The Carter Administration and the Fall of Iran’s Pahlavi Dynasty

US-Iran Relations on the Brink of the 1979 Revolution
Author: Javier Gil Guerrero
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137598735
Category: Political Science
Page: 264
View: 7042
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This book is a tale of loss: the loss of Iran as America's main ally and agent in the Middle East and the downfall of the short-lived Pahlavi monarchy and America's inability and unwillingness to prevent its demise. Khomeini's triumph altered America's perception of Islam and fundamentally changed its relationship with Iran.

The Carter Administration and the Fall of Iran’s Pahlavi Dynasty

US-Iran Relations on the Brink of the 1979 Revolution
Author: Javier Gil Guerrero
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
ISBN: 9781349888054
Category: Science
Page: 264
View: 2337
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This book is a tale of loss: the loss of Iran as America's main ally and agent in the Middle East and the downfall of the short-lived Pahlavi monarchy and America's inability and unwillingness to prevent its demise. Khomeini's triumph altered America's perception of Islam and fundamentally changed its relationship with Iran.

The Carter Administration and the Fall of Iran's Pahlavi Dynasty

US-Iran Relations on the Brink of the 1979 Revolution
Author: Javier Gil Guerrero
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
ISBN: 9781137598714
Category: History
Page: 288
View: 9510
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During the first two years of Carter's presidency, Iran entered a spiral of violence and unrest that ended with the exile of the Shah and the establishment of an Islamic Republic. The Iranian revolution was first neglected by American diplomats and intelligence officials. When Carter finally became aware of the extent of the disturbances in Iran, he refused to explicitly back the iron fist policy sought by the Shah. The Iranian monarch was unwilling to decisively tackle the protests without Carter's blessing and thus he proceeded with a failed policy that mixed concessions with repression, which only served to postpone the inevitable. This book looks at recent declassified documents from several archival resources that provide an unprecedented picture of the Carter administration's uneasiness regarding the Shah's Iran. Gil Guerrero analyzes the disputes between Washington and Tehran concerning human rights and arms exports, the divisions inside the White House, and the Shah's uncertainty regarding Carter's support. The sources gathered all point to a late process of political liberalization encouraged by American officials that only served to weaken the Shah's authority while emboldening the opposition, in the words of Ayatollah Khomeini, to 'seize the moment." They offer an unprecedented picture of the forces that enabled Khomeini's triumph, altered America's perception of Islam, and fundamentally changed the United States' relationship with Iran.

The Fall of Heaven

The Pahlavis and the Final Days of Imperial Iran
Author: Andrew Scott Cooper
Publisher: Henry Holt and Company
ISBN: 0805098984
Category: History
Page: 416
View: 3310
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An immersive, gripping account of the rise and fall of Iran's glamorous Pahlavi dynasty, written with the cooperation of the late Shah's widow, Empress Farah, Iranian revolutionaries and US officials from the Carter administration In this remarkably human portrait of one of the twentieth century's most complicated personalities, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Andrew Scott Cooper traces the Shah's life from childhood through his ascension to the throne in 1941. He draws the turbulence of the post-war era during which the Shah survived assassination attempts and coup plots to build a modern, pro-Western state and launch Iran onto the world stage as one of the world's top five powers. Readers get the story of the Shah's political career alongside the story of his courtship and marriage to Farah Diba, who became a power in her own right, the beloved family they created, and an exclusive look at life inside the palace during the Iranian Revolution. Cooper's investigative account ultimately delivers the fall of the Pahlavi dynasty through the eyes of those who were there: leading Iranian revolutionaries; President Jimmy Carter and White House officials; US Ambassador William Sullivan and his staff in the American embassy in Tehran; American families caught up in the drama; even Empress Farah herself, and the rest of the Iranian Imperial family. Intimate and sweeping at once, The Fall of Heaven recreates in stunning detail the dramatic and final days of one of the world's most legendary ruling families, the unseating of which helped set the stage for the current state of the Middle East.

The Oil Kings

How the U.S., Iran, and Saudi Arabia Changed the Balance of Power in the Middle East
Author: Andrew Scott Cooper
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1439157138
Category: History
Page: 544
View: 723
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struggling with a recession . . . European nations at risk of defaulting on their loans . . . A possible global financial crisis. It happened before, in the 1970s. Oil Kings is the story of how oil came to dominate U.S. domestic and international affairs. As Richard Nixon fought off Watergate inquiries in 1973, the U.S. economy reacted to an oil shortage initiated by Arab nations in retaliation for American support of Israel in the Arab- Israeli war. The price of oil skyrocketed, causing serious inflation. One man the U.S. could rely on in the Middle East was the Shah of Iran, a loyal ally whose grand ambitions had made him a leading customer for American weapons. Iran sold the U.S. oil; the U.S. sold Iran missiles and fighter jets. But the Shah’s economy depended almost entirely on oil, and the U.S. economy could not tolerate annual double-digit increases in the price of this essential commodity. European economies were hit even harder by the soaring oil prices, and several NATO allies were at risk of default on their debt. In 1976, with the U.S. economy in peril, President Gerald Ford, locked in a tight election race, decided he had to find a country that would sell oil to the U.S. more cheaply and break the OPEC monopoly, which the Shah refused to do. On the advice of Treasury Secretary William Simon and against the advice of Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, Ford made a deal to sell advanced weaponry to the Saudis in exchange for a modest price hike on oil. Ford lost the election, but the deal had lasting consequences. The Shah’s economy was destabilized, and disaffected elements in Iran mobilized to overthrow him. The U.S. had embarked on a long relationship with the autocratic Saudi kingdom that continues to this day. Andrew Scott Cooper draws on newly declassified documents and interviews with some key figures of the time to show how Nixon, Ford, Kissinger, the CIA, and the State and Treasury departments—as well as the Shah and the Saudi royal family— maneuvered to control events in the Middle East. He details the secret U.S.-Saudi plan to circumvent OPEC that destabilized the Shah. He reveals how close the U.S. came to sending troops into the Persian Gulf to break the Arab oil embargo. The Oil Kings provides solid evidence that U.S. officials ignored warning signs of a potential hostage crisis in Iran. It discloses that U.S. officials offered to sell nuclear power and nuclear fuel to the Shah. And it shows how the Ford Administration barely averted a European debt crisis that could have triggered a financial catastrophe in the U.S. Brilliantly reported and filled with astonishing details about some of the key figures of the time, The Oil Kings is the history of an era that we thought we knew, an era whose momentous reverberations still influence events at home and abroad today.

Days of God

The Revolution in Iran and Its Consequences
Author: James Buchan
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1416597824
Category: History
Page: 432
View: 7912
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A myth-busting insider’s account of the Iranian Revolution of 1979 that destroyed US influence in the country and transformed the politics of the Middle East and the world. The 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran was one of the seminal events of our time. It inaugurated more than thirty years of war in the Middle East and fostered an Islamic radicalism that shapes foreign policy in the United States and Europe to this day. Drawing on his lifetime of engagement with Iran, James Buchan explains the history that gave rise to the Revolution, in which Ayatollah Khomeini and his supporters displaced the Shah with little diffi­culty. Mystifyingly to outsiders, the people of Iran turned their backs on a successful Westernized government for an amateurish religious regime. Buchan dispels myths about the Iranian Revolution and instead assesses the historical forces to which it responded. He puts the extremism of the Islamic regime in perspective: a truly radical revolution, it can be compared to the French or Russian Revolu­tions. Using recently declassified diplomatic papers and Persian-language news reports, diaries, memoirs, interviews, and theological tracts, Buchan illumi­nates both Khomeini and the Shah. His writing is always clear, dispassionate, and informative. The Iranian Revolution was a turning point in modern history, and James Buchan’s Days of God is, as London’s Independent put it, “a compelling, beautifully written history” of that event.

The Twilight War

The Secret History of America's Thirty-Year Conflict with Iran
Author: David Crist
Publisher: Penguin Books
ISBN: 014312367X
Category: History
Page: 642
View: 3212
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Reveals the covert operations that have brought the United States and Iran to the brink of open war, including Iran's proposal for peace after 9/11, which was rejected by President Bush, and Iran's secret army in post-U.S. invasion Iraq.

All the Shah's Men

An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror
Author: Stephen Kinzer
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 047018549X
Category: History
Page: 258
View: 5005
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A new edition of the best-selling study of the Iran-U.S. conflict traces the events leading to the 1953 coup in Iran, noting the reasons behind the U.S.'s covert operations under the joint authority of Eisenhower and Churchill, the orchestrations of prime minister Mossadegh and CIA officer Kermit Roosevelt, the coup's ongoing consequences, and future conflict. Original.

Women and Politics in Iran

Veiling, Unveiling, and Reveiling
Author: Hamideh Sedghi
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139463721
Category: Political Science
Page: N.A
View: 2245
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Why were urban women veiled in the early 1900s, unveiled from 1936 to 1979, and reveiled after the 1979 revolution? This question forms the basis of Hamideh Sedghi's original and unprecedented contribution to politics and Middle Eastern studies. Using primary and secondary sources, Sedghi offers new knowledge on women's agency in relation to state power. In this rigorous analysis she places contention over women at the centre of the political struggle between secular and religious forces and demonstrates that control over women's identities, sexuality, and labor has been central to the consolidation of state power. Sedghi links politics and culture with economics to present an integrated analysis of the private and public lives of different classes of women and their modes of resistance to state power.

Confronting Iran

The Failure of American Foreign Policy and the Next Great Crisis in the Middle East and the Next Gre
Author: Ali Ansari
Publisher: Basic Books
ISBN: 0465003834
Category: History
Page: 288
View: 1193
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Iran refuses to relent in developing nuclear technology, despite U.N. sanctions. Rumors persist that Israel is drawing up plans for military strikes. Neither the emboldened Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad nor the embattled President Bush has relented in his war of words. How did we get here? Iran expert Ali Ansari sets the current crisis in the context of a long history of mutual antagonism. From the overthrow of Mosaddeq in 1953 to the hostage crisis in 1979 and, more recently, the Gulf War and the War in Iraq, both Iranian and American politicians have forged conflicting narratives about an “evil empire” lying half a world away-resulting in a mutual mistrust that may ultimately lead to war.

The Shah and I

The Confidential Diary of Iran's Royal Court, 1969-1977
Author: Asad Allāh ʿAlam
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Iran
Page: 568
View: 6726
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Erindringer af shahen af Irans hof-minister og nære ven fra årene 1966-1977. Trods sin loyalitet mod Shahen er forfatteren overraskende kritisk mod regentens autoritære styreform.

The Eagle and the Lion

The Tragedy of American-Iranian Relations
Author: James A. Bill
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 9780300044126
Category: Political Science
Page: 520
View: 7713
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A leading scholar of Iran relates the reasons that helped to destroy the American-Iranian relationship and outlines measures to improve future foreign policy-making

The Islamic Middle East

An Historical Anthropology
Author: Charles Lindholm
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
ISBN: 9781557864215
Category: Social Science
Page: 352
View: 2850
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This is an account of the origins, nature, and evolution of Islam. It explores the cultures of the Middle East in which Islam originated fourteen centuries ago and of the Arab, Persian and Turkish societies where it remains a powerful force. The author describes the rise of Islam and the Muslim empires, and shows how the evolution of Islam led to the development of Sufism and Shiism [note: reverse the inverted comma]. He examines the achievements of Islamic learning and philosophy, and seeks to reconcile Middle Eastern attitudes attitudes towards slaves and women with Islamic affirmations of egalitarianism. This synthesis of historical and anthropological perspectives provides a new understanding of Islam and of the Middle East. It is illustrated with maps and lithographs, is fully referenced and indexed, and includes a glossary and a comparative time line.

An Enduring Love

My Life with the Shah - A Memoir
Author: Farah Pahlavi
Publisher: Miramax Books
ISBN: 9781401359614
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 464
View: 2537
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A moving story of the former Empress of Iran -- now in paperback. At the age of twenty-one, Farah Diba married the Shah of Iran, Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi. A loving marriage, the raising of four children, and a devotion to social and cultural causes marked her early years as queen, although there were already signs of grave national diversions on the horizon. Twenty years later the dream had turned into a nightmare: demonstrations and riots shook the country, and Farah and the Shah decided to leave in order to avoid bloodshed. With the hardcover publication of An Enduring Love, a New York Times bestseller (extended list) in 2004, Farah Diba, wife of the last emperor of Iran, broke her silence and told the wrenching story of her love for a man and his country. Her compelling memoir offers an intimate view of a time of upheaval, but stands above all as a powerful human document from one whose life was caught up in an epic and tragic national struggle.

The Trial of Henry Kissinger


Author: Christopher Hitchens
Publisher: Verso
ISBN: 9781859843987
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 161
View: 787
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Calling upon personal testimony and documents released under the Freedom of Information Act, chronicles the life of Henry Kissinger, linking him to events including the war in Indochina and genocide in East Timor.

SECRETS OF THE IRANIAN REVOLUTION

JAAM-E-JAM Television's Open Forum
Author: Manouchehr Bibiyan
Publisher: Xlibris Corporation
ISBN: 1450060536
Category: History
Page: 373
View: 5000
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This intriguing book by Manouchehr Bibiyan, producer and president of Los Angeles based JAAM-E-JAM Television Network, is a rare political document and a credible historical primary source on the history of modern Iran. Based on the many interviews of Mr. Manouchehr Bibiyan and his staff with Iranian public figures over the years, Secrets of the Iranian Revolution is a unique and rare glimpse behind the scenes of one of the most turbulent modern revolutions. Mr. Manouchehr Bibiyan, the producer and president of JAAM-E-JAM Television Network, continues to be a prominent, influential, active and permanent presence in the arenas of music, culture and politics as he has for the more than fifty-three years in Iran and the United States. He was born on November 22, 1933 in Tehran. After completing high school and higher education in Tehran and Tel Aviv, he soon contributed to the field of Journalism. Prior to the Iranian Revolution, Manouchehr Bibiyan was Iran’s biggest producer of Iranian music and for twenty-five years (1954-1979),he produced eighty percent of Iran’s music. During the Shah’s regime, Iran’s national radio and television produced about ten percent of Iran’s music. Therefore, throughout this period it primarily broadcast the music produced by Manouchehr Bibiyan’s music company, Apollon. As President of Apollon Music Company, he introduced the most successful and celebrated Iranian singers to the Iranian public. With the cooperation of young and talented songwriters and composers, Mr. Bibiyan introduced pop and jazz to Iranians, revolutionizing Iran’s music industry. During the Iranian Revolution and with the likelihood of the imminent establishment of an Islamic republic, Manouchehr Bibiyan left Iran and established residency in Los Angeles. In 1980, he founded Pars Video in orderto preserve Iranian music, language and culture outside Iran. A year later, in1981, in response to historic necessity, he founded JAAM-E-JAM Television. This medium was a bridge between the displaced Iranians in their first few years of exile and a link to the larger community in America. Within a few short years, JAAM-E-JAM Television was broadcasting its programs nationwide and currently it broadcasts worldwide via satellite. JAAM-E-JAM Television broadcasts a program entitled Tribun-e-Azaad (Open Forum) consisting of interviews conducted by the author, Manouchehr Bibiyan, and his staff with world leaders and political figures. Open Forum became a medium for recording, preserving and presenting the secrets of history. Both Iranian and world statespersons participated in the forum. For the first time in history, Iranian statespersons from the old regime of the Shah narrated the historical events and revealed the secrets of the causes and consequences of the Iranian Revolution for the hundreds of thousands of viewers of JAAM-E-JAM Television.

The CIA in Iran

The 1953 Coup and the Origins of the US-Iran Trade
Author: Christopher J. Petherick
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780978573324
Category: Great Britain
Page: 154
View: 8239
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Few Americans today have any idea why Iran and America seem forever to be at loggerheads or even why Iran held 52 American hostages for 444 days in Tehran after the overthrow of the shah, America's best ally in the region. Iranians remember well the 1953 CIA-orchestrated coup that forcibly removed democratically elected Prime Minster Mohammad Mossadeq, a man dedicated to loosening the grip the Western oil companies had over Iran and her oil. Now, for the first time, is the story of the coup d'etat that placed the dreaded Shah of Iran in power as told by former CIA operative Donald Wilber, a deep cover CIA asset in Iran at the time. Wilber lays out the whole plan--every dirty trick and rotten scheme--which so successfully removed Mossadeq, by all accounts a good nationalist and a wise leader. CIA In Iran reveals in shocking detail a once-top-secret report by a CIA field agent working in Iran. The report, which reads like a detective novel, shows how U.S. and British operatives employed every dirty trick at their disposal, including bribery, murder and terrorism, to eliminate a government they could not control and replace it with one they thought they could. It is the true story of how, in 1953, American agents destroyed the democratically elected prime minister of Iran, Mohammad Mossadeq, and maneuvered the infamous "Shah of Iran," Reza Pahlavi, into power. The installation of the Shah led to Pahlavi's own ouster (he was feared by the majority of Iranians) and the creation of today's Iranian Islamic Republic. Following the overthrow in Iran, U.S. intelligence repeatedly employed the same formula in future coup attempts, including the disastrous Bay of Pigs, but could never quite replicate its success. To this day, historians and journalists contend the CIA is still utilizing what agents learned in Tehran in 1953. Likewise, you can believe that foreign governments are all more wary of U.S. scheming, thanks to the release of this report.Today, the rift between the United States and Iran, short of war, could not be wider.

Navigating Iran

From Carter to Obama
Author: O. Seliktar
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137010886
Category: Political Science
Page: 223
View: 9496
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Provides a full account of the politics and intelligence of American relations with the Islamic Republic of Iran from the Carter presidency to the Obama administration.

The Unthinkable Revolution in Iran


Author: Charles Kurzman
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674039834
Category: History
Page: 304
View: 3923
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The shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, would remain on the throne for the foreseeable future: This was the firm conclusion of a top-secret CIA analysis issued in October 1978. One hundred days later the shah--despite his massive military, fearsome security police, and superpower support was overthrown by a popular and largely peaceful revolution. But the CIA was not alone in its myopia, as Charles Kurzman reveals in this penetrating work; Iranians themselves, except for a tiny minority, considered a revolution inconceivable until it actually occurred. Revisiting the circumstances surrounding the fall of the shah, Kurzman offers rare insight into the nature and evolution of the Iranian revolution and into the ultimate unpredictability of protest movements in general. As one Iranian recalls, "The future was up in the air." Through interviews and eyewitness accounts, declassified security documents and underground pamphlets, Kurzman documents the overwhelming sense of confusion that gripped pre-revolutionary Iran, and that characterizes major protest movements. His book provides a striking picture of the chaotic conditions under which Iranians acted, participating in protest only when they expected others to do so too, the process approaching critical mass in unforeseen and unforeseeable ways. Only when large numbers of Iranians began to "think the unthinkable," in the words of the U.S. ambassador, did revolutionary expectations become a self-fulfilling prophecy. A corrective to 20-20 hindsight, this book reveals shortcomings of analyses that make the Iranian revolution or any major protest movement seem inevitable in retrospect.

Democracy in Iran


Author: Misagh Parsa
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674974298
Category: Political Science
Page: 376
View: 9697
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In Misagh Parsa’s view, the outlook for democracy in Iran is stark. Gradual reforms will not be sufficient for real change: the government must fundamentally rethink its commitment to the role of religion in politics and civic life. For Iran to democratize, the options are narrowing to a single path: another revolution.