The Dynamics of Sunni-Shia Relationships

Doctrine, Transnationalism, Intellectuals and the Media
Author: Sabrina Mervin,Rainer Brunner,Jean-François Legrain,Joseph Alagha,Reidar Visser,Thomas Pierret,Roel Meijer,Joas Wagemakers,Stéphane A. Dudoignon,Farian Sabahi,Mariam Abou Zahab,Bayram Balci,Altay Goyushov,Brecht De Smet
Publisher: Hurst Publishers
ISBN: 1849042179
Category: Religion
Page: 355
View: 5518
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Before the immense changes of the 2011 'Arab Spring', it was Sunni-Shia sectarian rivalry that preoccupied most political analyses of the Middle East. This book presents wide-ranging and up-to-date research that sheds light on the political, sociological and ideological processes that are affecting the dynamics within the Shia and Sunni worlds.

Antisemitismus im 21. Jahrhundert

Virulenz einer alten Feindschaft in Zeiten von Islamismus und Terror
Author: Marc Grimm,Bodo Kahmann
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110537095
Category: History
Page: 454
View: 1559
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In den vergangenen Jahren vollzog sich eine deutlich beobachtbare Radikalisierung des Antisemitismus in Europa, die mit den islamistisch motivierten Terroranschlägen von Paris, Toulouse, Brüssel und Kopenhagen auch mörderische Konsequenzen hatte. Als Indikator für eine neue Qualität und Virulenz des Antisemitismus kann jedoch nicht nur der islamistische Antisemitismus gesehen werden, sondern auch die Zunahme von Antisemitismus in politisch und sozial arrivierten Kreisen und Milieus. Zugleich ist die Hemmschwelle für die Äußerung und Akzeptanz antisemitischer Ressentiments gesunken, sofern diese als „Israelkritik“ camoufliert sind. Parallel zu diesen Entwicklungen stellte der Antisemitismus sein Mobilisierungspotential für den politischen Protest auf der Straße unter Beweis, etwa im Rahmen der Mahnwachen für den Frieden und während des Gaza-Krieges 2014. Die Beiträge des Sammelbandes untersuchen Aspekte dieser Entwicklungen und befassen sich schwerpunktmäßig mit Antisemitismus in der öffentlichen Kommunikation, islamischen Antisemitismus und Antisemitismus in politischen Bewegungen. Mit Beiträgen von Alvin Rosenfeld, Dina Porat, Matthias Küntzel, Karin Stögner, Navras Alfreedi, Stephan Grigat, Amy Elman, Florian Markl, Franziska Krah, Matthias J. Becker, Dana Ionescu, Daniel Rickenbacher, Zbyněk Tarant, Günther Jikeli, Ullrich Bauer, Michael Höttemann, Laura-Luise Hammel, Simon Gansinger

Turkish-Azerbaijani Relations

One Nation—Two States?
Author: Murad Ismayilov,Norman A. Graham
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317231023
Category: Political Science
Page: 182
View: 760
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An east-west axis of Azerbaijan and Turkey has grown into prominence within the broader structure of regional dynamics in Eurasia over the past two decades. Yet few, including among policy advisors and policy makers in either of the two states, have attempted to look deeper into the forces that lie behind the workings of this important regional nexus, a reality that resulted in a dual crisis in bilateral relations towards the end of the second decade of interaction. This volume investigates the underlying causes that shaped the dynamics within the structure of the bilateral relationship between Azerbaijan and Turkey. It features chapters by both scholars from the region and international experts in the field, and therefore provides both in-house and outside perspectives on developments within the complex structure of the relationship. With its analysis portfolio including historical, political, economic, socio-cultural, ideological, and international underpinnings of this regional alliance, the volume offers the most systematic and broad ranged analysis of the matter available to date. The book will serve as an important resource for students and scholars of post-Soviet Studies, Central Asia and the Caucasus, and the Middle East, while also being of interest to those of International Relations and political science disciplines.

Sectarianization

Mapping the New Politics of the Middle East
Author: Nader Hashemi,Danny Postel
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190862661
Category: Religion
Page: N.A
View: 5757
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As the Middle East descends ever deeper into violence and chaos, 'sectarianism' has become a catch-all explanation for the region's troubles. The turmoil is attributed to 'ancient sectarian differences', putatively primordial forces that make violent conflict intractable. In media and policy discussions, sectarianism has come to possess trans-historical causal power. This book trenchantly challenges the lazy use of 'sectarianism' as a magic-bullet explanation for the region's ills, focusing on how various conflicts in the Middle East have morphed from non-sectarian (or cross-sectarian) and nonviolent movements into sectarian wars. Through multiple case studies -- including Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Yemen and Kuwait -- this book maps the dynamics of sectarianisation, exploring not only how but also why it has taken hold. The contributors examine the constellation of forces -- from those within societies to external factors such as the Saudi-Iran rivalry -- that drive the sectarianisation process and explore how the region's politics can be de-sectarianised. Featuring leading scholars -- and including historians, anthropologists, political scientists and international relations theorists -- this book will redefine the terms of debate on one of the most critical issues in international affairs today.

The Changing Nature of Shia Politics in the Contemporary Middle East


Author: Anoushiravan Ehteshami,Mahjoob Zweiri
Publisher: Ithaca
ISBN: 9780863725159
Category: Political Science
Page: 250
View: 3407
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While it is true that the relationship between the two main sects of Islam has been tense for generations, it is only recently that this relationship has become confrontational, at times displaying worrying signs of deep hostility. Inter-confessional tensions have been on the rise thanks to the dynamic nature of politics in Muslim states in the second half of the 20th century. Various events have all contributed to an already-complex, inter-communal relationship: the dramatic transformation of Shia Iran into an Islamic Republic in 1979, the Afghan Jihad, the civil war in the Lebanon, and, more recently, the transformation of a majority Shia Iraq into Iran's close spiritual and political ally in the early 21st century. Together, forces - such as revolution, civil war, internal strife, and regime change - have provided the catalysts for the transformation of Shia communities regionally and internationally into political communities, thus energizing the Shia into direct political action. Tension between the two communities has intensified even further during the Arab Spring and the geopolitical fallout from widespread Arab uprisings, often placing the Shia and their allies at the vortex of regional developments - as in the Bahraini uprising, revolutionary change in Yemen, and the violent Syrian revolution. As Sunni Islamists also gain power in several Arab countries for the first time, this book reminds us that Sunni-Shia relations have been marked by cooperation as well as conflict. It provides a dispassionate study and account of Shia politics in modern times, arguing that Shia politics matter now more to the Middle East region - and the Muslim world more widely - than at any time since the demise of the Ottoman empire. The Changing Nature of Shia Politics in the Contemporary Middle East reflects the nature and intensity of debates about Sunni-Shia relations in the region. The book looks at the different political changes in the region and their impact on the dynamics of Shia politics in the contemporary Middle East, ending with a chapter devoted to the future role of Shia in the political process during these extraordinary times.

Weltordnung


Author: Henry A. Kissinger
Publisher: C. Bertelsmann Verlag
ISBN: 3641155487
Category: Political Science
Page: 480
View: 2895
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Henry Kissinger über die größte Herausforderung des 21. Jahrhunderts Hat das westlich geprägte Wertesystem im 21. Jahrhundert angesichts aufstrebender Mächte mit gänzlich anderem Menschenbild und Gesellschaftskonzept als Basis einer Frieden stiftenden Weltordnung ausgedient? Henry Kissinger, über Jahrzehnte zentrale Figur der US-Außenpolitik und Autorität für Fragen der internationalen Beziehungen, sieht unsere Epoche vor existenziellen Herausforderungen angesichts zunehmender Spannungen. In der heutigen global eng vernetzten Welt wäre eine Ordnung vonnöten, die von Menschen unterschiedlicher Kultur, Geschichte und Tradition akzeptiert wird und auf einem Regelwerk beruht, das in der Lage ist, regionale wie globale Kriege einzudämmen. Der Autor analysiert die Entstehung der unterschiedlichen Ordnungssysteme etwa in China, den islamischen Ländern oder im Westen und unternimmt den Versuch, das Trennende zwischen ihnen zusammenzuführen und den Grundstein für eine zukünftige friedliche Weltordnung zu legen.

The Three Circles of War

Understanding the Dynamics of Conflict in Iraq
Author: Heather S. Gregg
Publisher: Potomac Books, Inc.
ISBN: 1597974994
Category: History
Page: 259
View: 3633
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A comprehensive military textbook for our times, our wars

Dynamics of Change in the Persian Gulf

Political Economy, War and Revolution
Author: Anoushiravan Ehteshami
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113507285X
Category: Political Science
Page: 290
View: 5590
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The Persian Gulf has come to represent one of the most strategically significant waterways of the world. In terms of geography, geopolitics, resources, global political economy, and regional influence, the Gulf is perhaps home to the world’s most significant group of countries. Focusing on the complexities of the interplay between domestic-level changes and region-wide interactions, this book presents the reader with the first comprehensive survey of the dynamics of change in this crucial area. Systemic-oriented in its approach, the impact of war and revolution on the countries of the sub-region is discussed, and the ways in which these factors have shaped the security dilemmas and responses of the Gulf States is also explored. The role of oil is examined in terms of the impact of its income on these states and societies, and the manner in which oil has shaped the integration of these states into the global system. Oil has shrunk developmental time in these countries, and has accelerated generational shift. At the same time, it has created the dialectical relationship which now characterizes the difficult balance between prosperity and instability which is at the heart of the sub-region. Casting new light on the workings of a strategically significant part of the international system, this book will be an essential resource for students and scholars of international relations, international security and Middle Eastern politics.

Oman, Culture and Diplomacy


Author: Jeremy Jones
Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
ISBN: 0748674632
Category: Political Science
Page: 304
View: 6137
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This book is a cultural history, offering an historical account of the formation of a distinctive Omani culture; arguing that it is in this unique culture that a specific conception and practice of diplomacy has been developed.

Nois2e

No Oil Imports from Sunni/Shiite Exporters
Author: Charlie Pedersen
Publisher: iUniverse
ISBN: 1491733357
Category: Fiction
Page: 400
View: 5231
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There is a lot of talk in the United States today about energy independence, specifically the desire for America to get out of the Middle East and to stop relying on its oil. But it takes courage. In NOIS2E, author Charlie Pedersen takes the challenge and assembles both a worldview and an action plan. Unveiling the forces that have secured the United States to the status quo, he shows there is an opportunity to change the world and shake off the economic chains of oil dependency, all while moving Water and Energy towards the goal of cost reduction and the elimination of drought and famine in the 21st century. NOIS2E discusses the current US strategy, which seems to make oil dependency so painful that anything will be done to get more oil, even war. It looks at current energy innovation and alternatives and recognizes that the United States can exploit bene?ts and invest in delivery and solutions for the water and energy crises, not by super innovation but by changing the mix and application of fuels and the efficiency of energy, particularly in transportation. Through a fictionalized narrative, NOIS2E takes over the President’s persona and travels on a world quest through Mexico, Canada. China, Russia, the Middle East, Australia, and more to show you the expanding opportunities where clean supply is/will exceed demand. The formula for change. This will transform the 21st Century for the USA and the world, and shows it’s within our grasp, and without war.

Religion and International Relations Theory


Author: Jack Snyder
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231526911
Category: Political Science
Page: 232
View: 8998
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Religious concerns stand at the center of international politics, yet key paradigms in international relations, namely realism, liberalism, and constructivism, barely consider religion in their analysis of political subjects. The essays in this collection rectify this. Authored by leading scholars, they introduce models that integrate religion into the study of international politics and connect religion to a rising form of populist politics in the developing world. Contributors identify religion as pervasive and distinctive, forcing a reframing of international relations theory that reinterprets traditional paradigms. One essay draws on both realism and constructivism in the examination of religious discourse and transnational networks. Another positions secularism not as the opposite of religion but as a comparable type of worldview drawing on and competing with religious ideas. With the secular state's perceived failure to address popular needs, religion has become a banner for movements that demand a more responsive government. The contributors to this volume recognize this trend and propose structural and theoretical innovations for future advances in the discipline.

Character Strengths and Virtues

A Handbook and Classification
Author: Christopher Peterson,Martin E. P. Seligman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198037330
Category: Psychology
Page: 816
View: 9102
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"Character" has become a front-and-center topic in contemporary discourse, but this term does not have a fixed meaning. Character may be simply defined by what someone does not do, but a more active and thorough definition is necessary, one that addresses certain vital questions. Is character a singular characteristic of an individual, or is it composed of different aspects? Does character--however we define it--exist in degrees, or is it simply something one happens to have? How can character be developed? Can it be learned? Relatedly, can it be taught, and who might be the most effective teacher? What roles are played by family, schools, the media, religion, and the larger culture? This groundbreaking handbook of character strengths and virtues is the first progress report from a prestigious group of researchers who have undertaken the systematic classification and measurement of widely valued positive traits. They approach good character in terms of separate strengths-authenticity, persistence, kindness, gratitude, hope, humor, and so on-each of which exists in degrees. Character Strengths and Virtues classifies twenty-four specific strengths under six broad virtues that consistently emerge across history and culture: wisdom, courage, humanity, justice, temperance, and transcendence. Each strength is thoroughly examined in its own chapter, with special attention to its meaning, explanation, measurement, causes, correlates, consequences, and development across the life span, as well as to strategies for its deliberate cultivation. This book demands the attention of anyone interested in psychology and what it can teach about the good life.

Dynamics of Muslim Society


Author: Sekh Rahim Mondal
Publisher: South Asia Books
ISBN: N.A
Category: Social Science
Page: 248
View: 8919
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Study with special reference to West Bengal, India.

Can Faiths Make Peace?

Holy Wars and the Resolution of Religious Conflicts
Author: Philip Broadhead,Damien Keown
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857711164
Category: Political Science
Page: 240
View: 8876
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It is often alleged that religion is a major cause of war and dissent. History is littered with the wreckage of religious conflict, from the crusades onwards, and it is frequently maintained that it is religion which is the tinderbox that ignites so many regional disputes - from Bosnia's ethnic cleansing to the ongoing conflict in Iraq. If religion is on trial, the evidence against it so often seems damning. But is the picture really as grim as has been painted? Very little is heard in defence of religion and few attempts have been made to put the other side of the case. The essays in this volume are among the first systematically to explore the role of religion as a force for peace, both historically and in the contemporary world. They focus on the efforts which have been made by individuals, communities and religious groups to secure conflict-resolution and replace hostility with tolerance and mutual respect. Specific topics explored include: nationalism and religious conflict; revolution and religious wars; the impact of secularisation; ethnicity and religion; conflict over holy places; and making and keeping the peace.

Fearing a 'Shiite Octopus' Sunni-Shi'a relations and the implications for Belgium and Europe (Egmont Papers 35)


Author: N.A
Publisher: Academia Press
ISBN: 903821538X
Category:
Page: N.A
View: 2246
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Islam and the Arab Awakening


Author: Tariq Ramadan
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019997702X
Category: Political Science
Page: 256
View: 5365
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One of the most important developments in the modern history of the Middle East, the so-called Arab Spring began in Tunisia in December 2010, bringing down dictators, sparking a civil war in Libya, and igniting a bloody uprising in Syria. Its long-term repercussions in Egypt and elsewhere remain unclear. Now one of the world's leading Islamic thinkers examines and explains it, in this searching, provocative, and necessary book. Time Magazine named Tariq Ramadan one of the most important innovators of the twenty-first century. A Muslim intellectual and prolific author, he has won global renown for his reflections on Islam and the contemporary challenges in both the Muslim majority societies and the West. In Islam and the Arab Awakening, he explores the uprisings, offering rare insight into their origin, significance, and possible futures. As early as 2003, he writes, there had been talk of democratization in the Middle East and North Africa. The U.S. government and private organizations set up networks and provided training for young leaders, especially in the use of the Internet and social media, and the West abandoned its unconditional support of authoritarian governments. But the West did not create the uprisings. Indeed, one lesson Ramadan presents is that these mass movements and their consequences cannot be totally controlled. Something irreversible has taken place: dictators have been overthrown without weapons. But, he writes, democratic processes are only beginning to emerge, and unanswered questions remain. What role will religion play? How should Islamic principles and goals be rethought? Can a sterile, polarizing debate between Islamism and secularism be avoided? Avoiding both naive confidence and conspiratorial paranoia, Ramadan voices a tentative optimism. If a true civil society can be established, he argues, this moment's fragile hope will live.

Der Irak seit 1958

von der Revolution zur Diktatur
Author: Peter Sluglett,Marion Farouk-Sluglett
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783518116616
Category: Iraq
Page: 345
View: 1546
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The Dynamics of South Asia

Regional Cooperation and SAARC
Author: Eric Gonsalves,Nancy Jetly
Publisher: SAGE Publications Pvt. Limited
ISBN: N.A
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 280
View: 2266
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'This volume offers a good overview of the various difficulties affecting regional cooperation in South Asia' - International Quarterly for Asian Studies This book provides a multi-dimensional and analytical overview of the work and future of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). The contributors relate the significant progress made through bilateral dialogues, inter-state relations and regional meetings of the SAARC against the backdrop of a new international system which has little concern for South Asia. They stress the importance of strengthening linkages by concentrating on the economic and cultural concerns of the region, rather than on political and security issues.

Young American Muslims


Author: Nahid Afrose Kabir
Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
ISBN: 0748669965
Category: Religion
Page: 248
View: 6545
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This book presents a journey into the ideas, outlooks and identity of young Muslims in America today. Based on around 400 in-depth interviews with young Muslims from Florida, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, New York and Virginia, all the richness and n