuiller,Niklaus E. Zimmermann
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521765137
Category: Nature
Page: 498
View: 2789

This book introduces the key stages of niche-based habitat suitability model building, evaluation and prediction required for understanding and predicting future patterns of species and biodiversity. Beginning with the main theory behind ecological niches and species distributions, the book proceeds through all major steps of model building, from conceptualization and model training to model evaluation and spatio-temporal predictions. Extensive examples using R support graduate students and researchers in quantifying ecological niches and predicting species distributions with their own data, and help to address key environmental and conservation problems. Reflecting this highly active field of research, the book incorporates the latest developments from informatics and statistics, as well as using data from remote sources such as satellite imagery. A website at www.unil.ch/hsdm contains the codes and supporting material required to run the examples and teach courses.

Animal Movement

Statistical Models for Telemetry Data
Author: Mevin B. Hooten,Devin S. Johnson,Brett T. McClintock,Juan M. Morales
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466582154
Category: Mathematics
Page: 320
View: 9837

The study of animal movement has always been a key element in ecological science, because it is inherently linked to critical processes that scale from individuals to populations and communities to ecosystems. Rapid improvements in biotelemetry data collection and processing technology have given rise to a variety of statistical methods for characterizing animal movement. The book serves as a comprehensive reference for the types of statistical models used to study individual-based animal movement. Animal Movement is an essential reference for wildlife biologists, quantitative ecologists, and statisticians who seek a deeper understanding of modern animal movement models. A wide variety of modeling approaches are reconciled in the book using a consistent notation. Models are organized into groups based on how they treat the underlying spatio-temporal process of movement. Connections among approaches are highlighted to allow the reader to form a broader view of animal movement analysis and its associations with traditional spatial and temporal statistical modeling. After an initial overview examining the role that animal movement plays in ecology, a primer on spatial and temporal statistics provides a solid foundation for the remainder of the book. Each subsequent chapter outlines a fundamental type of statistical model utilized in the contemporary analysis of telemetry data for animal movement inference. Descriptions begin with basic traditional forms and sequentially build up to general classes of models in each category. Important background and technical details for each class of model are provided, including spatial point process models, discrete-time dynamic models, and continuous-time stochastic process models. The book also covers the essential elements for how to accommodate multiple sources of uncertainty, such as location error and latent behavior states. In addition to thorough descriptions of animal movement models, differences and connections are also emphasized to provide a broader perspective of approaches.

Beginning R

The Statistical Programming Language
Author: Mark Gardener
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118239377
Category: Computers
Page: 504
View: 7518

Conquer the complexities of this open source statistical language R is fast becoming the de facto standard for statistical computing and analysis in science, business, engineering, and related fields. This book examines this complex language using simple statistical examples, showing how R operates in a user-friendly context. Both students and workers in fields that require extensive statistical analysis will find this book helpful as they learn to use R for simple summary statistics, hypothesis testing, creating graphs, regression, and much more. It covers formula notation, complex statistics, manipulating data and extracting components, and rudimentary programming. R, the open source statistical language increasingly used to handle statistics and produces publication-quality graphs, is notoriously complex This book makes R easier to understand through the use of simple statistical examples, teaching the necessary elements in the context in which R is actually used Covers getting started with R and using it for simple summary statistics, hypothesis testing, and graphs Shows how to use R for formula notation, complex statistics, manipulating data, extracting components, and regression Provides beginning programming instruction for those who want to write their own scripts Beginning R offers anyone who needs to perform statistical analysis the information necessary to use R with confidence.

How to be a Quantitative Ecologist

The 'A to R' of Green Mathematics and Statistics
Author: Jason Matthiopoulos
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781119991724
Category: Mathematics
Page: 496
View: 7535

Ecological research is becoming increasingly quantitative, yet students often opt out of courses in mathematics and statistics, unwittingly limiting their ability to carry out research in the future. This textbook provides a practical introduction to quantitative ecology for students and practitioners who have realised that they need this opportunity. The text is addressed to readers who haven't used mathematics since school, who were perhaps more confused than enlightened by their undergraduate lectures in statistics and who have never used a computer for much more than word processing and data entry. From this starting point, it slowly but surely instils an understanding of mathematics, statistics and programming, sufficient for initiating research in ecology. The book’s practical value is enhanced by extensive use of biological examples and the computer language R for graphics, programming and data analysis. Key Features: Provides a complete introduction to mathematics statistics and computing for ecologists. Presents a wealth of ecological examples demonstrating the applied relevance of abstract mathematical concepts, showing how a little technique can go a long way in answering interesting ecological questions. Covers elementary topics, including the rules of algebra, logarithms, geometry, calculus, descriptive statistics, probability, hypothesis testing and linear regression. Explores more advanced topics including fractals, non-linear dynamical systems, likelihood and Bayesian estimation, generalised linear, mixed and additive models, and multivariate statistics. R boxes provide step-by-step recipes for implementing the graphical and numerical techniques outlined in each section. How to be a Quantitative Ecologist provides a comprehensive introduction to mathematics, statistics and computing and is the ideal textbook for late undergraduate and postgraduate courses in environmental biology. "With a book like this, there is no excuse for people to be afraid of maths, and to be ignorant of what it can do." —Professor Tim Benton, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, UK

Measurements for Terrestrial Vegetation


Author: Charles D. Bonham
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118534522
Category: Science
Page: 264
View: 1721

Measurements for Terrestrial Vegetation, 2nd Edition presents up-to-date methods for analyzing species frequency, plant cover, density and biomass data. Each method is presented in detail with a full discussion of its strengths and weaknesses from field applications through statistical characteristics of bias and use of the correct probability distribution to describe and analyze data. This practical book also covers the use of satellite imagery to obtain measurement data on cover, density and biomass. Field data collection includes current applications of statistical sampling and analysis designs that should be used to obtain and analyze these data. This new and thoroughly updated edition of a classic text will be essential reading for everyone involved in measuring and assessing vegetation and plant biomass, including researchers and practitioners in vegetation science, plant ecology, forestry, global change scientists and conservation scientists. Provides a comprehensive catalogue of sampling, surveying and measuring techniques in vegetation science Updated to include new technologies and developments in the field New coverage of prediction models for large areas, including satellite mapping and remote sensing techniques Includes up-to-date applications of statistical sampling and analysis designs used to obtain and analyse data Reviews the strengths and weaknesses of each technique, allowing an informed choice of alternative approaches Clear diagrams to explain best-practice in methodology The companion website for this book can be found at www.wiley.com/go/bonham/measurements

Analyzing Ecological Data


Author: Alain Zuur,Elena N. Ieno,Graham M. Smith
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387459723
Category: Science
Page: 672
View: 1495

This book provides a practical introduction to analyzing ecological data using real data sets. The first part gives a largely non-mathematical introduction to data exploration, univariate methods (including GAM and mixed modeling techniques), multivariate analysis, time series analysis, and spatial statistics. The second part provides 17 case studies. The case studies include topics ranging from terrestrial ecology to marine biology and can be used as a template for a reader’s own data analysis. Data from all case studies are available from www.highstat.com. Guidance on software is provided in the book.

CCTV for Wildlife Monitoring

An Introduction
Author: Susan Young
Publisher: Pelagic Publishing Ltd
ISBN: 1784270989
Category: Photography
Page: 220
View: 9976

CCTV for Wildlife Monitoring is a handbook on the use of CCTV in nature watching, conservation and ecological research. CCTV offers a unique ability to monitor wildlife in real time, stream video to the web, capture imagery of fast-moving species or cold animals such as wet otters or fish and maintain monitoring over long periods of time in a diverse array of habitats. Wildlife watchers can take advantage of a huge range of CCTV cameras, recording devices and accessories developed for use in non-wildlife applications. CCTV allows intimate study of animal behaviour not possible with other technologies.With expert experience in engineering, photography and wildlife, Susan Young describes CCTV equipment and techniques, giving readers the confidence to tackle what initially may seem technically challenging. The book enables the reader to navigate the technical aspects of recording: basic analogue, high definition HD-TVI and IP cameras, portable CCTV, digital video recorders (DVR) and video processing by focusing on practical applications. No prior knowledge of CCTV is required – step-by-step information is provided to get anyone started recording wildlife.In-depth methods for recording foxes, badger, deer, otters, small mammals and fish are also included, and the book makes comparisons with trail cameras where appropriate. Examples of recorded footage illustrate the book along with detailed diagrams on camera set-ups and links to accompanying videos on YouTube. Case-studies show real projects, both the equipment used and the results.This book will be of interest to amateur naturalists wishing to have a window into the private world of wildlife, ecological consultants monitoring protected species and research scientists studying animal behaviour.

Understandable Statistics: Concepts and Methods


Author: Charles Henry Brase,Corrinne Pellillo Brase
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 1337119911
Category: Mathematics
Page: 839
View: 8566

UNDERSTANDABLE STATISTICS: CONCEPTS AND METHODS, Twelfth Edition, is a thorough yet accessible program designed to help you overcome any apprehensions you may have about statistics and to master the subject. The authors provide clear guidance and informal advice while showing you the links between statistics and the world. To reinforce this approach—and make the material interesting as well as easier to understand—the book integrates real-life data from a variety of sources, including journals, periodicals, newspapers, and the Internet. You'll also have opportunities to develop your critical-thinking and statistical literacy skills through special features and exercises throughout the text. The use of graphing calculators, Excel, Minitab, Minitab ExpressTM, and SPSS is covered, although not required. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

The Emerald Planet

How plants changed Earth's history
Author: David Beerling
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192529781
Category: Science
Page: 416
View: 4498

Plants have profoundly moulded the Earth's climate and the evolutionary trajectory of life. Far from being 'silent witnesses to the passage of time', plants are dynamic components of our world, shaping the environment throughout history as much as that environment has shaped them. In The Emerald Planet, David Beerling puts plants centre stage, revealing the crucial role they have played in driving global changes in the environment, in recording hidden facets of Earth's history, and in helping us to predict its future. His account draws together evidence from fossil plants, from experiments with their living counterparts, and from computer models of the 'Earth System', to illuminate the history of our planet and its biodiversity. This new approach reveals how plummeting carbon dioxide levels removed a barrier to the evolution of the leaf; how plants played a starring role in pushing oxygen levels upwards, allowing spectacular giant insects to thrive in the Carboniferous; and it strengthens fascinating and contentious fossil evidence for an ancient hole in the ozone layer. Along the way, Beerling introduces a lively cast of pioneering scientists from Victorian times onwards whose discoveries provided the crucial background to these and the other puzzles. This understanding of our planet's past sheds a sobering light on our own climate-changing activities, and offers clues to what our climatic and ecological futures might look like. There could be no more important time to take a close look at plants, and to understand the history of the world through the stories they tell. Oxford Landmark Science books are 'must-read' classics of modern science writing which have crystallized big ideas, and shaped the way we think.

Ecological Developmental Biology

The Environmental Regulation of Development, Health, and Evolution
Author: David Epel
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781605353449
Category: Developmental biology
Page: N.A
View: 2295