The Arab Revolution of 2011

A Comparative Perspective
Author: Saïd Amir Arjomand
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 1438454899
Category: Social Science
Page: 294
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Comparative analysis of the 2011 Arab Spring uprisings. How do we make sense of the Arab revolution of 2011? What were its successes, its failures, and significance in world history? The Arab Revolution of 2011 brings together a broad range of perspectives to explain the causes, processes, and consequences of the revolution of 2011 and its critical implications for the future. The contributors, in this major addition to the sociology of revolutions, step back from the earlier euphoria of the Arab Spring to provide a sober analysis of what is still an ongoing process of upheaval in the Middle East. The essays address the role of national armies and foreign military intervention, the character and structure of old regimes as determinants of peaceful or violent political transformation, the constitutional placement of Islam in post-revolutionary regimes, and the possibilities of supplanting authoritarianism with democracy. The revolution of 2011 is also examined within a broad historical perspective, comparing the dynamics of revolution and counterrevolution in countries such as Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya with such epochal events as the European revolution of 1848 and Russia in 1917.

Responses to the ‘Arabellions’

The EU in Comparative Perspective
Author: Tanja Börzel,Assem Dandashly,Thomas Risse
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131739111X
Category: Political Science
Page: 168
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This book studies the reactions by external actors, including the European Union, to the events unfolding in the Arab world beginning in December 2010. In particular, contributors look at external actors' attempts to balance their desire for stability with their normative principles toward human rights and democracy. The book compares the action (and inaction) of the EU with other international and regional players, including the United States, Russia, Turkey and Israel, and assesses the response of these actors to the Arabellions’ events, analysing changes in their approaches to the Arab region. The contributions to this book answer three questions: (1) How have external actors assessed the ‘Arabellions’ and what role did they see for themselves in this context? (2) Which goals and instruments did external actors pursue toward the MENA region? In particular, how did they deal with conflicting goals, such as support for human rights and democracy, on the one hand, and concerns about security and stability, on the other? (3) How can we explain the varying responses of external actors to the Arabellions? This book was published as a special issue of the Journal of European Integration.

The Decline of Nation-States after the Arab Spring

The Rise of Communitocracy
Author: Imad Salamey
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317036255
Category: Political Science
Page: 134
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Surveying the causes of the Arab Spring, and revealing the governing trends arising from it, this book examines various international relation theories through the lens of the experiences of the countries in the Middle East and North Africa region. It takes the events of the Arab Spring as an outcome of globalization’s double movement whose integrative cultural, political and security frameworks devastated nationally controlled economies, undermining the nation-state system and propagating a decentralized and communitarian-based governance structure. The consequences for many plural, diverse societies were two-fold: autocratic nationalism was discarded while decentralized regimes representing communitarian-based politics came to the fore. The author reveals how the formulation of a new communitocratic order rests on the accommodation of this newly emerging communitarianism and explores the major drivers of political transformation, describing the emerging communities, forecasting their governing options and the possible repercussions for the post-Arab Spring states.

Comparative Political and Economic Perspectives on the MENA Region


Author: Erdo?du, M. Mustafa,Christiansen, Bryan
Publisher: IGI Global
ISBN: 1466696028
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 386
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The region that includes the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) faces a diverse set of cultural, political, and economic issues. Exploring the countries that are considered to be a part of the MENA region as well as comparing this region to the rest of the developing and developed world provides essential insight into the current state of the region as well and its future outlook. Comparative Political and Economic Perspectives on the MENA Region takes a critical approach to analyzing the socio-economic development of the MENA Region and the role of politics and various social issues in this development. Highlighting research-based perspectives from global leaders on topics such as decentralization, international affairs, the Arab Spring, foreign direct investment, and education in the Middle East and Northern Africa, this publication is designed for library reference section inclusion and meets the research needs of government officials, professionals specializing in international business, economists, researchers, and graduate-level students in the areas of economics, international politics, African and Middle Eastern studies, and regional development.

The European Union's Foreign Policy in Comparative Perspective

Beyond the “Actorness and Power” Debate
Author: Ingo Peters
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131753655X
Category: Political Science
Page: 292
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This ground-breaking volume provides a new perspective on the EU’s foreign policy and offers a reconstruction of EU research that extends beyond narrow-minded concepts of ‘power’ and ‘actorness’. Focusing on two intertwined research questions, it presents a more sustainable base for studying EU foreign policy: What is the EU’s foreign policy quality in terms of ‘actorness’ and ‘power’ compared to other types of actors in international relations and global politics? What factors influence the EU’s foreign policy performance in comparison to states and international organizations? This guiding principle and application of a ‘grounded theory’ or ‘heuristic case study’ approach allows the book to deliver a structured comparative analysis of EU foreign policy, comparing findings across policy fields, different legal foundations and respective policy modes of governance. This book will be of key interest to students and scholars of European Union studies, European Union foreign policy studies, international relations, and security policy studies.

Party Politics, Religion, and Women's Leadership

Lebanon in Comparative Perspective
Author: Fatima Sbaity Kassem
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137333219
Category: Political Science
Page: 283
View: 3927
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Exploring the interlinkages of political parties, religiosity, and women's leadership and nominations to public office, this book argues that as party religiosity increases, women's chances of assuming leadership positions fall. Combining qualitative and quantitative methods, it advances a new theory of party variation in religiosity.

Democratic Transitions

Modes and Outcomes
Author: Sujian Guo,Gary A Stradiotto
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131775106X
Category: Political Science
Page: 138
View: 408
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Democratic transitions have occurred in many countries in various regions across the globe, such as Southern Europe, Latin America, Africa, East and Southeast Asia, Eastern Europe and the Middle East, and these nations have undergone simuntaneously political, economic and social transformations. Yet, the patterns and characteristics of transitions have varied significantly, and different modes of transition have resulted in different outcomes. This book offers cross-national comparisons of democratic transition since the turn of the twentieth century and asks what makes democracies succeed or fail. In doing so it explores the influence the mode of transition has on the longevity or durability of the democracy, by theoretically examining and quantitatively testing this relationship. The authors argue that the mode of transition directly impacts the success and failure of democracy, and suggest that cooperative transitions, where opposition groups work together with incumbent elites to peacefully transition the state, result in democracies that last longer and are associated with higher measures of democratic quality. Based on a cross-national dataset of all democratic transitioning states since 1900, this book will be of great interest to students and scholars of international politics, comparative politics and democracy, and democratization studies.

Democracy's Fourth Wave?

Digital Media and the Arab Spring
Author: Philip N. Howard,Muzammil M. Hussain
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199323658
Category: Social Science
Page: 162
View: 6056
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Did digital media really "cause" the Arab Spring, or is it an important factor of the story behind what might become democracy's fourth wave? An unlikely network of citizens used digital media to start a cascade of social protest that ultimately toppled four of the world's most entrenched dictators. Howard and Hussain find that the complex causal recipe includes several economic, political and cultural factors, but that digital media is consistently one of the most important sufficient and necessary conditions for explaining both the fragility of regimes and the success of social movements. This book looks at not only the unexpected evolution of events during the Arab Spring, but the deeper history of creative digital activism throughout the region.

Religion, Religiosity, and Democratic Values

A Comparative Perspective of Islamic and Non-Islamic Societies
Author: Abbas Mehregan
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004274464
Category: Religion
Page: 328
View: 701
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In Religion, Religiosity, and Democratic Values, Abbas Mehregan examines empirically the effects of individual religiosity, historical religion, institutional democracy, and socioeconomic development on attitudes towards free market economics and confidence in civil society organizations in 60 Islamic and non-Islamic societies.

Regions and Crises

New Challenges for Contemporary Regionalisms
Author: Lorenzo Fioramonti
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137028327
Category: Political Science
Page: 242
View: 7829
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Investigates the intimate relationship between regional governance processes and global crises. Analysing the current turmoil in the European Union, it also looks at regional cooperation and integration in the Arab world, Africa, Asia and Latin America through topical case studies.

Civil Uprisings in Modern Sudan

The 'Khartoum Springs' of 1964 and 1985
Author: W. J. Berridge
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1472574036
Category: History
Page: 304
View: 414
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In the wake of the protests that toppled regimes across the Middle East in 2011, Sudanese activists and writers have proudly cited their very own 'Arab Springs' of 1964 and 1985, which overthrew the country's first two military regimes, as evidence of their role as political pioneers in the region. Whilst some of these claims may be exaggerated, Sudan was indeed unique in the region at the time in that it witnessed not one but two popular uprisings which successfully uprooted military authoritarianisms. Civil Uprisings in Modern Sudan provides the first scholarly book-length history of the 1964 and 1985 uprisings. It explores the uprisings themselves, their legacy and the contemporary relevance they hold in the context of the current political climate of the Middle East. The book also contends that the sort of politics espoused by various kinds of Islamist during the uprisings can be interpreted as a form of early 'post-Islamism', in which Islamist political agendas were seen to be compatible with liberalism and democracy. Using interviews, Arabic language sources and a wealth of archival material, this book is an important and original study that is of great significance for scholars of African and Middle Eastern political history.

Democracy and Reform in the Middle East and Asia

Social Protest and Authoritarian Rule after the Arab Spring
Author: Amin Saikal,Amitav Acharya
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857735187
Category: Political Science
Page: 280
View: 6749
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The protests that swept across the Middle East and North Africa in late 2010 and 2011 confounded long-time observers of the region, in both the media and academia. After addressing the conditions in the Middle East and North Africa that produced these attempts at revolution, Amin Saikal and Amitav Acharya explore the global impact of the protests, both in terms of their ideological influence on opposition groups and the prospects for democratic transition in a variety of authoritarian and semi-authoritarian governments. Examining states at the heart of the uprisings, such as Egypt, Tunisia and Libya in addition to other Middle Easter states, like Iran, as well the Asian states of China, Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia, this book concentrates upon ‘democratisation’ as the central theme. Did the protests have a galvanising effect of democratisation processes throughout Asia? And if not, why? Touching on perennial issues in politics – for example, democracy, authoritarian rule and social protest – this book is vital for researchers of politics and international relations.

North American Critical Theory After Postmodernism

Contemporary Dialogues
Author: P. Nickel
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137262869
Category: Political Science
Page: 249
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In a series of interviews this book explores the formative experiences of a generation of critical theorists whose work originated in the midst of what has been called 'the postmodern turn,' including discussions of their views on the evolution of critical theory over the past 30 years and their assessment of contemporary politics.

Sozialreform oder Revolution?


Author: Rosa Luxemburg
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
ISBN: 3947618700
Category: Political Science
Page: 88
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Vorwort der Herausgeber Indem wir mehrfachen Nachfragen nach der bereits längst vergriffenen Schrift Sozialreform oder Revolution? Rechnung tragen, geben wir sie in zweiter Auflage heraus. Wir glauben damit namentlich dem neuerdings in den Parteikreisen merklich erwachten erfreulichen Interesse für theoretische Fragen entgegenzukommen, da die vorliegende Schrift eine Reihe prinzipieller und wissenschaftlicher Probleme von dauernder Bedeutung in leicht faßlicher und knapper Form behandelt. Mit Zustimmung der Verfasserin, die an der Schrift mehrere zeitgemäße kleinere Korrekturen vorgenommen hat, fügen wir der Streitschrift gegen Bernstein auch noch einige Aufsätze aus derselben Feder hinzu, die verwandte Fragen behandeln und sich deshalb u. E. zusammen zu einem Ganzen verbinden lassen. So findet der Leser in der vorliegenden Broschüre, von verschiedenen Seiten beleuchtet, das Lohngesetz, die Krise, die Frage der Gewerkschaften, Genossenschaften, der Sozialreform u. a.

Revolution Stalled

The Political Limits of the Internet in the Post-Soviet Sphere
Author: Sarah Oates
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199735956
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 225
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This study of the Russian internet explores how, when, and why the internet challenges leaders in non-free states. Using an analysis of content, community, catalysts, control, and co-optation, Revolution Stalled moves beyond 'virtual' politics to show how the internet can threaten and defy information hegemony and re-shape societies.

Die arabische Revolution

Demokratischer Aufbruch von Tunesien bis zum Golf
Author: Frank Nordhausen,Thomas Schmid
Publisher: Ch. Links Verlag
ISBN: 3862841006
Category: Political Science
Page: 216
View: 3898
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Die arabische Welt wird seit dem Frühjahr 2011 von Aufständen erschüttert. Von Marokko bis zum Persischen Golf gehen die Menschen gegen korrupte Regime auf die Straße und fordern den Sturz der Diktatoren. In Tunesien, Ägypten und Libyen erzwingen sie den Rücktritt der Machthaber. In Syrien geht das Regime gewaltsam gegen Demonstranten vor und lässt Tausende erschießen. Zehn ausgewiesene Kenner der Region beschreiben die Ursachen für den demokratischen Aufbruch, zeichnen den Verlauf der Ereignisse nach und stellen die Akteure vor: Tunesien und Libyen (Thomas Schmid, Berliner Zeitung), Ägypten (Frank Nordhausen, Berliner Zeitung), Algerien (Helmut Dietrich, DAAD), Marokko (Marc Dugge, ARD), Syrien (Martina Doering, Berliner Zeitung), Libanon (Markus Bickel, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung), Jordanien (Heiko Flottau, Süddeutsche Zeitung), Jemen (Jens Heibach, Universität Marburg), Saudi-Arabien (Henner Fürtig, GIGA Institut) und die Golfstaaten (Alexander Smoltczyk, Spiegel). Das Buch gibt einen kompakten Überblick über die Ereignisse und die Entwicklung in den einzelnen Ländern und über die Perspektiven, die der arabische Frühling eröffnet hat.

Enlightenment on the Eve of Revolution

The Egyptian and Syrian Debates
Author: Elizabeth Suzanne Kassab
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231549679
Category: Philosophy
Page: N.A
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During the two decades that preceded the 2011 revolutions in Egypt and Syria, animated debates took place in Cairo and Damascus on political and social goals for the future. Egyptian and Syrian intellectuals argued over the meaning of tanwir, Arabic for “enlightenment,” and its significance for contemporary politics. They took up questions of human dignity, liberty, reason, tolerance, civil society, democracy, and violence. In Enlightenment on the Eve of Revolution, Elizabeth Suzanne Kassab offers a groundbreaking analysis of the tanwir debates and their import for the 2011 uprisings. Kassab locates these debates in their local context as well as in broader contemporary political and intellectual Arab history. She argues that the enlightenment they advocated was a form of political humanism that demanded the right of free and public use of reason. By calling for the restoration of human dignity and seeking a moral compass in the wake of the destruction wrought by brutal regimes, they understood tanwir as a humanist ideal. Kassab connects their debates to the Arab uprisings, arguing that their demands bear a striking resemblance to what was voiced on the streets of Egypt and Syria in 2011. Enlightenment on the Eve of Revolution is the first book to document these debates for the Anglophone audience and to analyze their importance for contemporary Egyptian and Syrian intellectual life and politics.

Institutional Development and Transition

Decentralization in the Course of Political Transformation
Author: Asya El-Meehy
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Arab countries
Page: 70
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"Have Arab uprisings opened space for deeper, grassroots-driven decentralization reforms in the region? What are the optimum designs, sequencing and models of decentralization for countries in political transition? While political discourse in the region uniformly emphasizes reforming State institutions, decentralization reform agendas have unfolded along contrasting trajectories across Arab transition countries. Both contextual and historical dynamics seem to shape visions for the orientation and pace of decentralization reforms as well as the empirical feasibility of shifting power relations among the various tiers of State administration. Drawing on findings from field research and recent analyses, this study argues that uprisings have created stronger momentum for revisiting the question of decentralization reforms in Libya and Yemen, where the very nature of the State is being redefined, compared to the cases of Egypt and Tunisia, where all stakeholders agree on preserving the unitary State model. In the latter cases, while there is evidence that new advocacy movements focused on reforming local government structures have emerged, they have thus far remained elite-led. Grassroots activism at local community levels has served to empower new actors, who, in some cases, have been successful at extracting concessions from local authorities. These efforts, however, predominantly focus on improving access to public services within the existing context of centralized State structures, and seem often to have failed to gain the trust of local community members as potential partners in local governance. Building on focus group discussions among working-class residents in Greater Cairo and on interviews with Egyptian political elites, the study highlights an emerging critical gap between youth expectations and, on the other hand, the envisioned plans of the political elite. While youth are more likely to demand deeper reforms across all three dimensions of decentralization (administrative, fiscal and political), political elites disagree not only on which particular dimension(s) of reforms should be implemented, but also on the urgency of decentralization during early phases of political transformation. The latter's wide range of views reflect deep concerns over political capture by traditional elites, weakness of political parties as well as potentially detrimental impacts of reforms on State capacity and the nation-State's territorial integrity. The study concludes by drawing lessons from France's successful contract-based record of decentralization and presents policy recommendations for countries that have emerged from the Arab uprisings with relatively strong centralized State structures and cohesive national identities."--Publisher's description.

Women’s Movements in Post-“Arab Spring” North Africa


Author: Fatima Sadiqi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 113750675X
Category: Social Science
Page: 325
View: 3848
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Centering on women's movements before, during, and after the revolutions, Women's Movements in Post-"Arab Spring" North Africa highlights the broader sources of authority that affected the emergence of new feminist actors and agents and their impact on the sociopolitical landscapes of the region.

Democratic Transformation and Obstruction

EU, US, and Russia in the South Caucasus
Author: Nelli Babayan
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317750616
Category: Political Science
Page: 208
View: 2916
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Although "democracy promotion" has become a popular term for policy makers and scholars, democratization is rarely a smooth or linear transition. While some countries quickly democratize, others lag behind despite a long period of democracy promotion activities. Furthermore, while democracy promotion itself has been widely studied, there is a paucity of literature available assessing the outcome or the impact of democracy promotion. This book investigates democracy promotion by the European Union and the United States of America, and seeks to uncover why intensive democracy promotion has resulted in limited democratic progress. Exploring case studies of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia, this book examines the conditions in which democracy promotion is more likely to result in democratic transformation. In addition, it introduces the concept of the "democracy blocker," a powerful authoritarian regional actor that is capable of blocking democratization in other countries. This book will be of interest to students and scholars of Political Science, Democracy, Democratization, EU Studies, US Politics, Comparative Politics, and Foreign Policy.