The Emergence of Modern Shi'ism

Islamic Reform in Iraq and Iran
Author: Zackery M. Heern
Publisher: Oneworld Publications
ISBN: 1780744978
Category: Religion
Page: 240
View: 2170
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This book takes a fresh look at the foundations of modern Islam. Scholars often locate the origins of the modern Islamic world in European colonialism or Islamic reactions to European modernity. This study, however, focuses on the rise of Islamic movements indigenous to the Middle East, which developed in direct response to the collapse and decentralization of the Islamic gunpowder empires. Arguing that the Usuli movement, as well as Wahhabism and neo-Sufism, emerged in reaction to the disintegration and political decentralization of the Safavid, Ottoman, and Mughal empires, this book specifically highlights the emergence of Usuli Shi‘ism in the 18th and 19th centuries. The long-term impact of the Usuli revival was that Shi‘i clerics gained unprecedented social, political, and economic power in Iran and southern Iraq. Usuli clerics claimed authority to issue binding legal judgments, which, they argue, must be observed by all Shi‘is. By the early 19th century, Usulism emerged as a popular, fiercely independent, transnational Islamic movement. The Usuli clerics have often operated at the heart of social and political developments in modern Iraq and Iran and today dominate the politics of the region.

Reaching for Power

The Shi'a in the Modern Arab World
Author: Yitzhak Nakash
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400841461
Category: History
Page: 248
View: 5837
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As the world focuses on the conflict in Iraq, the most important political players in that country today are not the Sunni insurgents. Instead, they are Iraq's Shi'I majority--part of the Middle East's ninety million Shi'I Muslims who hold the key to the future of the region and the relations between Muslim and Western societies. So contends Yitzhak Nakash, one of the world's foremost experts on Shi'ism. With his characteristic verve and style, Nakash traces the role of the Shi'is in the struggle that is raging today among Muslims for the soul of Islam. He shows that in contrast to the growing militancy among Sunni groups since the 1990s, Shi'is have shifted their focus from confrontation to accommodation with the West. Constituting sixty percent of the population of Iraq, they stand squarely at the center of the U.S government's attempt to remake the Middle East and bring democracy to the region. This groundbreaking book addresses the crucial importance of Shi'is to the U.S. endeavor. Yet it also alerts readers to the strong nationalist sentiments of Shi'is, underscoring the difficult challenge that the United States faces in attempting to impose a new order in the Middle East. The book provides a comprehensive historical perspective on Shi'ism, beginning with the emergence of the movement during the seventh century, continuing through its rise as a political force since the Iranian Islamic Revolution of 1978-79, and leading up to the Iraqi elections of January 2005. Drawing extensively on Arabic sources, this comparative study highlights the reciprocal influences shaping the political development of Shi'is in Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, and Lebanon, as well as the impact of the revival of Shi'ism on the larger Arab world. The narrative concludes with an assessment of the risks and possibilities arising from the assertion of Shi'I power in Iraq and from America's attempt to play an increasingly forceful role in the Middle East. A landmark book and a work of remarkable scholarship, Reaching for Power illuminates the Shi'a resurgence amid the shifting geopolitics of the Middle East.

Shi'i Sectarianism in the Middle East

Modernisation and the Quest for Islamic Universalism
Author: Elisheva Machlis
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 178076720X
Category: History
Page: 256
View: 7555
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The eruption of violent sectarianism in Iraq following the US invasion in 2003 brought the question of Sunni-Shi'i relations in the country to the forefront of the international public agenda. Empowerment of the Shi'i majority for the first time in the history of modern Iraq and the emergence of a factious political system strengthened the popular belief that contemporary Shi'ism is inherently sectarian. Challenging this widely accepted consensus and providing a more ecumenical depiction of Islam, Elisheva Machlis here assesses the relationship between sectarianism and universalism in Shi'i thought by examining the scholarly interaction between Iran, Iraq and Lebanon in the twentieth century. The author presents a multifaceted and complex analysis of the shifting sectarian identity of Shi'ism in the transition to the modern era, exploring questions of leadership, religious identity, group membership and transnationalism. Examining the relationship between intellectual thought and socio-political development in the region, this book provides a new perspective concerning the future of an increasingly globalised Muslim world.

Muhammedanische Studien


Author: Ignác Goldziher
Publisher: Georg Olms Verlag
ISBN: 9783487420202
Category: Islam
Page: N.A
View: 7715
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Der Imam al-Qasim ibn Ibrahim und die Glaubenslehre der Zaiditen


Author: Wilferd Madelung
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110826542
Category: Philosophy
Page: 271
View: 3074
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Pious Passion

The Emergence of Modern Fundamentalism in the United States and Iran
Author: Martin Riesebrodt
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520911420
Category: Religion
Page: 272
View: 5413
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Martin Riesebrodt's unconventional study provides an extraordinary look at religious fundamentalism. Comparing two seemingly disparate movements—in early twentieth-century United States and 1960s and 1970s Iran—he examines why these movements arose and developed. He sees them not simply as protests against "modernity" per se, but as a social and moral community's mobilization against its own marginalization and threats to its way of life. These movements protested against the hallmarks of industrialization and sought to transmit conservative cultural models to the next generation. Fundamentalists desired a return to an "authentic" social order governed by God's law, one bound by patriarchal structures of authority and morality. Both movements advocated a strict gender dualism and were preoccupied with controlling the female body, which was viewed as the major threat to public morality.

The Martyrs of Karbala

Shi'i Symbols and Rituals in Modern Iran
Author: Kamran Scot Aghaie
Publisher: University of Washington Press
ISBN: 029580078X
Category: History
Page: 248
View: 3299
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This innovative study examines patterns of change in Shi�i symbols and rituals over the past two centuries to reveal how modernization has influenced the societal, political, and religious culture of Iran. Shi�is, who support the Prophet Mohammad�s progeny as his successors in opposition to the Sunni caliphate tradition, make up 10 to 15 percent of the world�s Muslim population, roughly half of whom live in Iran. Throughout the early history of the Islamic Middle East, the Sunnis have been associated with the state and the ruling elite, while Shi�is have most often represented the political opposition and have had broad appeal among the masses. Moharram symbols and rituals commemorate the Battle of Karbala in 680 CE, in which the Prophet Mohammad�s grandson Hoseyn and most of his family and supporters were massacred by the troops of the Umayyad caliph Yazid. Moharram symbols and rituals are among the most pervasive and popular aspects of Iranian culture and society. This book traces patterns of continuity and change of Moharran symbols and rituals in three aspects of Iranian life: the importance of these rituals in promoting social bonds, status, identities, and ideals; ways in which the three major successive regimes (Qujars, Pahlavis, and the Islamic Republic), have either used these rituals to promote their legitimacy, or have suppressed them because they viewed them as a potential political threat; and the uses of Moharram symbolism by opposition groups interested in overthrowing the regime. While the patterns of government patronage have been radically discontinuous over the past two centuries, the roles of these rituals in popular society and culture have been relatively continuous or have evolved independently of the state. The political uses of modern-day rituals and the enduring symbolism of the Karbala narratives continue today.

Sociology of Shiʿite Islam

Collected Essays
Author: Saïd Amir Arjomand
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004326278
Category: History
Page: 498
View: 952
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Sociology of Shiʿite Islam is a comprehensive study of the development of Shiʿism from its sectarian formation in the eighth century through its establishment as Iran’s national religion in the sixteenth to the Islamic revolution Iran in the twentieth century.

Ästhetik, Politik und schiitische Repräsentation im zeitgenössischen Iran


Author: Christian Funke
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004347348
Category: Political Science
Page: 423
View: 6339
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In Ästhetik, Politik und schiitische Repräsentation im zeitgenössischen Iran zeigt Christian Funke die Verflechtungen von Politik, Protest und schiitischer Materialität auf und legt vielschichtig dar, wie die Grüne Bewegung mit umfassenderen Diskursen über Demokratie, Identität, Geschichte und Gegenwart sowie Religion und Politik verknüpft war. In Aesthetics, Politics, and Shiʿi Representation in Contemporary Iran Christian Funke explores the entangled relationship betweem politics, protest and Shiʿi materiality and shows how the ‘Green Movement’ was part of larger discourses on democracy, identity, the present and the past, and religion and politics.

The Messiah of Shiraz

Studies in Early and Middle Babism
Author: Denis MacEoin
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004170359
Category: Religion
Page: 738
View: 7182
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Based throughout on original Persian and Arabic sources, most in manuscript, this is an exhaustive overview of Babi history and doctrine. Alongside Amanat's "Resurrection and Renewal," this distillation of a lifetime's work on the movement brings Babi studies into the twentieth century.

Islamic Liberation Theology

Resisting the Empire
Author: Hamid Dabashi
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135982953
Category: Political Science
Page: 320
View: 2978
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This book is a radical piece of counter-intuitive rethinking of the clash of civilizations theory and global politics. In this richly detailed criticism of contemporary politics, Hamid Dabashi argues that after 9/11 we have not seen a new phase in a long running confrontation between Islam and the West, but that such categories have in fact collapsed and exhausted themselves. The West is no longer a unified actor and Islam is ideologically depleted in its confrontation with colonialism. Rather we are seeing the emergence of the US as a lone superpower, and a confrontation between a form of imperial globalized capital and the rising need for a new Islamic theodicy. The combination of political salience and theoretical force makes Islamic Liberation Theology a cornerstone of a whole new generation of thinking about political Islamism and a compelling read for anyone interested in contemporary Islam, current affairs and US foreign policy. Dabashi drives his well-supported and thoroughly documented points steadily forward in an earnest and highly readable style.

The Shi'is of Iraq


Author: Yitzhak Nakash
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691115757
Category: History
Page: 312
View: 4555
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"The Shii's of Iraq" provides a comprehensive history of Iraq's majority group and its turbulent relations with the ruling Sunni minority. Yitzhak Nakash challenges the widely held belief that Shi'i society and politics in Iraq are a reflection of Iranian Shi'ism, pointing to the strong Arab attributes of Iraqi Shi'ism. A new introduction brings this book into the new century and illuminates the role that Shi'is could play in a future Iraq after Saddam Hussein.

Die islamische Gnosis


Author: Heinz Halm
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Shīʻah
Page: 406
View: 9873
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Shi'ite Heritage

Essays on Classical and Modern Traditions
Author: L. Clarke
Publisher: Global Academic Publishing
ISBN: 9781586840662
Category: Religion
Page: 406
View: 5874
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Explores Western and Muslim scholarship on multiple aspects of the Twelver Shi’ite tradition.

Die Vernetzung der Welt

Ein Blick in unsere Zukunft
Author: Eric Schmidt,Jared Cohen
Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH
ISBN: 3644030618
Category: Political Science
Page: 448
View: 3063
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Welche Konsequenzen wird es haben, wenn in Zukunft die überwiegende Mehrheit der Weltbevölkerung online ist? Wenn Informationstechnologien so allgegenwärtig sind wie Elektrizität? Was bedeutet das für die Politik, die Wirtschaft – und für uns selbst? Diese Fragen beantwortet ein außergewöhnliches Autorenduo: Eric Schmidt, der Mann, der Google zu einem Weltunternehmen gemacht hat, und Jared Cohen, ehemaliger Berater von Hillary Clinton und Condoleezza Rice und jetzt Chef von Googles Denkfabrik. In diesem aufregenden Buch führen sie uns die Chancen und Gefahren jener eng vernetzten Welt vor Augen, die die meisten von uns noch erleben werden. Es ist die sehr konkrete Vision einer Zukunft, die bereits begonnen hat. Und ein engagiertes Plädoyer dafür, sie jetzt zu gestalten – weil Technologie der leitenden Hand des Menschen bedarf, um Positives zu bewirken.

Shi'i Scholars of Nineteenth-Century Iraq

The 'Ulama' of Najaf and Karbala'
Author: Meir Litvak
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521892964
Category: History
Page: 272
View: 2000
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Explores the social and political dynamics of nineteenth-century Shi'ism and through this sheds light on modern debates.

Zelot

Jesus von Nazaret und seine Zeit
Author: Reza Aslan
Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH
ISBN: 3644039119
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 384
View: 7000
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Das Christentum verehrt Jesus von Nazaret als sanften Hirten, dessen Reich nicht von dieser Welt sei. Aber entspricht dieses Bild der historischen Realität? Kann es den grausamen Kreuzestod plausibel erklären? Der amerikanische Religionswissenschaftler Reza Aslan meint: nein. Sein Buch, das in den USA für einen Skandal sorgte, versucht zu ergründen, wer Jesus war, bevor es das Christentum gab. Es ist das fesselnde, brillant erzählte Porträt eines Mannes voller Widersprüche, einer Epoche voll religiöser Inbrunst und blutiger Kämpfe und einer Weltreligion im Werden.

Shi'i Islam

An Introduction
Author: Najam Haider
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107031435
Category: History
Page: 266
View: 2202
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During the formative period of Islam, in the first centuries after Muhammad's death, two particular intellectual traditions emerged, Sunnism and Shi'ism. Sunni Muslims endorsed the historical caliphate, while Shi'i Muslims, supporters of 'Ali, cousin of the Prophet and the fourth caliph, articulated their own distinctive doctrines. The Sunni-Shi'i schism is often framed as a dispute over the identity of the successor to Muhammad, whereas in reality, Sunni and Shi'i Muslims also differ on a number of seminal theological doctrines concerning the nature of God and legitimate political and religious authority. This book examines the development of Shi'i Islam through the lenses of belief, narrative, and memory.It also covers a wide range of Shi'i communities from the demographically predominant Twelvers to the transnational Isma'ilis to the scholar-activist Zaydis. The portrait of Shi'ism that emerges is that of a distinctive and vibrant community of Muslims with a remarkable capacity for reinvention and adaptation, grounded in a unique theological interpretation of Islam.

Die Schia


Author: Heinz Halm
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783534031368
Category: Islam and politics
Page: 261
View: 2713
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