The History of Chemistry: A Very Short Introduction


Author: William H. Brock
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191025852
Category: Science
Page: 144
View: 3080
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From man's first exploration of natural materials and their transformations to today's materials science, chemistry has always been the central discipline that underpins both the physical and biological sciences, as well as technology. In this Very Short Introduction, William H Brock traces the unique appeal of this fundamental science throughout history. Covering alchemy, early-modern chemistry, pneumatic chemistry and Lavoisier's re-interpretation of chemical change, the rise of organic and physical chemistry, and the transforming power of synthesis, Brock explores the extraordinary and often puzzling transformations of natural and artificial materials, as well as the men and women who experimented, speculated, and explained matter and change. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

The Elements: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Philip Ball
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191578258
Category: Science
Page: 192
View: 7925
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This Very Short Introduction traces the history and cultural impact of the elements on humankind, and examines why people have long sought to identify the substances around them. Looking beyond the Periodic Table, the author examines our relationship with matter, from the uncomplicated vision of the Greek philosophers, who believed there were four elements - earth, air, fire, and water - to the work of modern-day scientists in creating elements such as hassium and meitnerium. Packed with anecdotes, The Elements is a highly engaging and entertaining exploration of the fundamental question: what is the world made from? ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Chemistry

A Very Short Introduction
Author: Peter Atkins
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199683972
Category: Science
Page: 144
View: 8587
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A look at chemistry anew, through a chemist's eyes, in order to understand its central concepts and to see how it contributes not only towards our material comfort, but also to human culture.

The Scientific Revolution: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Lawrence Principe
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199567417
Category: Science
Page: 148
View: 4431
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Lawrence M. Principe takes a fresh approach to the story of the scientific revolution, emphasising the historical context of the society and its world view at the time. From astronomy to alchemy and medicine to geology, he tells this fascinating story from the perspective of the historical characters involved.

The History of Astronomy: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Michael Hoskin
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191577731
Category: Science
Page: 136
View: 8541
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Astronomy, perhaps the first of the sciences, was already well developed by the time of Christ. Seventeen centuries later, after Newton showed that the movements of the planets could be explained in terms of gravitation, it became the paradigm for the mathematical sciences. In the nineteenth century the analysis of star-light allowed astrophysicists to determine both the chemical composition and the radial velocities of celestial bodies, while the development of photography enabled distant objects invisible to the human eye, to be studied and measured in comfort. Technical developments during and since the Second World War have greatly enlarged the scope of the science by permitting the study of radiation. This is a fascinating introduction to the history of Western astronomy, from prehistoric times to the origins of astrophysics in the mid-nineteenth century. Historical records are first found in Babylon and Egypt, and after two millennia the arithmetical astronomy of the Babylonians merged with the Greek geometrical approach to culminate in the Almagest of Ptolemy. This legacy was transmitted to the Latin West via Islam, and led to Copernicus's claim that the Earth is in motion. In justifying this Kepler converted astronomy into a branch of dynamics, leading to Newton's universal law of gravity. The book concludes with eighteenth- and nineteenth-century applications of Newton's law, and the first explorations of the universe of stars. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Quantentheorie

eine Einführung
Author: John C. Polkinghorne
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783150188613
Category:
Page: 176
View: 2607
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Stars: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Andrew King
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191633844
Category: Science
Page: 136
View: 9166
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Every atom of our bodies has been part of a star. Our very own star, the Sun, is crucial to the development and sustainability of life on Earth. This Very Short Introduction presents a modern, authoritative examination of how stars live, producing all the chemical elements beyond helium, and how they die, sometimes spectacularly, to end as remnants such as black holes. Andrew King shows how understanding the stars is key to understanding the galaxies they inhabit, and thus the history of our entire Universe, as well as the existence of planets like our own. King presents a fascinating exploration of the science of stars, from the mechanisms that allow stars to form and the processes that allow them to shine, as well as the results of their inevitable death. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Organic Chemistry

A Very Short Introduction
Author: Graham Patrick
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198759770
Category: Mathematics
Page: 175
View: 690
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Organic chemistry concerns the properties and synthesis of carbon-based molecules. Carbon atoms can concatenate into long chains and cyclic compounds, bonding with a variety of other elements, so the possible structures are almost limitless. Graham Patrick explores the world of organic chemistry and its wide applications.

The Periodic Table: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Eric R. Scerri
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191620289
Category: Science
Page: 168
View: 9243
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Here, Eric Scerri looks at the trends in properties of elements that led to the construction of the periodic table, and how the deeper meaning of its structure gradually became apparent with the development of atomic theory and quantum mechanics, so that, as Scerri puts it, one science, physics, arguably came to colonize another, chemistry, although such a view is resisted by chemists. Scerri shows that quantum mechanics is absolutely central to chemistry, as it underlies the behaviour of all of the elements and their compounds, and therefore underpins the structure of the periodic table. Concluding with an overview of the huge variety of periodic tables that have been proposed in the print media and on the Internet, he explores the debated question of whether there is an optimal periodic table and what form it might take. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Crystallography: A Very Short Introduction


Author: A. M. Glazer
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019102712X
Category: Science
Page: 144
View: 514
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Crystals have fascinated us for centuries with their beauty and symmetry, and have often been invested with magical powers. The use of X-ray diffraction, first pioneered in 1912 by father and son William and Lawrence Bragg, enabled us to probe the structure of molecules, and heralded the scientific study of crystals, leading to an understanding of their atomic arrangements at a fundamental level. The new discipline, called X-ray crystallography, has subsequently evolved into a formidable science that underpins many other scientific areas. Starting from the determination of the structures of very simple crystals, such as that of common salt, today it has become almost routine to determine the positions of tens of thousands of atoms in a crystal. In this Very Short Introduction Mike Glazer shows how the discoveries in crystallography have been applied to the creation of new and important materials, to drugs and pharmaceuticals and to our understanding of genetics, cell biology, proteins, and viruses. Tracing the history of crystallography, he analyses astonishing developments in new sources of X-rays, as well as of neutrons, and in electron microscopy, and considers the impact they have on the study of crystals today. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

The History of Mathematics: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Jacqueline Stedall
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199599688
Category: Mathematics
Page: 123
View: 341
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In this Very Short Introduction, Jacqueline Stedall explores the rich historical and cultural diversity of mathematical endeavour from the distant past to the present day, using illustrative case studies drawn from a range of times and places; including early imperial China, the medieval Islamic world, and nineteenth-century Britain.

Isotopes

A Very Short Introduction
Author: Rob Ellam
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198723628
Category: Science
Page: 144
View: 2300
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An isotope is a variant form of a chemical element, containing a different number of neutrons in its nucleus. Most elements exist as several isotopes. Many are stable while others are radioactive, and some may only exist fleetingly before decaying into other elements. In this Very Short Introduction, Rob Ellam explains how isotopes have proved enormously important across all the sciences and in archaeology. Radioactive isotopes may be familiar from their use in nuclear weapons, nuclear power, and in medicine, as well as in carbon dating. They have been central to establishing the age of the Earth and the origins of the solar system. Combining previous and new research, Ellam provides an overview of the nature of stable and radioactive isotopes, and considers their wide range of modern applications. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

History: A Very Short Introduction


Author: John Arnold
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191606375
Category: History
Page: 160
View: 5087
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There are many stories we can tell about the past, and we are not, perhaps, as free as we might imagine in our choice of which stories to tell, or where those stories end. John Arnold's Very Short Introduction is a stimulating essay about how we study and understand history. The book begins by inviting us to think about various questions provoked by our investigation of history, and explores the ways these questions have been answered in the past. Concepts such as causation, interpretation, and periodization, are introduced by means of concrete examples of how historians work, giving the reader a sense of the excitement of discovering not only the past, but also ourselves. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Quantum Theory: A Very Short Introduction


Author: John Polkinghorne
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191577677
Category: Science
Page: 128
View: 7334
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Quantum Theory is the most revolutionary discovery in physics since Newton. This book gives a lucid, exciting, and accessible account of the surprising and counterintuitive ideas that shape our understanding of the sub-atomic world. It does not disguise the problems of interpretation that still remain unsettled 75 years after the initial discoveries. The main text makes no use of equations, but there is a Mathematical Appendix for those desiring stronger fare. Uncertainty, probabilistic physics, complementarity, the problematic character of measurement, and decoherence are among the many topics discussed. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Food: A Very Short Introduction


Author: John Krebs
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199661081
Category: Nature
Page: 130
View: 1335
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A brief examination of the history and science of food chronicles four great transitions including those of cooking, agriculture, processing and preservation to consider the sources of culinary preferences, the disparity between malnutrition and overconsumption and the issues associated with obesity, sustainable agriculture and genetic modification. Original.

Kurze Antworten auf große Fragen


Author: Stephen Hawking
Publisher: Klett-Cotta
ISBN: 3608115102
Category: Political Science
Page: 160
View: 7147
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Stephen Hawkings Vermächtnis In seinem letzten Buch gibt Stephen Hawking Antworten auf die drängendsten Fragen unserer Zeit und nimmt uns mit auf eine persönliche Reise durch das Universum seiner Weltanschauung. Seine Gedanken zu Ursprung und Zukunft der Menschheit sind zugleich eine Mahnung, unseren Heimatplaneten besser vor den Gefahren unserer Gegenwart zu schützen. Zugänglich und klar finden Sie in diesem Buch Hawkings Antworten auf die drängendsten Fragen unserer Zeit. - Warum gibt es uns Menschen überhaupt? - Und woher kommen wir? - Gibt es im Weltall andere intelligente Lebewesen? - Existiert Gott? - In welchem Zustand befindet sich unser Heimatplanet? - Werden wir auf der Erde überleben? - Retten oder zerstören uns Naturwissenschaften und Technik? - Hilft uns die künstliche Intelligenz, die Erde zu bewahren? - Können wir den Weltraum bevölkern? - Wie werden wir die Schwächsten – Kinder, Kranke, alte Menschen – schützen? - Wie werden wir unsere Kinder erziehen? Brillanter Physiker, revolutionärer Kosmologe, unerschütterlicher Optimist. Für Stephen Hawking bergen die Weiten des Universums nicht nur naturwissenschaftliche Geheimnisse. In seinem persönlichsten Buch beantwortet der Autor die großen Fragen des menschlichen Lebens und spricht die wichtigsten Themen unserer Zeit an. Zugänglich und klar erläutert er die Folgen des menschlichen Fortschritts – vom Klimawandel bis hin zu künstlicher Intelligenz – und diskutiert seine Gefahren. Hier finden Sie Hawkings Antworten auf die Urfragen der Menschheit. Ein großer Appell an politische Machthaber und jeden Einzelnen von uns, unseren bedrohten Heimatplaneten besser zu schützen.

Galaxies: A Very Short Introduction


Author: John Gribbin
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 019162280X
Category: Science
Page: 136
View: 2004
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Galaxies are the building blocks of the Universe: standing like islands in space, each is made up of many hundreds of millions of stars in which the chemical elements are made, around which planets form, and where on at least one of those planets intelligent life has emerged. Our own galaxy, the Milky Way, is just one of several hundred million other galaxies that we can now observe through our telescopes. Yet it was only in the 1920s that we realised that there is more to the Universe than the Milky Way, and that there were in fact other 'islands' out there. In many ways, modern astronomy began with this discovery, and the story of galaxies is therefore the story of modern astronomy. Since then, many exciting discoveries have been made about our own galaxy and about those beyond: how a supermassive black hole lurks at the centre of every galaxy, for example, how enormous forces are released when galaxies collide, how distant galaxies provide a window on the early Universe, and what the formation of young galaxies can tell us about the mysteries of Cold Dark Matter. In this Very Short Introduction, renowned science writer John Gribbin describes the extraordinary things that astronomers are learning about galaxies, and explains how this can shed light on the origins and structure of the Universe. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Die Ordnung der Dinge

Im Reich der Elemente
Author: Sam Kean
Publisher: Hoffmann und Campe
ISBN: 3455850030
Category: Psychology
Page: 448
View: 9071
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Woraus besteht die Welt, woraus Mikroben, Meere, der Mensch? Kean gelingt etwas Schönes: Man kapiert’s auch ohne dröge Formeln. Das Hauptgebäude der modernen Chemie, das Periodensystem der Elemente, sieht langweilig aus, doch in ihm verbergen sich spannende Geschichten über Alchimisten, Entdecker und Goldgräber, Medizinalräte und Quacksalber, Kriegsstrategen, Spione, Geschäftemacher und Spinner. So macht Naturwissenschaft Spaß! Das periodische System der Elemente ist nicht nur eine große wissenschaftliche Leistung, sondern auch eine Schatzkiste voller skurriler Episoden, die von Leidenschaft, Abenteuern, Betrug und Besessenheit handeln. Während Kean die Grundbausteine des Universums und die Ordnung, die sie schaffen, erklärt, erzählt er zugleich, welche Rolle sie vom Urknall bis heute gespielt haben. Wie etwa Gerhard Domagk das Leben seiner Tochter riskierte, um die ersten Antibiotika zu entwickeln. Wie Portugal sowohl den Nazis als auch den Alliierten zu astronomischen Preisen Wolfram lieferte, weil beide Seiten es dringend für den Krieg brauchten.

Dinosaurs: A Very Short Introduction


Author: David Norman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192515640
Category: Science
Page: 192
View: 2617
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Dinosaurs are fascinating creatures and their popularity seems never ending, fuelled by films such as Jurassic Park and documentaries such as Walking with Dinosaurs. Yet dinosaurs (or more precisely non-avian dinosaurs) last trod the Earth 65 million years ago. All we know of them today are their fossilised bones, the tracks and traces that they left behind and, in very rare instances, some of the soft tissues or even traces of their chemistry. In many respects dinosaurs present us with one of the ultimate forensic challenges: they comprise the fragmentary remains of creatures that died many tens of millions of years ago, rather than just recently, or a few tens of years ago, which is the problem usually faced by forensic pathologists. How much do we really know about them, and to what extent can their remains inform us about ancient worlds, and indeed about the history of our planet? In this Very Short Introduction David Norman discusses how dinosaurs were first discovered and interpreted, and how our understanding of them has changed over the past 200 years. He looks at some of the amazing discoveries that have enabled us to gain new and unexpected insights into dinosaurs as animals with natural histories and behaviours, and considers some of the biggest questions in dinosaur biology, such as the implications of them having warm blood. Norman also shows how research upon dinosaurs has been enriched, particularly in recent decades, by technological break-throughs, which complement the informed speculation and luck which have played a part in many of the major discoveries. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Galileos Finger

die zehn großen Ideen der Naturwissenschaft
Author: Peter W. Atkins
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783608941258
Category: Discoveries in science
Page: 526
View: 9326
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