The Emergence of Modern Shi'ism

Islamic Reform in Iraq and Iran
Author: Zackery M. Heern
Publisher: Oneworld Publications
ISBN: 1780744978
Category: Religion
Page: 240
View: 3835
This book takes a fresh look at the foundations of modern Islam. Scholars often locate the origins of the modern Islamic world in European colonialism or Islamic reactions to European modernity. This study, however, focuses on the rise of Islamic movements indigenous to the Middle East, which developed in direct response to the collapse and decentralization of the Islamic gunpowder empires. Arguing that the Usuli movement, as well as Wahhabism and neo-Sufism, emerged in reaction to the disintegration and political decentralization of the Safavid, Ottoman, and Mughal empires, this book specifically highlights the emergence of Usuli Shi‘ism in the 18th and 19th centuries. The long-term impact of the Usuli revival was that Shi‘i clerics gained unprecedented social, political, and economic power in Iran and southern Iraq. Usuli clerics claimed authority to issue binding legal judgments, which, they argue, must be observed by all Shi‘is. By the early 19th century, Usulism emerged as a popular, fiercely independent, transnational Islamic movement. The Usuli clerics have often operated at the heart of social and political developments in modern Iraq and Iran and today dominate the politics of the region.

Reaching for Power

The Shi'a in the Modern Arab World
Author: Yitzhak Nakash
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400841461
Category: History
Page: 248
View: 771
As the world focuses on the conflict in Iraq, the most important political players in that country today are not the Sunni insurgents. Instead, they are Iraq's Shi'I majority--part of the Middle East's ninety million Shi'I Muslims who hold the key to the future of the region and the relations between Muslim and Western societies. So contends Yitzhak Nakash, one of the world's foremost experts on Shi'ism. With his characteristic verve and style, Nakash traces the role of the Shi'is in the struggle that is raging today among Muslims for the soul of Islam. He shows that in contrast to the growing militancy among Sunni groups since the 1990s, Shi'is have shifted their focus from confrontation to accommodation with the West. Constituting sixty percent of the population of Iraq, they stand squarely at the center of the U.S government's attempt to remake the Middle East and bring democracy to the region. This groundbreaking book addresses the crucial importance of Shi'is to the U.S. endeavor. Yet it also alerts readers to the strong nationalist sentiments of Shi'is, underscoring the difficult challenge that the United States faces in attempting to impose a new order in the Middle East. The book provides a comprehensive historical perspective on Shi'ism, beginning with the emergence of the movement during the seventh century, continuing through its rise as a political force since the Iranian Islamic Revolution of 1978-79, and leading up to the Iraqi elections of January 2005. Drawing extensively on Arabic sources, this comparative study highlights the reciprocal influences shaping the political development of Shi'is in Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, and Lebanon, as well as the impact of the revival of Shi'ism on the larger Arab world. The narrative concludes with an assessment of the risks and possibilities arising from the assertion of Shi'I power in Iraq and from America's attempt to play an increasingly forceful role in the Middle East. A landmark book and a work of remarkable scholarship, Reaching for Power illuminates the Shi'a resurgence amid the shifting geopolitics of the Middle East.

Pious Passion

The Emergence of Modern Fundamentalism in the United States and Iran
Author: Martin Riesebrodt
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520074645
Category: History
Page: 276
View: 1048
"For all who want to make sense of fundamentalism as a long-term consequence of the modern world, Pious Passion will be required reading. It is also enjoyable, abounding in cogent arguments set forth in lucid prose and supported by compelling examples."—Bruce B. Lawrence, author of Defenders of God "Riesebrodt's trenchant analysis brings the comparative study of religious activism to a new level of sophistication, exploring not only the ideological development of fundamentalist movements but also the changes in social structure that produced them. Pious Passion is a signal event in the modern social sciences, for it helps to establish a new academic field—the comparative study of fundamentalism."—Mark Juergensmeyer, author of The New Cold War?


Author: Heinz Halm
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Category: Religion
Page: 218
View: 3184
Recent events have, more than ever, brought the Shiites to world wide attention. This book is a brief general history of all the Shiite groups from their common origin to the present day. The individual branches of Shiism are discussed with a close look at their special dogmatic and organisational development. Special attention is given to the emergence of the Imamite 'clergy' and the social and political role which has enabled them to establish a revolutionary regime in Iran. Each chapter contains an invaluable bibliography giving easy access to other books and original sources in translation. This book is the only comprehensive survey of all the Shiite groups from their beginnings to their current status in the modern world.

The Messiah of Shiraz

Studies in Early and Middle Babism
Author: Denis MacEoin
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004170359
Category: Religion
Page: 738
View: 9487
Based throughout on original Persian and Arabic sources, most in manuscript, this is an exhaustive overview of Babi history and doctrine. Alongside Amanat's "Resurrection and Renewal," this distillation of a lifetime's work on the movement brings Babi studies into the twentieth century.

Islamic Liberation Theology

Resisting the Empire
Author: Hamid Dabashi
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135982953
Category: Political Science
Page: 320
View: 6713
This book is a radical piece of counter-intuitive rethinking of the clash of civilizations theory and global politics. In this richly detailed criticism of contemporary politics, Hamid Dabashi argues that after 9/11 we have not seen a new phase in a long running confrontation between Islam and the West, but that such categories have in fact collapsed and exhausted themselves. The West is no longer a unified actor and Islam is ideologically depleted in its confrontation with colonialism. Rather we are seeing the emergence of the US as a lone superpower, and a confrontation between a form of imperial globalized capital and the rising need for a new Islamic theodicy. The combination of political salience and theoretical force makes Islamic Liberation Theology a cornerstone of a whole new generation of thinking about political Islamism and a compelling read for anyone interested in contemporary Islam, current affairs and US foreign policy. Dabashi drives his well-supported and thoroughly documented points steadily forward in an earnest and highly readable style.

Shi'i Sectarianism in the Middle East

Modernisation and the Quest for Islamic Universalism
Author: Elisheva Machlis
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 178076720X
Category: History
Page: 256
View: 2518
The eruption of violent sectarianism in Iraq following the US invasion in 2003 brought the question of Sunni-Shi'i relations in the country to the forefront of the international public agenda. Empowerment of the Shi'i majority for the first time in the history of modern Iraq and the emergence of a factious political system strengthened the popular belief that contemporary Shi'ism is inherently sectarian. Challenging this widely accepted consensus and providing a more ecumenical depiction of Islam, Elisheva Machlis here assesses the relationship between sectarianism and universalism in Shi'i thought by examining the scholarly interaction between Iran, Iraq and Lebanon in the twentieth century. The author presents a multifaceted and complex analysis of the shifting sectarian identity of Shi'ism in the transition to the modern era, exploring questions of leadership, religious identity, group membership and transnationalism. Examining the relationship between intellectual thought and socio-political development in the region, this book provides a new perspective concerning the future of an increasingly globalised Muslim world.

The Shi'is of Iraq

Author: Yitzhak Nakash
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691115757
Category: History
Page: 312
View: 2243
"The Shii's of Iraq" provides a comprehensive history of Iraq's majority group and its turbulent relations with the ruling Sunni minority. Yitzhak Nakash challenges the widely held belief that Shi'i society and politics in Iraq are a reflection of Iranian Shi'ism, pointing to the strong Arab attributes of Iraqi Shi'ism. A new introduction brings this book into the new century and illuminates the role that Shi'is could play in a future Iraq after Saddam Hussein.

Shi'ite Heritage

Essays on Classical and Modern Traditions
Author: L. Clarke
Publisher: Global Academic Publishing
ISBN: 9781586840662
Category: Religion
Page: 406
View: 6565
Explores Western and Muslim scholarship on multiple aspects of the Twelver Shi’ite tradition.

For Lust of Knowing

The Orientalists and Their Enemies
Author: Robert Irwin
Publisher: Penguin UK
ISBN: 0141901802
Category: History
Page: 416
View: 2209
Robert Irwin’s history of Orientalism leads from Ancient Greece to the present. He shows that, whether making philological comparisons between Arabic and Hebrew, cataloguing the coins of Fatimid Egypt or establishing the basic chronology of Harun al-Rashid’s military campaigns against Byzantium, scholars have been unified not by politics or ideology but by their shared obsession. For Lust of Knowing is an extraordinary, passionate book, both a sustained argument and a brilliant work of original scholarship.

The Modernization of Inner Asia

Author: Cyril E. Black,Louis Dupree,Elizabeth Endicott-West
Publisher: M.E. Sharpe
ISBN: 9780873327794
Category: History
Page: 405
View: 4287
Inner Asia - in premodern times the little-known land of nomads and semi-nomads - has moved to the world's front page in the 20th century as the complex struggles for the future of Afghanistan, Soviet Central Asia, Tibet and other territories make clear. But because Inner Asia as a whole is divided among several states politically and among area specialists academically, broad perspectives on recent events are difficult to find. This work treats the region as a single unit, providing both an account of the region's past and an analysis of its present and its prospects in a thematic, rather than a strictly country-by-country manner.

The Martyrs of Karbala

Shi'i Symbols and Rituals in Modern Iran
Author: Kamran Scot Aghaie
Publisher: University of Washington Press
ISBN: 029580078X
Category: History
Page: 248
View: 4300
This innovative study examines patterns of change in Shi�i symbols and rituals over the past two centuries to reveal how modernization has influenced the societal, political, and religious culture of Iran. Shi�is, who support the Prophet Mohammad�s progeny as his successors in opposition to the Sunni caliphate tradition, make up 10 to 15 percent of the world�s Muslim population, roughly half of whom live in Iran. Throughout the early history of the Islamic Middle East, the Sunnis have been associated with the state and the ruling elite, while Shi�is have most often represented the political opposition and have had broad appeal among the masses. Moharram symbols and rituals commemorate the Battle of Karbala in 680 CE, in which the Prophet Mohammad�s grandson Hoseyn and most of his family and supporters were massacred by the troops of the Umayyad caliph Yazid. Moharram symbols and rituals are among the most pervasive and popular aspects of Iranian culture and society. This book traces patterns of continuity and change of Moharran symbols and rituals in three aspects of Iranian life: the importance of these rituals in promoting social bonds, status, identities, and ideals; ways in which the three major successive regimes (Qujars, Pahlavis, and the Islamic Republic), have either used these rituals to promote their legitimacy, or have suppressed them because they viewed them as a potential political threat; and the uses of Moharram symbolism by opposition groups interested in overthrowing the regime. While the patterns of government patronage have been radically discontinuous over the past two centuries, the roles of these rituals in popular society and culture have been relatively continuous or have evolved independently of the state. The political uses of modern-day rituals and the enduring symbolism of the Karbala narratives continue today.

Expectation of the Millennium

Shi'ism in History
Author: ?usain Na?r
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 9780887068430
Category: Religion
Page: 460
View: 1724
This is an anthology on the history, politics, and social aspects of Shi'ism including translations of original sources. It examines the historical development of Shi'ism, Shi'i political thought, the status of Shi'i minority communities in the Muslim world, and the life and works of prominent social and political thinkers. The book assesses the extent of the politicization process in Shi'ism in recent years and addresses that important question of the Shi'i attitude towards authority.

A Quest in the Middle East

Gertrude Bell and the Making of Modern Iraq
Author: Liora Lukitz
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857716042
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 320
View: 6437
Revered or reviled, Gertrude Bell was a commanding figure: scholar, linguist, archaeologist, traveller and ‘orientalist’. A remarkable woman in male-dominated Edwardian society, she shunned convention by eschewing marriage and family for an academic career and the extensive travelling that would lead to her major role in Middle Eastern diplomacy. But her private life war marred by the tragedy, vulnerability and frustration that were key to her quest both for a British dominated Middle East and relief from the torture of her romantic failures. Through her vivid writings, she brought the Arab world alive for countless Britons as she travelled to some of the region's most inhospitable places. She explored the Ottoman Empire during and after World War I when her travels throughout the region and her knowledge of Arabic made her indispensable to British Intelligence. Alongside T.E. Lawrence, she was hugely instrumental in the post-war reconfiguration of the Arab states in the Middle East. In Iraq, in particular, she became a friend and confidant of the new King Faisal, and a prime mover in drawing up the country’s boundaries and establishing a constitutional monarchy there, with its parliament, civil service and legal system. She was influential in creating the state which had all the trappings of independence while remaining a virtual British colony. The legacy of her work is still being played out in the conflicts of today. Yet behind Gertrude Bell’s public success was a backdrop of personal passions, desires and the relationships that drove this extraordinary woman. Embroiled in an unsuccessful love affair with Charles Doughty-Wylie, a married man, she found peace in the solitude of the desert. But the seemingly intractable problems of the newly independent Iraq led her to write of the ‘weariness of it all’. Shortly afterwards she took her own life with a lethal dose of sleeping pills. Using previously unseen sources, including Gertude Bell’s own diaries and letters, Liora Lukitz provides a deeper political and personal biography of this influential character. A Quest in the Middle East is a lyrical and illuminating portrait of a woman born ahead of her time, grappling with issues that would shape the future of the Middle East.

Der Imam al-Qasim ibn Ibrahim und die Glaubenslehre der Zaiditen

Author: Wilferd Madelung
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110826542
Category: Philosophy
Page: 271
View: 8992

Towards a Modern Iran

Studies in Thought, Politics and Society
Author: Elie Kedourie,Sylvia G. Haim
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135169055
Category: History
Page: 274
View: 8360
First Published in 1980. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Iran and the World in the Safavid Age

Author: Willem Floor,Edmund Herzig
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 1780769903
Category: History
Page: 544
View: 2011
The Safavid era is of special significance in the history of Iran. Under the Safavids - between the sixteenth and the mideighteenth century - Iran was transformed and a state emerged which was the forerunner of the Iran of today in several important ways. The age is known for its wealth of contributions to Persian culture and to the arts of the Islamic world, its robust military encounters with its Ottoman and Mughal neighbours and growing contacts with western Europe. With the exception of diplomatic and commercial contacts with western European countries, little is known about the Safavids' foreign relations - their commercial, cultural, social and political exchanges with the rest of the world. Iran and the World in the Safavid Age presents the most recent research into Safavid Iran's foreign relations. It challenges the long-held notion that, with the adoption of Shi'ism, Iranians retreated into relative isolation, suggesting rather that they engaged with the world in unprecedented and exciting ways. With contributions from the leading authorities in the field, Iran and the World in the Safavid Age explores Iran's relations with other countries and cultures. Examining how Iran was itself perceived as well as how it viewed the outside world, this groundbreaking book sheds new light on the history of Iran's relations with the world beyond its borders and expands our understanding of this pivotal period.

Theologie und Gesellschaft im 2. und 3. Jahrhundert Hidschra

eine Geschichte des religiösen Denkens im frühen Islam
Author: Josef van Ess
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 9783110137262
Category: Islam
Page: 457
View: 6749

Sociology of Shiʿite Islam

Collected Essays
Author: Saïd Amir Arjomand
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004326278
Category: History
Page: 498
View: 9108
Sociology of Shiʿite Islam is a comprehensive study of the development of Shiʿism from its sectarian formation in the eighth century through its establishment as Iran’s national religion in the sixteenth to the Islamic revolution Iran in the twentieth century.