The Evolution of the Juvenile Court

Race, Politics, and the Criminalizing of Juvenile Justice
Author: Barry C. Feld
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 1479895695
Category: Law
Page: 392
View: 5292
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A major statement on the juvenile justice system by one of America’s leading experts The juvenile court lies at the intersection of youth policy and crime policy. Its institutional practices reflect our changing ideas about children and crime control. The Evolution of the Juvenile Court provides a sweeping overview of the American juvenile justice system’s development and change over the past century. Noted law professor and criminologist Barry C. Feld places special emphasis on changes over the last 25 years—the ascendance of get tough crime policies and the more recent Supreme Court recognition that “children are different.” Feld’s comprehensive historical analyses trace juvenile courts’ evolution though four periods—the original Progressive Era, the Due Process Revolution in the 1960s, the Get Tough Era of the 1980s and 1990s, and today’s Kids Are Different era. In each period, changes in the economy, cities, families, race and ethnicity, and politics have shaped juvenile courts’ policies and practices. Changes in juvenile courts’ ends and means—substance and procedure—reflect shifting notions of children’s culpability and competence. The Evolution of the Juvenile Court examines how conservative politicians used coded racial appeals to advocate get tough policies that equated children with adults and more recent Supreme Court decisions that draw on developmental psychology and neuroscience research to bolster its conclusions about youths’ reduced criminal responsibility and diminished competence. Feld draws on lessons from the past to envision a new, developmentally appropriate justice system for children. Ultimately, providing justice for children requires structural changes to reduce social and economic inequality—concentrated poverty in segregated urban areas—that disproportionately expose children of color to juvenile courts’ punitive policies. Historical, prescriptive, and analytical, The Evolution of the Juvenile Court evaluates the author’s past recommendations to abolish juvenile courts in light of this new evidence, and concludes that separate, but reformed, juvenile courts are necessary to protect children who commit crimes and facilitate their successful transition to adulthood.

A Century of Juvenile Justice


Author: Margaret K. Rosenheim
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226727837
Category: Law
Page: 554
View: 6129
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Systems for Youth in Trouble

The New Jim Crow

Masseninhaftierung und Rassismus in den USA
Author: Michelle Alexander
Publisher: Antje Kunstmann
ISBN: 3956141598
Category: Political Science
Page: 352
View: 6815
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Die Wahl von Barack Obama im November 2008 markierte einen historischen Wendepunkt in den USA: Der erste schwarze Präsident schien für eine postrassistische Gesellschaft und den Triumph der Bürgerrechtsbewegung zu stehen. Doch die Realität in den USA ist eine andere. Obwohl die Rassentrennung, die in den sogenannten Jim-Crow-Gesetzen festgeschrieben war, im Zuge der Bürgerrechtsbewegung abgeschafft wurde, sitzt heute ein unfassbar hoher Anteil der schwarzen Bevölkerung im Gefängnis oder ist lebenslang als kriminell gebrandmarkt. Ein Status, der die Leute zu Bürgern zweiter Klasse macht, indem er sie ihrer grundsätzlichsten Rechte beraubt – ganz ähnlich den explizit rassistischen Diskriminierungen der Jim-Crow-Ära. In ihrem Buch, das in Amerika eine breite Debatte ausgelöst hat, argumentiert Michelle Alexander, dass die USA ihr rassistisches System nach der Bürgerrechtsbewegung nicht abgeschafft, sondern lediglich umgestaltet haben. Da unter dem perfiden Deckmantel des »War on Drugs« überproportional junge männliche Schwarze und ihre Communities kriminalisiert werden, funktioniert das drakonische Strafjustizsystem der USA heute wie das System rassistischer Kontrolle von gestern: ein neues Jim Crow.

The Changing Borders of Juvenile Justice

Transfer of Adolescents to the Criminal Court
Author: Jeffrey Fagan,Franklin E. Zimring
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226233802
Category: Family & Relationships
Page: 440
View: 6888
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Since the 1960s, recurring cycles of political activism over youth crime have motivated efforts to remove adolescents from the juvenile court. Periodic surges of crime—youth violence in the 1970s, the spread of gangs in the 1980s, and more recently, epidemic gun violence and drug-related crime—have spurred laws and policies aimed at narrowing the reach of the juvenile court. Despite declining juvenile crime rates, every state in the country has increased the number of youths tried and punished as adults. Research in this area has not kept pace with these legislative developments. There has never been a detailed, sociolegal analytic book devoted to this topic. In this important collection, researchers discuss policy, substantive procedural and empirical dimensions of waivers, and where the boundaries of the courts lie. Part 1 provides an overview of the origins and development of law and contemporary policy on the jurisdiction of adolescents. Part 2 examines the effects of jurisdictional shifts. Part 3 offers valuable insight into the developmental and psychological aspects of current and future reforms. Contributors: Donna Bishop, Richard Bonnie, M. A. Bortner, Elizabeth Cauffman, Linda Frost Clausel, Robert O. Dawson, Jeffrey Fagan, Barry Feld, Charles Frazier, Thomas Grisso, Darnell Hawkins, James C. Howell, Akiva Liberman, Richard Redding, Simon Singer, Laurence Steinberg, David Tanenhaus, Marjorie Zatz, and Franklin E. Zimring

Gehe hin, stelle einen Wächter

Roman
Author: Harper Lee
Publisher: DVA
ISBN: 3641179491
Category: Fiction
Page: 320
View: 4215
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Sensationeller Manuskriptfund - das literarische Ereignis im Sommer 2015 Harper Lee hat bisher nur einen Roman veröffentlicht, doch dieser hat der US-amerikanischen Schriftstellerin Weltruhm eingebracht: „Wer die Nachtigall stört“, erschienen 1960 und ein Jahr später mit dem renommierten Pulitzer-Preis ausgezeichnet, ist mit 40 Millionen verkauften Exemplaren und Übersetzungen in mehr als 40 Sprachen eines der meistgelesenen Bücher weltweit. Mit „Gehe hin, stelle einen Wächter“ – zeitlich vor „Wer die Nachtigall stört“ entstanden – erscheint nun das Erstlingswerk. Das Manuskript wurde nie veröffentlicht und galt als verschollen – bis es eine Freundin der inzwischen 89-jährigen Autorin im September 2014 fand. In „Gehe hin, stelle einen Wächter“ treffen wir die geliebten Charaktere aus „Wer die Nachtigall stört“ wieder, 20 Jahre später: Eine inzwischen erwachsene Jean Louise Finch, „Scout“, kehrt zurück nach Maycomb und sieht sich in der kleinen Stadt in Alabama, die sie so geprägt hat, mit gesellschaftspolitischen Problemen konfrontiert, die nicht zuletzt auch ihr Verhältnis zu ihrem Vater Atticus infrage stellen. Ein Roman über die turbulenten Ereignisse im Amerika der 1950er-Jahre, der zugleich ein faszinierend neues Licht auf den Klassiker wirft. Bewegend, humorvoll und überwältigend – ein Roman, der seinem Vorgänger in nichts nachsteht.

Patching Up the Cracks

A Case Study of Juvenile Court Reform
Author: Michael D. Grimes
Publisher: Lexington Books
ISBN: 9780739108970
Category: Social Science
Page: 189
View: 4744
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In Patching Up the Cracks sociologist Michael D. Grimes conducts a case study of the dependency portion of a "troubled" juvenile court. His study uncovers the importance of the larger institutional and social environment that surrounds the court—both its day-to-day operations and its capacity to adequately serve the needs of its clients.

Reaffirming Juvenile Justice

From Gault to Montgomery
Author: Alida V. Merlo,Peter J. Benekos
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351618377
Category: Social Science
Page: 150
View: 8859
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This book will expand students’ knowledge and understanding of the evolution of juvenile justice in the last 50 years. Designed to coincide with the 50th anniversary of the landmark case In re Gault, which the U.S. Supreme Court decided in 1967, the authors provide a brief history of juvenile justice, then frame the developments and transformations that have occurred in the intervening years. Topics covered include an overview of the dramatic changes to the field following the spike in youth violence in the 1990s, the "superpredator" myth, zero-tolerance policies, and sanctions for juvenile offenders—particularly the 2005 abolition of the death penalty and subsequent decision on life without parole. The book also covers child and youth victimization and trauma, and recent prevention and treatment initiatives. Designed for upper-level undergraduates, this text reflects on the evolving U.S. juvenile justice system while anticipating future challenges and trends. Reaffirming Juvenile Justice illustrates how ideology, media, and politics shape policy and how it can evolve.

Der kleine Hobbit


Author: J. R. R. Tolkien
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783423214131
Category:
Page: 459
View: 5474
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The Juvenile Court System

Social Action and Legal Change
Author: Edwin M. Lemert
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
ISBN: 0202369757
Category: Social Science
Page: 248
View: 8967
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This volume is based on a detailed analysis of change in the law and in the administration of justice affecting juvenile off enders in California in the fifties and sixties. It addresses how procedural law develops on a long-term basis and under what conditions. It also examines the processes by which revolutionary changes occur in law and the extent to which social change can be directed or controlled by legislation. Social action to revise California's juvenile court law, which had remained little changed since 1915, began in 1958. Subsequently a small group of legal reformers who perceived anomalies in the law and in the underlying philosophy of the court overcame substantial resistance to effect revolutionary revisions of the law. Lemert examines their experience to determine how changes of such magnitude could take place after decades of gradual adaptations in the juvenile courts. His study also looks into the consequences of this change on the court and related agencies of law enforcement. The author sets forth a socio-legal theory of change-a conception of paradigms, normal evolution, and revolution in law. He applies this theory to data, with special attention to the resistance to legal change and the processes by which it gives way to the adaptive process of normal law. Lemert discusses the substantive aspects of juvenile law as it relates to human affect and meaning, touching on the existential elements of justice. Professionals dealing with juveniles, legal scholars, sociologists, and political scientists will find this book, with its emphasis on how to achieve more equitable administration of juvenile justice, has much to contribute to our understanding of the dynamics of social change. Edwin M. Lemert (1912-1996) was professor of sociology at the University of California, Davis best known for being a pioneer in the labeling theory of social deviance. He is the author of numerous books including The Trouble With Evil: Social Control at the Edge of Morality, Human Deviance, and Social Problems and Social Control.

The Oxford Handbook of Juvenile Crime and Juvenile Justice


Author: Barry C. Feld,Donna M. Bishop
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019020883X
Category: Social Science
Page: 960
View: 6913
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Over the last two decades, researchers have made significant discoveries about the causes and origins of delinquency. Specifically, we have learned a great deal about adolescent development and its relationship to decision-making, about multiple factors that contribute to delinquency, and about the processes and contexts associated with the course of delinquent careers. Over the same period, public officials have made sweeping jurisprudential, jurisdictional, and procedural changes in our juvenile justice systems. The Oxford Handbook of Juvenile Crime and Juvenile Justice presents a timely compilation of state-of-the-art critical reviews of knowledge about causes of delinquency and their significance for justice policy, and about developments in the juvenile justice system to prevent and control youth crime. The first half of the handbook focuses on juvenile crime and examines trends and patterns in delinquency and victimization, explores causes of delinquency-at the individual, micro-social, and macro-social levels, and from natural and social science perspectives-and their implications for structuring a youth justice system. The second half of the handbook concentrates on juvenile justice and examines a range of issues-including the historical origins and re-invention of the juvenile court; juvenile offenders' mental health status and considerations of trial competence and culpability; intake, diversion, detention, and juvenile courts; and transfer/waiver strategies-and considers how the juvenile justice system itself influences delinquency. The Oxford Handbook of Juvenile Crime and Juvenile Justice provides a comprehensive overview of juvenile crime and juvenile justice administration by authors who are all leading scholars involved in cutting-edge research, and is an essential resource for scholars, students, and justice officials.

The Abandonment of Delinquent Behavior

Promoting the Turnaround
Author: Richard Leos Jenkins,Waln K. Brown
Publisher: Praeger Publishers
ISBN: N.A
Category: Law
Page: 229
View: 3235
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This unprecedented study of delinquent behavior reversal challenges the widely held view that early delinquency becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy. By identifying the variables involved in the turnaround process, the contributors provide an examination of issues such as: favorable effects of juvenile court adjudication; following up previously adjudicated delinquents; the post-intervention experience; delinquency and attachment; and evolution, devolution, and disruption of treatment in an antisocial child. The book is a significant and welcome addition to the literature that should stimulate more and better research on the juvenile justice system that will have a positive and constructive thrust. "Criminal Justice Review" Adolescent delinquents can often experience a complete behavioral turnaround--even if their delinquent behaviors have become a pattern. This unprecedented study of delinquent behavior reversal challenges the widely held view that early delinquency becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy. By identifying the variables involved in the turnaround process, the contributors hope to provide an understanding of this phenomenon--and to encourage its occurrence. They examine, from both personal and research perspectives, issues such as: favorable effects of juvenile court adjudication; following up previously adjudicated delinquents; the post-intervention experience; delinquency and attachment; and evolution, devolution, and disruption of treatment in an antisocial child.

The History of Indiana Law


Author: David J. Bodenhamer,Randall T. Shepard
Publisher: Ohio University Press
ISBN: 0821416375
Category: History
Page: 391
View: 9430
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In addition to having a reputation as an epicenter for middle American values, Indiana is a cultural crossroads that has produced a rich and complex legal and constitutional heritage. The History of Indiana Law traces this history though a series of expert essays by identifying the themes that mark the state's legal development and establish its broader context in the Midwest and nation. Issues addressed by the commissioned writers include: the revolutionary framework bequeathed by the new American republic, including the Northwest Ordinance and the U.S. Constitution of 1787; the shift to Jacksonian democracy, with its emphasis on states' rights, individualism, market capitalism, and limited government; the rise of the industrial heartland and the growth of bureaucratic government; and the adaptation of law to the increasingly complex society of modern Indiana. The contributors also explore the ways in which the state's legal culture responded to---and at times resisted---the influence of national legal developments. Although Indiana outlawed slavery in 1816, the state's laws did not welcome African Americans. The book traces the tortured history of race relations in Indiana and helps explain why the state became a hotbed of white supremacy in the 1920s. Written by leading lawyers and historians, The History of Indiana Law is the indispensable reference and invaluable first source to learn about law and society in Indiana during almost two centuries of statehood. David J. Bodenhamer is professor of history and executive director of The Polis Center at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis. He is author or editor of six books, including Fair Trail: Rights of the Accused in American History and The Bill of Rights in Modern America: After 200 Years (with James W. Ely, Jr).The Hon. Randall T. Shepard, an Evansville native, was appointed to the Indiana Supreme in 1985 and was later promoted to Chief Justice of the court.

Juvenile Justice and Youth Violence


Author: James C. Howell
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 0761903739
Category: Social Science
Page: 251
View: 8423
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Comprehensive and detailed, this book provides information on: the history of the United States' response to juvenile delinquency; the increasing seriousness of the problem; and the public policies available to deal with it. James C Howell cites the pressing need for a clearer understanding of the risk factors for youth violence. Long-term solutions such as the development of more effective prevention programmes, better-matched offender//treatment programmes, and a more cost effective juvenile justice system are also discussed. Extensive figures and tables are included.

Juvenile Justice

Redeeming Our Children
Author: Barry Krisberg
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 0761925015
Category: Social Science
Page: 236
View: 1663
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Juvenile Justice: Redeeming Our Children debunks myths about juvenile justice in order to achieve an ideal system that would protect vulnerable children and help build safer communities. Author Barry Krisberg assembles broad and up-to-date research, statistical data, and theories on the U.S. juvenile justice system to encourage effective responses to youth crime. This text gives a historical context to the ongoing quest for the juvenile justice ideal and examines how the current system of laws, policies, and practices came into place.

Juvenile Justice


Author: G. Larry Mays,Latham Thomas Winfree
Publisher: Waveland PressInc
ISBN: N.A
Category: Social Science
Page: 459
View: 7232
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"The evolution and development of the American juvenile justice system are distilled into an engaging survey in this extensively revised edition. In clear, authoritative language, the text explores the social, legal, historical, and political ramifications of administering justice to American youth. The authors draw upon their extensive backgrounds in the field to provide a cogent framework for organizing their discussion - one that skillfully blends theory, research, and practical applications. Throughout the text, boxed features address international perspectives on contemporary juvenile justice issues, as well as discussions of the theoretical explanations of crime and delinquency." "The authors incorporate numerous data sources to provide a balanced presentation of juvenile justice statistics, their multiple interpretations, and the trends they indicate. Moreover, they include well-researched material that often is overlooked in other texts, including up-to-date discussions of parole/aftercare and nondelinquent children. A comprehensive chapter on juvenile gangs illustrates how theory informs research, and research in turn informs policy and practice. The latest prevention and intervention strategies and programs are covered in a chapter that explores these goals from both philosophical and practical perspectives."--BOOK JACKET.

Justice for Girls?

Stability and Change in the Youth Justice Systems of the United States and Canada
Author: Jane B. Sprott,Anthony N. Doob
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226770062
Category: Social Science
Page: 232
View: 3153
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For over a century, as women have fought for and won greater freedoms, concern over an epidemic of female criminality, especially among young women, has followed. Fear of this crime wave—despite a persistent lack of evidence of its existence—has played a decisive role in the development of the youth justice systems in the United States and Canada. Justice for Girls? is a comprehensive comparative study of the way these countries have responded to the hysteria over “girl crime” and how it has affected the treatment of both girls and boys. Tackling a century of historical evidence and crime statistics, Jane B. Sprott and Anthony N. Doob carefully trace the evolution of approaches to the treatment of young offenders. Seeking to keep youths out of adult courts, both countries have built their systems around rehabilitation. But, as Sprott and Doob reveal, the myth of the “girl crime wave” led to a punitive system where young people are dragged into court for minor offenses and girls are punished far more severely than boys. Thorough, timely, and persuasive, Justice for Girls? will be vital to anyone working with troubled youths.

Juvenile Justice

A Guide to Theory, Policy, and Practice
Author: Steven M. Cox,Jennifer M. Allen,John J. Conrad
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 141295133X
Category: Law
Page: 417
View: 520
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Briefer than most texts on the topic, this book accessibly explores the interrelationships among theory, policy, and practice to provide a comprehensive understanding of both the historical foundations and the practical world of juvenile justice. The Sixth Edition, now published by SAGE, is updated throughout covering topics such as the history of juvenile justice, legal considerations in juvenile justice, theory and policy in juvenile justice, and current realities in the practice of juvenile justice. The book’s unique blend of theory, policy, and practice, coupled with a straightforward writing style and comprehensive ancillary package makes it a must-have for students and practitioners alike.

Choosing the Future for American Juvenile Justice


Author: Franklin E. Zimring,David S. Tanenhaus
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 1479841560
Category: Social Science
Page: 256
View: 1838
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This is a hopeful but complicated era for those with ambitions to reform the juvenile courts and youth-serving public institutions in the United States. As advocates plea for major reforms, many fear the public backlash in making dramatic changes. Choosing the Future for American Juvenile Justice provides a look at the recent trends in juvenile justice as well as suggestions for reforms and policy changes in the future. Should youth be treated as adults when they break the law? How can youth be deterred from crime? What factors should be considered in how youth are punished?What role should the police have in schools? This essential volume, edited by two of the leading scholars on juvenile justice, and with contributors who are among the key experts on each issue, the volume focuses on the most pressing issues of the day: the impact of neuroscience on our understanding of brain development and subsequent sentencing, the relationship of schools and the police, the issue of the school-to-prison pipeline, the impact of immigration, the privacy of juvenile records, and the need for national policies—including registration requirements--for juvenile sex offenders. Choosing the Future for American Juvenile Justice is not only a timely collection, based on the most current research, but also a forward-thinking volume that anticipates the needs for substantive and future changes in juvenile justice.

The Evolution of the European Convention on Human Rights

From Its Inception to the Creation of a Permanent Court of Human Rights
Author: Ed Bates
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199207992
Category: History
Page: 571
View: 5179
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On 4 November 2010 the European Convention on Human Rights Celebrated its sixtieth anniversary. It has undergone a spectacular evolution since its creation in 1950. In recent times the European Court of Human Rights has been compared to a quasi-constitutional court for Europe in the field of human rights, and for some time the Convention has been viewed as a European Bill of Rights. The `coming of age' of the ECHR system in the late 1990s was marked by the entry into force of Protocol 11, creating a new, full-time Court. By contrast, those who first proposed a European human rights guarantee were driven by an ambition to put a place in collective pact to prevent the re-emergence of totalitarianism in `free' Europe. They were motivated by the memory of World War Two and the protection of human rights was seen in that light. When the Convention was opened for signature in 1950 it was viewed by many with scepticism and disappointment. The Convention system took many years to get established. In the mid-1960s doubts were expressed as to whether the Court had a future, and in the 1970s the Convention system of control faced a number of serious challenges. This book mainly focuses on the story of the evolution of the Convention during its first fifty years (up to 1998), although there is also a final chapter on the post-1998 situation. It reflects on the Convention's origins and charts the slow progress that it made during the 1950s and 1960s, before, in the late 1970s, the European Court of Human Rights delivered a series of landmark judgments which proved to be the foundation stones for the European Bill of Rights that we know today.

Juveniles at Risk

A Plea for Preventive Justice
Author: Christopher Slobogin,Mark R. Fondacaro
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019977840X
Category: Psychology
Page: 256
View: 2803
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In this book, Slobogin and Fondacaro present their vision for a new juvenile justice system, founded on the evidence at hand and promoting the principles of rehabilitation and reintegration into society. The authors develop their juvenile justice policy proposals effectively by carefully addressing the problems with past policy approches and recent theoretical contributions.