The Inflationary Universe

Author: Alan Guth
Publisher: Basic Books
ISBN: 9780201328400
Category: Science
Page: 384
View: 552
This is the compelling, first-hand account of Alan Guth's paradigm-breaking discovery of the origins of the universe—and of his dramatic rise from young researcher to physics superstar. Guth's startling theory—widely regarded as one of the most important contributions to science during the twentieth century—states that the big bang was set into motion by a period of hyper-rapid “inflation,” lasting only a billion-trillion-billionth of a second. The Inflationary Universe is the passionate story of one leading scientist's effort to look behind the cosmic veil and explain how the universe began.

The Inflationary Universe

The Quest for a New Theory of Cosmic Origins
Author: Alan H. Guth
Publisher: Random House
ISBN: 009995950X
Category: Big bang theory
Page: 358
View: 3168
This classic Big Bang text neatly describes what happened after the bang. Yet, until recently, particle physicists and cosmologists were stuck on many questions that the Big Bang Theory still couldn't answer, primarily: If matter can neither be created nor destroyed, how could so much matter arise from nothing at all? Alan Guth's Inflationary Universe Theory answers these vexing questions. When NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer satellite measured the non-uniformities of the cosmic background radiation for the first time in 1992, the patterns agreed exquisitely with the theory's predictions.

Inflation and Quantum Cosmology

Author: A.D. Linde
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0323160131
Category: Science
Page: 212
View: 3245
Inflation and Quantum Cosmology discusses the inflationary universe scenario, including the problems of the standard big bang theory and the interplay between elementary-particle theory and cosmology. Inflationary universe models generate many different final perturbation spectra. For example, a model of an inflationary universe, through a casual mechanism, can predict energy density fluctuations leading to the formation of galaxies. The inflationary universe scenario makes possible simultaneous solutions to ten problems related to cosmology and elementary particle physics. One problem concerns the origin of density perturbations that show a picture of the large-scale structure of the universe. Some unexplored possibilities are related to isothermal perturbations generated during inflation or to adiabatic perturbations with a non-flat spectrum. An inflationary universe cosmology also includes stochastic inflation that describes the universe on very large scales—from fragmented mini-universes to another inflationary cosmos. The book also discusses the problem relating to the initial conditions from which an inflationary universe starts. This book is suitable for astronomers, astrophysicists, and professors of cosmology and cosmogenesis.

Cosmological Pattern of Microphysics in the Inflationary Universe

Author: Maxim Y. Khlopov,Sergei G. Rubin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402026492
Category: Science
Page: 291
View: 3102
Modern cosmology is a quickly developing ?eld of research. New technical devices and tools supply the community with new experimental data measured with high accuracy. The self-consistent explanation of these data needs t- oretical models that are based on hypothetical predictions of particle theory. In their turn, such predictions imply cosmology for their probe. Speci?c st- ies of the cosmological consequences of particle theory, linking them to their observable signatures, are actual. This boiling kettle of theoretical research and experimental efforts produces ideas that will be preserved for following generations. The aim of this book is to acquaint the reader with some of these ideas, - fering nontrivial ways to probe the physical basis of modern cosmology. An extensive review of the newest ideas in modern cosmology, e. g. , related with the development of the M-brane theory, lies beyond the scope of our book, which is aimed at providing a ?rmly established system of probes for these ideas, linking their predictions to their possible experimental test. We use the framework of in?ationary paradigm to reveal the phenomena that can shed light on the physical origin of the observed Universe, of its matter content and large-scale structure. The crucial role of quantum ?uctuations in creation of our Universe and in possible features, re?ecting cosmological impact of microphysics, is discussed. These features are shown to be accessible to - perimental test in the near future.

Endless Universe

Beyond the Big Bang
Author: Paul J. Steinhardt,Neil Turok
Publisher: Broadway Books
ISBN: 9780385523110
Category: Science
Page: 256
View: 3371
Two world-renowned scientists present an audacious new vision of the cosmos that “steals the thunder from the Big Bang theory.” —Wall Street Journal The Big Bang theory—widely regarded as the leading explanation for the origin of the universe—posits that space and time sprang into being about 14 billion years ago in a hot, expanding fireball of nearly infinite density. Over the last three decades the theory has been repeatedly revised to address such issues as how galaxies and stars first formed and why the expansion of the universe is speeding up today. Furthermore, an explanation has yet to be found for what caused the Big Bang in the first place. In Endless Universe, Paul J. Steinhardt and Neil Turok, both distinguished theoretical physicists, present a bold new cosmology. Steinhardt and Turok “contend that what we think of as the moment of creation was simply part of an infinite cycle of titanic collisions between our universe and a parallel world” (Discover). They recount the remarkable developments in astronomy, particle physics, and superstring theory that form the basis for their groundbreaking “Cyclic Universe” theory. According to this theory, the Big Bang was not the beginning of time but the bridge to a past filled with endlessly repeating cycles of evolution, each accompanied by the creation of new matter and the formation of new galaxies, stars, and planets. Endless Universe provides answers to longstanding problems with the Big Bang model, while offering a provocative new view of both the past and the future of the cosmos. It is a “theory that could solve the cosmic mystery” (USA Today).

Particle Physics and Inflationary Cosmology

Author: Carol C. Linder
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9783718604906
Category: Science
Page: 380
View: 8518
A monograph on inflationary cosmology and cosmological phase transitions, investigating modern cosmology's relationship to elementary particle physics. This work also includes a non-technical discussion of inflationary cosmology for those unfamiliar with the theory.

The Very Early Universe

Proceedings of the Nuffield Workshop, Cambridge 21 June to 9 July, 1982
Author: G. W. Gibbons,S. W. Hawking,S. T. C. Siklos
Publisher: CUP Archive
ISBN: 9780521316774
Category: Science
Page: 488
View: 1633

Just Six Numbers

The Deep Forces That Shape The Universe
Author: Martin Rees
Publisher: Basic Books
ISBN: 0786723580
Category: Science
Page: 208
View: 8875
DivThe genesis of the universe elegantly explained in a simple theory based on just six numbers by one of the world's most renowned astrophysicists/div

Losing the Nobel Prize: A Story of Cosmology, Ambition, and the Perils of Science's Highest Honor

Author: Brian Keating
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 1324000929
Category: Science
Page: 320
View: 9091
The inside story of a quest to unlock one of cosmology’s biggest mysteries, derailed by the lure of the Nobel Prize. What would it have been like to be an eyewitness to the Big Bang? In 2014, astronomers wielding BICEP2, the most powerful cosmology telescope ever made, revealed that they’d glimpsed the spark that ignited the Big Bang. Millions around the world tuned in to the announcement broadcast live from Harvard University, immediately igniting rumors of an imminent Nobel Prize. But had these cosmologists truly read the cosmic prologue or, swept up in Nobel dreams, had they been deceived by a galactic mirage? In Losing the Nobel Prize, cosmologist and inventor of the BICEP (Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization) experiment Brian Keating tells the inside story of BICEP2’s mesmerizing discovery and the scientific drama that ensued. In an adventure story that spans the globe from Rhode Island to the South Pole, from California to Chile, Keating takes us on a personal journey of revelation and discovery, bringing to vivid life the highly competitive, take-no-prisoners, publish-or-perish world of modern science. Along the way, he provocatively argues that the Nobel Prize, instead of advancing scientific progress, may actually hamper it, encouraging speed and greed while punishing collaboration and bold innovation. In a thoughtful reappraisal of the wishes of Alfred Nobel, Keating offers practical solutions for reforming the prize, providing a vision of a scientific future in which cosmologists may, finally, be able to see all the way back to the very beginning.

The New Physics

Author: Paul Davies
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521438315
Category: Science
Page: 516
View: 3495
Surveys the latest developments in the field of physics, in such areas as quantum theory, low-temperature physics, astrophysics, relativity, and quarks

Wrinkles in Time

Witness to the Birth of the Universe
Author: George Smoot,Keay Davidson
Publisher: Harper Collins
ISBN: 0061344443
Category: Science
Page: 352
View: 2016
Astrophysicist George Smoot spent decades pursuing the origin of the cosmos, "the holy grail of science," a relentless hunt that led him from the rain forests of Brazil to the frozen wastes of Antarctica. In his search he struggled against time, the elements, and the forces of ignorance and bureaucratic insanity. Finally, after years of research, Smoot and his dedicated team of Berkeley researchers succeeded in proving the unprovable—uncovering, inarguably and for all time, the secrets of the creation of the universe. Wrinkles in Time describes this startling discovery that would usher in a new scientific age—and win Smoot the Nobel Prize in Physics.

An Introduction to Modern Cosmology

Author: Andrew Liddle
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118690273
Category: Science
Page: 200
View: 7758
An Introduction to Modern Cosmology Third Edition is an accessible account of modern cosmological ideas. The Big Bang Cosmology is explored, looking at its observational successes in explaining the expansion of the Universe, the existence and properties of the cosmic microwave background, and the origin of light elements in the universe. Properties of the very early Universe are also covered, including the motivation for a rapid period of expansion known as cosmological inflation. The third edition brings this established undergraduate textbook up-to-date with the rapidly evolving observational situation. This fully revised edition of a bestseller takes an approach which is grounded in physics with a logical flow of chapters leading the reader from basic ideas of the expansion described by the Friedman equations to some of the more advanced ideas about the early universe. It also incorporates up-to-date results from the Planck mission, which imaged the anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation over the whole sky. The Advanced Topic sections present subjects with more detailed mathematical approaches to give greater depth to discussions. Student problems with hints for solving them and numerical answers are embedded in the chapters to facilitate the reader’s understanding and learning. Cosmology is now part of the core in many degree programs. This current, clear and concise introductory text is relevant to a wide range of astronomy programs worldwide and is essential reading for undergraduates and Masters students, as well as anyone starting research in cosmology. Supplementary material, including full-colour images, updates and links for students and instructors, is available on the author’s website:

Inflationary Cosmology Revisited

An Overview of Contemporary Scientific Cosmology After the Inflationary Proposal
Author: Julio A Gonzalo
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814480991
Category: Science
Page: 120
View: 9305
' Scientific Cosmology is clearly one of the most active physics research fields at present, and likely to remain so in the near future. Shortly after the pioneering cosmological work of Einstein, Georges Lemaitre proposed a model which some years later to be known as the big-bang model. In the early fifties an alternative proposal, the so called steady-state (expansion at constant density) model, became the fashionable model in prominent academic circles. The discovery of the cosmic background microwave radiation (Penzias & Wilson, 1965) made the steady-state model almost untenable. A quarter of a century later the inflationary model was proposed, becoming extraordinarily popular almost immediately. For some it seemed to combine attractive features of both the steady-state and the big-bang models, by postulating a very early violent (constant density) expansion during a very tiny fraction of a second. The book makes use of the best and most recent observational data, from the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE, 1992) to the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP, 2003), to discuss the merits and demerits of inflationary cosmology for a general readership acquainted with the basic facts of scientific cosmology. A complete Glossary and a detailed Index help the reader to follow controversial topics, such as dark matter, dark energy, cosmic flatness and accelerated expansion. Contents:Steady State versus Big Bang CosmologiesThe Microwave CBRThe Birth of Inflationary CosmologyThe Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)Dark Matter, Cosmic Flatness and Accelerated ExpansionThe Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)On the Monopole, Flatness and Horizon ProblemsAn Alternative to Inflation?Appendix. How Close are the Cosmic Times at Decoupling and Atom Formation Readership: Scientists, physicists, astrophysicists and general readers with a good scientific background. Keywords:Big Bang;Cosmology;Inflation;Background Radiation;Cosmic ExpansionKey Features:The publication of this book in early 2005 marks the 25th Anniversary of Theory of Inflationary CosmologyThe book gives a good overview of contemporary scientific cosmology in the perspective of the early twenty first centuries.Reviews:“The author has succeeded where other authors have sometimes failed, namely to explain a topic at the forefront of science and hence far removed from ordinary human experience so that it can be understood by scientists in neighbouring fields and also by non-scientists who are familiar with the basic facts … In under 100 pages, the author summarizes the different models of contemporary scientific cosmology and shows how each model has tried to overcome the shortcomings of the preceding one. Then he presents the observational results that have led to the development of the Inflationary Model, the most recent attempt to understand the initial phases of cosmic evolution. He shows that these results can also be explained without making the implausible assumptions of that approach. He does so with a minimum of mathematical reasoning, employing convincing logical arguments instead whenever possible. Occasional references to the author's own experiences in the search for a valid cosmological model add a personal touch to the book.”Professor Emeritus Hans S Plendl Florida State University '

Many Worlds in One

The Search for Other Universes
Author: Alex Vilenkin
Publisher: Hill and Wang
ISBN: 9780374707149
Category: Science
Page: 248
View: 3904
A Leading Figure in the Development of the New Cosmology Explains What It All Means Among his peers, Alex Vilenkin is regarded as one of the most imaginative and creative cosmologists of our time. His contributions to our current understanding of the universe include a number of novel ideas, two of which—eternal cosmic inflation and the quantum creation of the universe from nothing—have provided a scientific foundation for the possible existence of multiple universes. With this book—his first for the general reader—Vilenkin joins another select group: the handful of first-rank scientists who are equally adept at explaining their work to nonspecialists. With engaging, well-paced storytelling, a droll sense of humor, and a generous sprinkling of helpful cartoons, he conjures up a bizarre and fascinating new worldview that—to paraphrase Niels Bohr—just might be crazy enough to be true.

Black Holes and the Universe

Author: Igor D. Novikov,Vitaly Kisin
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521558709
Category: Nature
Page: 176
View: 8384
A popular account of the properties and significance of black holes.

Our Mathematical Universe

My Quest for the Ultimate Nature of Reality
Author: Max Tegmark
Publisher: Vintage
ISBN: 038535049X
Category: Science
Page: 432
View: 5091
Max Tegmark leads us on an astonishing journey through past, present and future, and through the physics, astronomy and mathematics that are the foundation of his work, most particularly his hypothesis that our physical reality is a mathematical structure and his theory of the ultimate multiverse. In a dazzling combination of both popular and groundbreaking science, he not only helps us grasp his often mind-boggling theories, but he also shares with us some of the often surprising triumphs and disappointments that have shaped his life as a scientist. Fascinating from first to last—this is a book that has already prompted the attention and admiration of some of the most prominent scientists and mathematicians.

Cosmology and Controversy

The Historical Development of Two Theories of the Universe
Author: Helge Kragh
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691005461
Category: Science
Page: 500
View: 8999
For over three millennia, most people could understand the universe only in terms of myth, religion, and philosophy. Between 1920 and 1970, cosmology transformed into a branch of physics. With this remarkably rapid change came a theory that would finally lend empirical support to many long-held beliefs about the origins and development of the entire universe: the theory of the big bang. In this book, Helge Kragh presents the development of scientific cosmology for the first time as a historical event, one that embroiled many famous scientists in a controversy over the very notion of an evolving universe with a beginning in time. In rich detail he examines how the big-bang theory drew inspiration from and eventually triumphed over rival views, mainly the steady-state theory and its concept of a stationary universe of infinite age. In the 1920s, Alexander Friedmann and Georges Lema�tre showed that Einstein's general relativity equations possessed solutions for a universe expanding in time. Kragh follows the story from here, showing how the big-bang theory evolved, from Edwin Hubble's observation that most galaxies are receding from us, to the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation. Sir Fred Hoyle proposed instead the steady-state theory, a model of dynamic equilibrium involving the continuous creation of matter throughout the universe. Although today it is generally accepted that the universe started some ten billion years ago in a big bang, many readers may not fully realize that this standard view owed much of its formation to the steady-state theory. By exploring the similarities and tensions between the theories, Kragh provides the reader with indispensable background for understanding much of today's commentary about our universe.

The Reality of the Unobservable

Observability, Unobservability and Their Impact on the Issue of Scientific Realism
Author: Evandro Agazzi,M. Pauri
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401593914
Category: Science
Page: 378
View: 5419
Observability and Scientific Realism It is commonly thought that the birth of modern natural science was made possible by an intellectual shift from a mainly abstract and specuJative conception of the world to a carefully elaborated image based on observations. There is some grain of truth in this claim, but this grain depends very much on what one takes observation to be. In the philosophy of science of our century, observation has been practically equated with sense perception. This is understandable if we think of the attitude of radical empiricism that inspired Ernst Mach and the philosophers of the Vienna Circle, who powerfully influenced our century's philosophy of science. However, this was not the atti tude of the f ounders of modern science: Galileo, f or example, expressed in a f amous passage of the Assayer the conviction that perceptual features of the world are merely subjective, and are produced in the 'anima!' by the motion and impacts of unobservable particles that are endowed uniquely with mathematically expressible properties, and which are therefore the real features of the world. Moreover, on other occasions, when defending the Copernican theory, he explicitly remarked that in admitting that the Sun is static and the Earth turns on its own axis, 'reason must do violence to the sense' , and that it is thanks to this violence that one can know the tme constitution of the universe.

Foundations of Modern Cosmology

Author: John F. Hawley,Katherine A. Holcomb
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019853096X
Category: Science
Page: 554
View: 4816
Recent discoveries in astronomy have revolutionized the field of cosmology. While many long-standing questions in cosmology have now been answered, the new data pose new mysteries such as the nature of the "dark energy" that dominates the universe. This second edition provides an accessible and thorough text on the physics of cosmology and a lively account of the modern concordance model of the universe, from the big bang to a distant future dominated by dark energy.

Cosmic Inflation Explained

Author: Kelly Blumenthal
Publisher: Enslow Publishing, LLC
ISBN: 0766099539
Category: Young Adult Nonfiction
Page: 80
View: 9734
Cosmic inflation is the theory that the early universe went through fast, exponential expansion for a fraction of a second after the Big Bang and then slowed down to the current rate of expansion. Simplified explanations of complex scientific concepts such as dark energy, dark matter, and the cosmic microwave background and dynamic images will help students comprehend how the study of cosmic inflation has reshaped our understanding of how the universe was born, evolved, and might be in the future. This book correlates with the Next Generation Science Standards' emphasis on scientific collection and analysis of data and evidence-based theories. Informative sidebars explore related timely topics in depth, while a Further Reading section provides several resources for additional study.