The Ecology of Adaptive Radiation


Author: Dolph Schluter
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780191588327
Category:
Page: 296
View: 8160
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Adaptive radiation is the evolution of diversity within a rapidly multiplying lineage. It can cause a single ancestral species to differentiate into an impressively vast array of species inhabiting a variety of environments. Much of life's diversity has arisen during adaptive radiations. Some of the most famous recent examples include the East African cichlid fishes, the Hawaiian silverswords, and of course, Darwin's Gal--aacute--;pagos finches,. This book evaluates the causes of adaptive radiation. It focuses on the 'ecological' theory of adaptive radiation, a body of ideas that began with Darwin and was developed through the early part of the 20th Century. This theory proposes that phenotypic divergence and speciation in adaptive radiation are caused ultimately by divergent natural selection arising from differences in environment and competition between species. In The Ecology of Adaptive Radiation the author re-evaluates the ecological theory, along with its most significant extensions and challenges, in the light of all the recent evidence. This important book is the first full exploration of the causes of adaptive radiation to be published for decades, written by one of the world's best young evolutionary biologists.

Ecological Speciation


Author: Patrik Nosil
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199587116
Category: Science
Page: 280
View: 5191
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The formation of new species ('speciation') creates new biological diversity. This book addresses the role of ecological differences between populations in driving speciation. It reviews this process of 'ecological speciation' from ecological, geographic, and genetic perspectives.

Evolutionary Ecology

The Trinidadian Guppy
Author: Anne E. Magurran
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780198527862
Category: Science
Page: 206
View: 4057
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The Trinidadian guppy represents a uniguely tractable vertebrate system, which has raised key questions in evolutionary ecology and supplied many of the answers. This work discusses this study and incorporates significant new findings and insights.

Specialization, Speciation, and Radiation

The Evolutionary Biology of Herbivorous Insects
Author: Kelley Jean Tilmon
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520251328
Category: Nature
Page: 341
View: 2813
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"This volume captures the state-of-the-art in the study of insect-plant interactions, and marks the transformation of the field into evolutionary biology. The contributors present integrative reviews of uniformly high quality that will inform and inspire generations of academic and applied biologists. Their presentation together provides an invaluable synthesis of perspectives that is rare in any discipline."--Brian D. Farrell, Professor of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University "Tilmon has assembled a truly wonderful and rich volume, with contributions from the lion's share of fine minds in evolution and ecology of herbivorous insects. The topics comprise a fascinating and deep coverage of what has been discovered in the prolific recent decades of research with insects on plants. Fascinating chapters provide deep analyses of some of the most interesting research on these interactions. From insect plant chemistry, behavior, and host shifting to phylogenetics, co-evolution, life-history evolution, and invasive plant-insect interaction, one is hard pressed to name a substantial topic not included. This volume will launch a hundred graduate seminars and find itself on the shelf of everyone who is anyone working in this rich landscape of disciplines."--Donald R. Strong, Professor of Evolution and Ecology, University of California, Davis "Seldom have so many excellent authors been brought together to write so many good chapters on so many important topics in organismic evolutionary biology. Tom Wood, always unassuming and inspired by living nature, would have been amazed and pleased by this tribute."--Mary Jane West-Eberhard, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Anolis Lizards of the Caribbean

Ecology, Evolution, and Plate Tectonics
Author: Jonathan Roughgarden,Joan Roughgarden
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0195067312
Category: Science
Page: 200
View: 4778
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The author of this treatise uses the Anolis lizard to demonstrate the concept of ecology models - how ecological context supplies the natural selection that drives evolution and how evolutionary change among species in turn affects their ecological station.

Phylogeny, Ecology, and Behavior

A Research Program in Comparative Biology
Author: Daniel R. Brooks,Deborah A. McLennan
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226075716
Category: Science
Page: 434
View: 5939
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"The merits of this work are many. A rigorous integration of phylogenetic hypotheses into studies of adaptation, adaptive radiation, and coevolution is absolutely necessary and can change dramatically our collective 'gestalt' about much in evolutionary biology. The authors advance and illustrate this thesis beautifully. The writing is often lucid, the examples are plentiful and diverse, and the juxtaposition of examples from different biological systems argues forcefully for the validity of the thesis. Many new insights are offered here, and the work is usually accessible to both the practiced phylogeneticist and the naive ecologist."—Joseph Travis, Florida State University "[Phylogeny, Ecology, and Behavior] presents its arguments forcefully and cogently, with ample . . .support. Brooks and McLennan conclude as they began, with the comment that evolution is a result, not a process, and that it is the result of an interaction of a variety of processes, environmental and historical. Evolutionary explanations must consider all these components, else they are incomplete. As Darwin's explanations of descent with modification integrated genealogical and ecological information, so must workers now incorporate historical and nonhistorical, and biological and nonbiological, processes in their evolutionary perspective."—Marvalee H. Wake, Bioscience "This book is well-written and thought-provoking, and should be read by those of us who do not routinely turn to phylogenetic analysis when investigating adaptation, evolutionary ecology and co-evolution."—Mark R. MacNair, Journal of Natural History

Developmental Plasticity and Evolution


Author: Mary Jane West-Eberhard
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198028567
Category: Science
Page: 916
View: 7422
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The first comprehensive synthesis on development and evolution: it applies to all aspects of development, at all levels of organization and in all organisms, taking advantage of modern findings on behavior, genetics, endocrinology, molecular biology, evolutionary theory and phylogenetics to show the connections between developmental mechanisms and evolutionary change. This book solves key problems that have impeded a definitive synthesis in the past. It uses new concepts and specific examples to show how to relate environmentally sensitive development to the genetic theory of adaptive evolution and to explain major patterns of change. In this book development includes not only embryology and the ontogeny of morphology, sometimes portrayed inadequately as governed by "regulatory genes," but also behavioral development and physiological adaptation, where plasticity is mediated by genetically complex mechanisms like hormones and learning. The book shows how the universal qualities of phenotypes--modular organization and plasticity--facilitate both integration and change. Here you will learn why it is wrong to describe organisms as genetically programmed; why environmental induction is likely to be more important in evolution than random mutation; and why it is crucial to consider both selection and developmental mechanism in explanations of adaptive evolution. This book satisfies the need for a truly general book on development, plasticity and evolution that applies to living organisms in all of their life stages and environments. Using an immense compendium of examples on many kinds of organisms, from viruses and bacteria to higher plants and animals, it shows how the phenotype is reorganized during evolution to produce novelties, and how alternative phenotypes occupy a pivotal role as a phase of evolution that fosters diversification and speeds change. The arguments of this book call for a new view of the major themes of evolutionary biology, as shown in chapters on gradualism, homology, environmental induction, speciation, radiation, macroevolution, punctuation, and the maintenance of sex. No other treatment of development and evolution since Darwin's offers such a comprehensive and critical discussion of the relevant issues. Developmental Plasticity and Evolution is designed for biologists interested in the development and evolution of behavior, life-history patterns, ecology, physiology, morphology and speciation. It will also appeal to evolutionary paleontologists, anthropologists, psychologists, and teachers of general biology.

Speciation in Birds


Author: Trevor Price
Publisher: Roberts & Company
ISBN: 9780974707785
Category: Nature
Page: 470
View: 473
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In 1990 Sibley and Monroe compiled a list of the world's birds. On that list were 9,672 species. In what has been something of a taxonomic revolution more have been added as vocalizations have been studied and DNA sequenced. Now there are likely to be close to 10,000 recognized extant species of birds, and many times that number that have gone extinct over the past 145 million years or so since the first know fossil bird, Archeopteryx. Speciation in Birds is an authoritative synthesis on the behavioral and genetic causes and consequences of speciation in birds.

The Ecology and Evolution of Heliconius Butterflies


Author: Chris D. Jiggins
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192509071
Category: Science
Page: 288
View: 8724
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The Heliconius butterflies are one of the classic systems in evolutionary biology and have contributed hugely to our understanding of evolution over the last 150 years. Their dramatic radiation and remarkable mimicry has fascinated biologists since the days of Bates, Wallace, and Darwin. The Ecology and Evolution of Heliconius Butterflies is the first thorough and accessible treatment of the ecology, genetics, and behaviour of these butterflies, exploring how they offer remarkable insights into tropical biodiversity. The book starts by outlining some of the evolutionary questions that Heliconius research has helped to address, then moves on to an overview of the butterflies themselves and their ecology and behaviour before focussing on wing pattern evolution, and finally, speciation. Richly illustrated with 32 colour plates, this book makes the extensive scientific literature on Heliconius butterflies accessible to a wide audience of professional ecologists, evolutionary biologists, entomologists, and amateur collectors.

The Adaptive Landscape in Evolutionary Biology


Author: Erik Svensson,Ryan Calsbeek
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199595372
Category: Science
Page: 319
View: 5556
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The 'Adaptive Landscape' has been a central concept in population genetics and evolutionary biology since this powerful metaphor was first formulated in 1932. This volume brings together historians of science, philosophers, ecologists, and evolutionary biologists, to discuss the state of the art from several different perspectives.

Fundamentals of Biogeography


Author: Richard John Huggett
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134349688
Category: Science
Page: 456
View: 6773
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Fundamentals of Biogeography presents an accessible, engaging and comprehensive introduction to biogeography, explaining the ecology, geography, history and conservation of animals and plants. Starting with an outline of how species arise, disperse, diversify and become extinct, the book examines: how environmental factors (climate, substrate, topography, and disturbance) influence animals and plants; investigates how populations grow, interact and survive; how communities form and change; and explores the connections between biogeography and conservation. The second edition has been extensively revised and expanded throughout to cover new topics and revisit themes from the first edition in more depth. Illustrated throughout with informative diagrams and attractive photos and including guides to further reading, chapter summaries and an extensive glossary of key terms, Fundamentals of Biogeography clearly explains key concepts in the history, geography and ecology of life systems. In doing so, it tackles some of the most topical and controversial environmental and ethical concerns including species over-exploitation, the impacts of global warming, habitat fragmentation, biodiversity loss and ecosystem restoration.

Darwin's Finches


Author: David Lack
Publisher: CUP Archive
ISBN: 9780521272421
Category: Nature
Page: 208
View: 7799
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David Lack's classic work on the finches of the Galapagos Islands (Darwin's Finches) was first published in 1947; few books have had such a great impact on evolutionary biology, indeed it is still one of the most succinct and fascinating treatises ever written about the origin of new species. The 1947 version is reproduced with facsimile pages of the original text, tables and line illustrations. The major feature of this reprint is the additional material supplied by Dr Peter Boag and Dr Laurene Ratcliffe who have both completed studies on the Galapagos. The readership will comprise students of evolution and ecology and those interested in the history of evolutionary thought. Amateur ornithologists and tourists visiting the Galapagos Islands will find this account fascinating.

Evolution's Wedge

Competition and the Origins of Diversity
Author: David Pfennig,Karin Pfennig
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520954041
Category: Nature
Page: 320
View: 2312
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Evolutionary biology has long sought to explain how new traits and new species arise. Darwin maintained that competition is key to understanding this biodiversity and held that selection acting to minimize competition causes competitors to become increasingly different, thereby promoting new traits and new species. Despite Darwin’s emphasis, competition’s role in diversification remains controversial and largely underappreciated. In their synthetic and provocative book, evolutionary ecologists David and Karin Pfennig explore competition's role in generating and maintaining biodiversity. The authors discuss how selection can lessen resource competition or costly reproductive interactions by promoting trait evolution through a process known as character displacement. They further describe character displacement’s underlying genetic and developmental mechanisms. The authors then consider character displacement’s myriad downstream effects, ranging from shaping ecological communities to promoting new traits and new species and even fueling large-scale evolutionary trends. Drawing on numerous studies from natural populations, and written for a broad audience, Evolution’s Wedge seeks to inspire future research into character displacement’s many implications for ecology and evolution.

Morphometrics for Nonmorphometricians


Author: Ashraf M.T. Elewa
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540958525
Category: Computers
Page: 367
View: 3555
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This introduction to morphometrics does not rely on complex mathematics and statistics. It includes application case studies in fields ranging from paleontology to evolutionary ecology, and it discusses software for analyzing and comparing shape.

The Hawaiian Honeycreepers

Drepanidinae
Author: H. Douglas Pratt
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019854653X
Category: Nature
Page: 342
View: 1265
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This book is the most up to date work on honeycreepers, covering the life history, relationships, and biology of the birds. The honeycreepers, with their bright colouration and canary-like songs, are famed for their unique evolutionary history as a geographically isolated group that has undergone a spectacular burst of adaptions to the islands of the Hawaiian archipelago.

Evolutionary Analysis, Global Edition


Author: Scott Freeman,Jon C. Herron
Publisher: Pearson Higher Ed
ISBN: 1292082682
Category: Science
Page: 864
View: 7746
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For undergraduate courses in Evolution By presenting evolutionary biology as a dynamic, ongoing research effort and organizing discussions around questions, this best-selling text helps students think like scientists as they learn about evolution. The authors convey the excitement and logic of evolutionary science by introducing principles through recent and classical studies, and by emphasizing real-world applications. In the Fifth Edition, co-author Jon Herron takes the lead in streamlining and updating content to reflect key changes in the field. The design and art program have also been updated for enhanced clarity.

The Darwinian Tourist

Viewing the world through evolutionary eyes
Author: Christopher Wills
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191625035
Category: Science
Page: 368
View: 1131
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In this magnificently illustrated book, Christopher Wills takes us on a series of adventures. From the underwater life of Indonesia's Lambeh Strait to a little valley in northern Israel, to an earthquake in the coral reef off the island of Yap and the dry valleys of western Mongolia, Wills demonstrates how ecology and evolution have interacted to yield the world we live in. Each chapter features a different location and brings out a different and important message. With the author's own stunning photographs of the wildlife he discovered on his travels, he draws out the evolutionary stories behind the wildlife and shows how our understanding of the living world can be deepened by a Darwinian perspective. Wills demonstrates how looking at the world with evolutionary eyes leaves us with a renewed sense of wonder about life's astounding present-day diversity, along with an appreciation of our evolutionary history.

Eco-evolutionary Dynamics


Author: Andrew P. Hendry
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400883083
Category: Science
Page: 416
View: 8333
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In recent years, scientists have realized that evolution can occur on timescales much shorter than the "long lapse of ages" emphasized by Darwin—in fact, evolutionary change is occurring all around us all the time. This book provides an authoritative and accessible introduction to eco-evolutionary dynamics, a cutting-edge new field that seeks to unify evolution and ecology into a common conceptual framework focusing on rapid and dynamic environmental and evolutionary change. Andrew Hendry covers key aspects of evolution, ecology, and their interactions. Topics range from natural selection, adaptive divergence, ecological speciation, and gene flow to population and community dynamics, ecosystem function, plasticity, and genomics. Hendry evaluates conceptual and methodological approaches, and draws on empirical data from natural populations—including those in human-disturbed environments—to tackle a number of classic and emerging research questions. He also discusses exciting new directions for future research at the intersection of ecology and evolution. An invaluable guide for students and researchers alike, Eco-evolutionary Dynamics reveals how evolution and ecology interact strongly on short timescales to shape the world we see around us.

Evolution on Islands


Author: Royal Society (Great Britain)
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: N.A
Category: Science
Page: 334
View: 374
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The study of patterns and processes of evolution on islands has played an important role in the development of general theories of how and why evolution occurs. Isolated from the continental process of gene flow, islands may display remarkable rapidity of diversifying evolution, as well as unique species. Evolution on Islands surveys our current knowledge and understanding of microevolution, speciation, and adaptive radiation on islands. Chapters written by experts in the field cover the major trends and processes displayed by plants and animals, on tropical and temperate zone islands, and in lakes and tropical forest refugia. This groundbreaking volume will be of interest to all students and researchers working in the fields of ecology and evolutionary biology.

Microevolution Rate, Pattern, Process


Author: Andrew P. Hendry,Michael T. Kinnison
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401005850
Category: Science
Page: 535
View: 3843
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From guppies to Galapagos finches and from adaptive landscapes to haldanes, this compilation of contributed works provides reviews, perspectives, theoretical models, statistical developments, and empirical demonstrations exploring the tempo and mode of microevolution on contemporary to geological time scales. New developments, and reviews, of classic and novel empirical systems demonstrate the strength and diversity of evolutionary processes producing biodiversity within species. Perspectives and theoretical insights expand these empirical observations to explore patterns and mechanisms of microevolution, methods for its quantification, and implications for the evolution of biodiversity on other scales. This diverse assemblage of manuscripts is aimed at professionals, graduate students, and advanced undergraduates who desire a timely synthesis of current knowledge, an illustration of exciting new directions, and a springboard for future investigations in the study of microevolution in the wild.