The Discourse of Race in Modern China


Author: Frank Dikötter
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190231130
Category: History
Page: 256
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Previous edition published in 1992 by Stanford University Press.

The Discourse of Race in Modern China


Author: Frank Dikötter
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190613335
Category: History
Page: 256
View: 1057
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First published in 1992, The Discourse of Race in Modern China rapidly became a classic, showing for the first time on the basis of detailed evidence how and why racial categorisation became so widespread in China. After the country's devastating defeat against Japan in 1895, leading reformers like Yan Fu, Liang Qichao and Kang Youwei turned away from the Confucian classics to seek enlightenment abroad, hoping to find the keys to wealth and power on the distant shores of Europe. Instead, they discovered the notion of 'race', and used new evolutionary theories from Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer to present a universe red in tooth and claw in which 'yellows' competed with 'whites' in a deadly struggle for survival. After the fall of the empire in 1911, prominent politicians and writers in republican China continued to measure, classify and rank people from around the world according to their supposed biological features, all in the name of science. Racial thinking remains popular in the People's Republic of China, as serologists, geneticists and anthropometrists continue to interpret human variation in terms of 'race'. This new edition has been revised and expanded to include a new chapter taking the reader up to the twenty-first century.

The Discourse of Race in Modern China

Hong Kong Memoirs
Author: Frank Dikotter
Publisher: Hong Kong University Press
ISBN: 9622093043
Category: Social Science
Page: 266
View: 3716
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This book is a study of a topic that is both extremely important and highly sensitive: how the Chinese have viewed other ethnic groups across time. The issue of racial differences constitutes a highly marked and oblique discourse in modern China. This is the first book to analyse that shielded rhetoric directly.

The Construction of Racial Identities in China and Japan

Historical and Contemporary Perspectives
Author: Frank Dikötter
Publisher: C. HURST & CO. PUBLISHERS
ISBN: 9781850653530
Category: Antisemitism
Page: 217
View: 1823
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This work reflects on the core issues related to the national and racial mythologies that have been central to nation building in China and Japan over the last century. The contributors demonstrate how the process of modern myth-making and racial identity politics has been at work in the region.

Exotic Commodities

Modern Objects and Everyday Life in China
Author: Frank Dikötter
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 9780231511872
Category: History
Page: 384
View: 5829
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Exotic Commodities is the first book to chart the consumption and spread of foreign goods in China from the mid-nineteenth century to the advent of communism in 1949. Richly illustrated and revealing, this volume recounts how exotic commodities were acquired and adapted in a country commonly believed to have remained "hostile toward alien things" during the industrial era. China was not immune to global trends that prized the modern goods of "civilized" nations. Foreign imports were enthusiastically embraced by both the upper and lower classes and rapidly woven into the fabric of everyday life, often in inventive ways. Scarves, skirts, blouses, and corsets were combined with traditional garments to create strikingly original fashions. Industrially produced rice, sugar, wheat, and canned food revolutionized local cuisine, and mass produced mirrors were hung on doorframes to ward off malignant spirits. Frank Dikötter argues that ordinary people were the least inhibited in acquiring these products and therefore the most instrumental in changing the material culture of China. Landscape paintings, door leaves, and calligraphy scrolls were happily mixed with kitschy oil paintings and modern advertisements. Old and new interacted in ways that might have seemed incongruous to outsiders but were perfectly harmonious to local people. This pragmatic attitude would eventually lead to China's own mass production and export of cheap, modern goods, which today can be found all over the world. The nature of this history raises the question, which Dikötter pursues in his conclusion: If the key to surviving in a fast-changing world is the ability to innovate, could China be more in tune with modernity than Europe?

Imperfect Conceptions

Medical Knowledge, Birth Defects, and Eugenics in China
Author: Frank Dikötter
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 9780231113700
Category: History
Page: 226
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In 1995 the People's Republic of China passed a controversial Eugenics Law, which, after a torrent of international criticism, was euphemistically renamed the Maternal and Infant Health Law. Aimed at "the implementation of premarital medical checkups" to ensure that neither partner has any hereditary, venereal, reproductive, or mental disorders, the ordinance implies that those deemed "unsuitable for reproduction" should undergo sterilization or abortion or remain celibate in order to prevent "inferior births." Using this recent statute as a springboard, Frank Dikötter explores the contexts and history of eugenics in both Communist China and Taiwan. Dikötter shows how beginning in Late Imperial China, Western eugenics was imported and combined with existing fears of cultural, racial, or biological degeneration in Chinese society, leading to government regulation of sexual reproduction. Imperfect Conceptions is a revealing look at the cultural history of medical explanations of birth defects that demonstrates how Chinese assumptions about the relationship of the individual to society form the very core of their attitudes toward procreation. Dikötter explains the patrilineal model of descent, where a person is viewed as the culmination of his or her ancestors and is held responsible for the health of all future generations. By this logic, a pregnant woman's behavior and attitude directly influence the well-being of her baby, and a deformed or retarded child reflects a moral failing on the part of the parents. Dikötter also shows how the holistic medicine practiced in China blurs any distinction between individual and environment so that people are held responsible for illness. Drawing on cultural, social, economic, and political approaches, Dikötter goes beyond a simple authoritarian model to provide a more complex view of eugenic policy, showing how a variety of voices including those of popular journalists, social reformers, medical writers, sex educators, university professors, and politicians all disseminate information that supports rather than questions the state's program. Imperfect Conceptions reveals how Chinese cultural currents -- fear and fascination with the deviant and the urge to draw clear boundaries between the normal and the abnormal -- have combined with medical discourse to form a program of eugenics that is viewed with alarm by the rest of the world.

The Age of Openness

China Before Mao
Author: Frank Dikötter
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520258815
Category: History
Page: 131
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Accessible to general readers and full of valuable insights for specialists, China before Mao presents a fresh way of approaching the country's modern history and shows that in politics, society, culture, and the economy, China was at its most diverse on the eve of World War II."--BOOK JACKET.

China's Unequal Treaties

Narrating National History
Author: Dong Wang
Publisher: Lexington Books
ISBN: 0739152971
Category: Political Science
Page: 190
View: 5415
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China's Unequal Treaties offers a study, based on primary sources, of the linguistic development and polemical uses of the expression 'Unequal Treaties' to refer to the treaties written between 1842 and 1943. Although the expression has occupied a central position in both Chinese collective memory and English historiographies, China's Unequal Treaties is the first study of the phrase and its interpretations.

Race and Racism in Modern East Asia

Western and Eastern Constructions
Author: Rotem Kowner,Walter Demel
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004237291
Category: Social Science
Page: 593
View: 7886
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Race and Racism in Modern East Asia juxtaposes Western racial constructions of East Asians with constructions of race and their outcomes in modern East Asia. This groundbreaking volume also offers an analysis of these constructions, their evolution and their interrelations.

Leprosy in China

A History
Author: Angela Ki Che Leung
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231517793
Category: History
Page: 392
View: 1756
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Angela Ki Che Leung's meticulous study begins with the classical annals of the imperial era, which contain the first descriptions of a feared and stigmatized disorder modern researchers now identify as leprosy. She then tracks the relationship between the disease and China's social and political spheres (theories of contagion prompted community and statewide efforts at segregation); religious traditions (Buddhism and Daoism ascribed redemptive meaning to those suffering from the disease), and evolving medical discourse (Chinese doctors have contested the disease's etiology for centuries). Leprosy even pops up in Chinese folklore, attributing the spread of the contagion to contact with immoral women. Leung next places the history of leprosy into a global context of colonialism, racial politics, and "imperial danger." A perceived global pandemic in the late nineteenth century seemed to confirm Westerners' fears that Chinese immigration threatened public health. Therefore battling to contain, if not eliminate, the disease became a central mission of the modernizing, state-building projects of the late Qing empire, the nationalist government of the first half of the twentieth century, and the People's Republic of China. Stamping out the curse of leprosy was the first step toward achieving "hygienic modernity" and erasing the cultural and economic backwardness associated with the disease. Leung's final move connects China's experience with leprosy to a larger history of public health and biomedical regimes of power, exploring the cultural and political implications of China's Sino-Western approach to the disease.

Rereading the Black Legend

The Discourses of Religious and Racial Difference in the Renaissance Empires
Author: Margaret R. Greer,Walter D. Mignolo,Maureen Quilligan
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226307247
Category: Literary Criticism
Page: 448
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The phrase “The Black Legend” was coined in 1912 by a Spanish journalist in protest of the characterization of Spain by other Europeans as a backward country defined by ignorance, superstition, and religious fanaticism, whose history could never recover from the black mark of its violent conquest of the Americas. Challenging this stereotype, Rereading the Black Legend contextualizes Spain’s uniquely tarnished reputation by exposing the colonial efforts of other nations whose interests were served by propagating the “Black Legend.” A distinguished group of contributors here examine early modern imperialisms including the Ottomans in Eastern Europe, the Portuguese in East India, and the cases of Mughal India and China, to historicize the charge of unique Spanish brutality in encounters with indigenous peoples during the Age of Exploration. The geographic reach and linguistic breadth of this ambitious collection will make it a valuable resource for any discussion of race, national identity, and religious belief in the European Renaissance.

Shanghai Modern

The Flowering of a New Urban Culture in China, 1930-1945
Author: Leo Ou-fan Lee
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674805507
Category: History
Page: 409
View: 9869
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In the midst of China's wild rush to modernize, a surprising note of reality arises: Shanghai, it seems, was once modern indeed, a pulsing center of commerce and art in the heart of the twentieth century. This book immerses us in the golden age of Shanghai urban culture, a modernity at once intrinsically Chinese and profoundly anomalous, blending new and indigenous ideas with those flooding into this "treaty port" from the Western world. A preeminent specialist in Chinese studies, Leo Ou-fan Lee gives us a rare wide-angle view of Shanghai culture in the making. He shows us the architecture and urban spaces in which the new commercial culture flourished, then guides us through the publishing and filmmaking industries that nurtured a whole generation of artists and established a bold new style in urban life known as modeng. In the work of six writers of the time, particularly Shi Zhecun, Mu Shiying, and Eileen Chang, Lee discloses the reflection of Shanghai's urban landscape--foreign and familiar, oppressive and seductive, traditional and innovative. This work acquires a broader historical and cosmopolitan context with a look at the cultural links between Shanghai and Hong Kong, a virtual genealogy of Chinese modernity from the 1930s to the present day.

China Inside Out

Contemporary Chinese Nationalism and Transnationalism
Author: P l Ny¡ri,Joana Breidenbach
Publisher: Central European University Press
ISBN: 9789637326141
Category: Political Science
Page: 354
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The "war on terror" has generated a scramble for expertise on Islamic or Asian "culture" and revived support for area studies, but it has done so at the cost of reviving the kinds of dangerous generalizations that area studies have rightly been accused of. This book provides a much-needed perspective on area studies, a perspective that is attentive to both manifestations of "traditional culture" and the new global relationships in which they are being played out. The authors shake off the shackles of the orientalist legacy but retain a close reading of local processes. They challenge the boundaries of China and question its study from different perspectives, but believe that area studies have a role to play if their geographies are studied according to certain common problems. In the case of China, the book shows the diverse array of critical but solidly grounded research approaches that can be used in studying a society. Its approach neither trivializes nor dismisses the elusive effects of culture, and it pays attention to both the state and the multiplicity of voices that challenge it.

The Great Han

Race, Nationalism, and Tradition in China Today
Author: Kevin Carrico
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520295501
Category: Social Science
Page: 280
View: 5895
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The Great Han is an ethnographic study of the Han Clothing Movement, a neotraditionalist and racial nationalist movement that has emerged in China since 2001. Participants come together both online and in person in cities across China to revitalize their utopian vision of the authentic “Great Han” and corresponding “real China” through pseudotraditional ethnic dress, reinvented Confucian ritual, and anti-foreign sentiment. Analyzing the movement’s ideas and practices, this book argues that the vision of a pure, perfectly ordered, ethnically homogeneous, and secure society is in fact a fantasy constructed in response to the challenging realities of the present. Yet this national imaginary is reproduced precisely through its own perpetual elusiveness. The Great Han is a pioneering analysis of Han identity, nationalism, and social movements in a rapidly changing China.

Staging the World

Chinese Nationalism at the Turn of the Twentieth Century
Author: Rebecca E. Karl
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 9780822328674
Category: Political Science
Page: 314
View: 3910
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DIVAn historical analysis of how the Chinese constructed their understandings of their place in the world in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries./div

Ethnic Europe

Mobility, Identity, and Conflict in a Globalized World
Author: Roland Hsu
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 080476946X
Category: Social Science
Page: 253
View: 5682
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Ethnic Europe examines the increasingly complex ethnic challenges facing the expanding European Union. Essays from eleven experts tackle such issues as labor migration, strains on welfare economies, the durability of local traditions, the effects of globalized cultures, and the role of Islamic diasporas, separatist movements, and threats of terrorism. With Europe now a destination for global immigration, European countries are increasingly alert to the difficult struggle to balance minority rights with social cohesion. In pondering these dilemmas, the contributors to this volume take us from theory, history, and broad views of diasporas, to the particularities of neighborhoods, borderlands, and popular literature and film that have been shaped by the mixing of ethnic cultures.

Racism in the Modern World

Historical Perspectives on Cultural Transfer and Adaptation
Author: Manfred Berg,Simon Wendt
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 0857450778
Category: History
Page: 384
View: 9729
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Emphasizing the global nature of racism, this volume brings together historians from various regional specializations to explore this phenomenon from comparative and transnational perspectives. The essays shed light on how racial ideologies and practices developed, changed, and spread in Europe, Asia, the Near East, Australia, and Africa, focusing on processes of transfer, exchange, appropriation, and adaptation. To what extent, for example, were racial beliefs of Western origin? Did similar belief systems emerge in non-Western societies independently of Western influence? And how did these societies adopt and adapt Western racial beliefs once they were exposed to them? Up to this point, the few monographs or edited collections that exist only provide students of the history of racism with tentative answers to these questions. More importantly, the authors of these studies tend to ignore transnational processes of exchange and transfer. Yet, as this volume shows, these are crucial to an understanding of the diffusion of racial belief systems around the globe.

Race, Law, and "The Chinese Puzzle" in Imperial Britain


Author: S. Auerbach
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230620922
Category: History
Page: 268
View: 7073
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This book examines the role that law and the courts played in the dynamics of race and gender relations for Chinese immigrants in London and the British empire.

Narcotic Culture

A History of Drugs in China
Author: Frank Dikötter,Lars Peter Laamann,Zhou Xun
Publisher: C. HURST & CO. PUBLISHERS
ISBN: 9781850657255
Category: Drug abuse
Page: 319
View: 4498
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China was turned into a nation of opium addicts by the pernicious forces of imperialist trade. This study systematically questions this assertion on the basis of abundant archives from China, Europe and the US, showing that opium had few harmful effects on either health or longevity.

The idea of race


Author: Michael Banton
Publisher: Westview Press, 1978
ISBN: N.A
Category: Social Science
Page: 190
View: 1030
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