The Inflationary Universe


Author: Alan Guth
Publisher: Basic Books
ISBN: 9780201328400
Category: Science
Page: 384
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This is the compelling, first-hand account of Alan Guth's paradigm-breaking discovery of the origins of the universe—and of his dramatic rise from young researcher to physics superstar. Guth's startling theory—widely regarded as one of the most important contributions to science during the twentieth century—states that the big bang was set into motion by a period of hyper-rapid “inflation,” lasting only a billion-trillion-billionth of a second. The Inflationary Universe is the passionate story of one leading scientist's effort to look behind the cosmic veil and explain how the universe began.

Cosmological Pattern of Microphysics in the Inflationary Universe


Author: Maxim Y. Khlopov,Sergei G. Rubin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402026501
Category: Science
Page: 291
View: 3147
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Modern cosmology is a quickly developing ?eld of research. New technical devices and tools supply the community with new experimental data measured with high accuracy. The self-consistent explanation of these data needs t- oretical models that are based on hypothetical predictions of particle theory. In their turn, such predictions imply cosmology for their probe. Speci?c st- ies of the cosmological consequences of particle theory, linking them to their observable signatures, are actual. This boiling kettle of theoretical research and experimental efforts produces ideas that will be preserved for following generations. The aim of this book is to acquaint the reader with some of these ideas, - fering nontrivial ways to probe the physical basis of modern cosmology. An extensive review of the newest ideas in modern cosmology, e. g. , related with the development of the M-brane theory, lies beyond the scope of our book, which is aimed at providing a ?rmly established system of probes for these ideas, linking their predictions to their possible experimental test. We use the framework of in?ationary paradigm to reveal the phenomena that can shed light on the physical origin of the observed Universe, of its matter content and large-scale structure. The crucial role of quantum ?uctuations in creation of our Universe and in possible features, re?ecting cosmological impact of microphysics, is discussed. These features are shown to be accessible to - perimental test in the near future.

Inflationary Cosmology Revisited

An Overview of Contemporary Scientific Cosmology After the Inflationary Proposal
Author: Julio Antonio Gonzalo
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 981256151X
Category: Science
Page: 104
View: 6802
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Scientific Cosmology is clearly one of the most active physics research fields at present, and likely to remain so in the near future. Shortly after the pioneering cosmological work of Einstein, Georges Lemaitre proposed a model which some years later to be known as the big-bang model. In the early fifties an alternative proposal, the so called steady-state (expansion at constant density) model, became the fashionable model in prominent academic circles. The discovery of the cosmic background microwave radiation (Penzias & Wilson, 1965) made the steady-state model almost untenable. A quarter of a century later the inflationary model was proposed, becoming extraordinarily popular almost immediately. For some it seemed to combine attractive features of both the steady-state and the big-bang models, by postulating a very early violent (constant density) expansion during a very tiny fraction of a second.The book makes use of the best and most recent observational data, from the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE, 1992) to the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP, 2003), to discuss the merits and demerits of inflationary cosmology for a general readership acquainted with the basic facts of scientific cosmology. A complete Glossary and a detailed Index help the reader to follow controversial topics, such as dark matter, dark energy, cosmic flatness and accelerated expansion.

The New Physics


Author: Paul Davies
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521438315
Category: Science
Page: 516
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Surveys the latest developments in the field of physics, in such areas as quantum theory, low-temperature physics, astrophysics, relativity, and quarks

Black Holes and the Universe


Author: Igor D. Novikov,Vitaly Kisin
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521558709
Category: Nature
Page: 176
View: 7253
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A popular account of the properties and significance of black holes.

Inflation and Quantum Cosmology


Author: A.D. Linde
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0323160131
Category: Science
Page: 212
View: 9836
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Inflation and Quantum Cosmology discusses the inflationary universe scenario, including the problems of the standard big bang theory and the interplay between elementary-particle theory and cosmology. Inflationary universe models generate many different final perturbation spectra. For example, a model of an inflationary universe, through a casual mechanism, can predict energy density fluctuations leading to the formation of galaxies. The inflationary universe scenario makes possible simultaneous solutions to ten problems related to cosmology and elementary particle physics. One problem concerns the origin of density perturbations that show a picture of the large-scale structure of the universe. Some unexplored possibilities are related to isothermal perturbations generated during inflation or to adiabatic perturbations with a non-flat spectrum. An inflationary universe cosmology also includes stochastic inflation that describes the universe on very large scales—from fragmented mini-universes to another inflationary cosmos. The book also discusses the problem relating to the initial conditions from which an inflationary universe starts. This book is suitable for astronomers, astrophysicists, and professors of cosmology and cosmogenesis.

Introduction to the Theory of the Early Universe


Author: Dmitry S Gorbunov,Valery A Rubakov
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814390615
Category:
Page: 504
View: 8578
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This book accompanies another book by the same authors, "Introduction to the Theory of the Early Universe: Hot Big Bang Theory" and presents the theory of the evolution of density perturbations and relic gravity waves, theory of cosmological inflation and post-inflationary reheating. Written in a pedagogical style, the main chapters give a detailed account of the established theory, with derivation of formulas. Being self-contained, it is a useful textbook for advanced undergraduate students and graduate students. Essential materials from General Relativity, theory of Gaussian random fields and quantum field theory are collected in the appendices. The more advanced topics are approached similarly in a pedagogical way. These parts may serve as a detailed introduction to current research. Available as a set with "Introduction to the Theory of the Early Universe: Hot Big Bang Theory." Sample Chapter(s) Chapter 5: Primordial Perturbations in Real Universe (272k) Chapter 15: Preheating after Inflation (382k) Contents: Jeans Instability in Newtonian GravityCosmological Perturbations in General Relativity. Equations of Linearized TheoryEvolution of Vector and Tensor PerturbationsScalar Perturbations: Single-Component FluidsPrimordial Perturbations in Real UniverseScalar Perturbations Before RecombinationStructure FormationBeyond Ideal Fluid ApproximationTemperature of Cosmic Microwave BackgroundCMB PolarizationDrawbacks of the Hot Big Bang Theory. Inflation as Possible Way OutInflation in Slow Roll RegimeGeneration of Cosmological Perturbations at InflationFurther Aspects of Inflationary TheoryPreheating After InflationBouncing UniverseColor Pages Readership: Cosmologists, advanced undergraduate and graduate students.

The Reality of the Unobservable

Observability, Unobservability and Their Impact on the Issue of Scientific Realism
Author: E. Agazzi,M. Pauri
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401593914
Category: Science
Page: 378
View: 8743
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Observability and Scientific Realism It is commonly thought that the birth of modern natural science was made possible by an intellectual shift from a mainly abstract and specuJative conception of the world to a carefully elaborated image based on observations. There is some grain of truth in this claim, but this grain depends very much on what one takes observation to be. In the philosophy of science of our century, observation has been practically equated with sense perception. This is understandable if we think of the attitude of radical empiricism that inspired Ernst Mach and the philosophers of the Vienna Circle, who powerfully influenced our century's philosophy of science. However, this was not the atti tude of the f ounders of modern science: Galileo, f or example, expressed in a f amous passage of the Assayer the conviction that perceptual features of the world are merely subjective, and are produced in the 'anima!' by the motion and impacts of unobservable particles that are endowed uniquely with mathematically expressible properties, and which are therefore the real features of the world. Moreover, on other occasions, when defending the Copernican theory, he explicitly remarked that in admitting that the Sun is static and the Earth turns on its own axis, 'reason must do violence to the sense' , and that it is thanks to this violence that one can know the tme constitution of the universe.

Inner Space/Outer Space


Author: Edward Kolb,Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226450322
Category: Science
Page: 638
View: 7762
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Inner Space/Outer Space brings together much of the exciting work contributing to a new synthesis of modern physics. Particle physicists, concerned with the "inner space" of the atom, are making discoveries that their colleagues in astrophysics, studying outer space, can use to develop and test hypotheses about the events that occurred in the microseconds after the Big Bang and that shaped the universe as we know it today. The papers collected here, from scores of scientists, constitute the proceedings of the first major international conference on research at the interface of particle physics and astrophysics, held in May 1984. The editors have written introductions to each major section that draw out the central themes and elaborate on the primary implications of the papers that follow.

Inflationary Cosmology


Author: L. F. Abbott,So-Young Pi
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9789971978648
Category: Science
Page: 697
View: 8284
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Inflation has revolutionized cosmology primarily because it has eliminated the dependence of cosmological modelling on initial conditions. Thus inflationary cosmology is able to account for the present universe starting from a wide range of initial conditions. This volume reviews the presents state of subject. Each chapter consists of a brief introduction followed by reprints of important papers. Experts in the field are also provided with a unifying view point.

Fundamental Interactions and Cosmology


Author: J. AUDOUZE (Ed),J. Thanh Van Tran
Publisher: Atlantica Séguier Frontières
ISBN: 9782863320365
Category: Astrophysics
Page: 520
View: 2466
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Three Hundred Years of Gravitation


Author: S. W. Hawking,W. Israel
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521379762
Category: Science
Page: 690
View: 6880
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To commemorate the 300th anniversary of the publication of Isaac Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Stephen Hawking and Werner Israel assembled a series of unique review papers by many of the world's foremost researchers in cosmology, relativity, and particle physics. The resulting volume reflects the significant and exciting advances that have been made in these fields since the editors' acclaimed volume, General Relativity: An Einstein Centenary Survey (CUP 1979). Newton's immense contribution to the physical sciences is assessed, and its relevance to today's physics made clear. The international group of contributors then chart the major developments in the study of gravitation, from Newtonian gravity to black hole physics. In the fields of galaxy formation, inflationary and quantum cosmology, and superstring unification, the book provides important overviews written by workers involved in the many advances described. By shaping such a wide-ranging and scholarly series of articles into a cohesive whole, the editors have created a fitting and lasting memorial to the man who continues to inspire scientists the world over.

Universe Or Multiverse?


Author: Bernard Carr
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521848411
Category: Science
Page: 517
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Physicists argue from different perspectives for and against the idea of the existence of multiple universes.

Sources and Detection of Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe

Fourth International Symposium Held at Marina Del Rey, CA, USA February 23-25, 2000
Author: David Cline
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540412168
Category: Science
Page: 544
View: 9147
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Dark matter research is one of the most fascinating and active fields among current high-profile scientific endeavours. It holds the key to all major breakthroughs to come in the fields of cosmology and astroparticle physics. The present volume is particularly concerned with the sources and the detection of dark matter and dark energy in the universe and will prove to be an invaluable research tool for all scientists who work in this field.

The Early Universe and Observational Cosmology


Author: Nora Bretón,Jorge L. Cervantes-Cota,Marcelo Salgado
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540218470
Category: Science
Page: 469
View: 5626
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Spectacular experimental advances in observational cosmology have helped raise cosmology to the status of a genuine science, and it is now possible to test many speculative theoretical issues and to obtain reliable values for the key parameters defining our observable universe. This book has emerged from selected lectures given at the Mexican School on Gravitation and Mathematical Physics by leaders in their field. Conceived as both a broad survey and as topical coverage of the latest developments, it will benefit graduate students and newcomers to this field and provide researchers in the field with a modern source of reference.

Worlds Without End

The Many Lives of the Multiverse
Author: Mary-Jane Rubenstein
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 023152742X
Category: Science
Page: 360
View: 3664
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"Multiverse" cosmologies imagine our universe as just one of a vast number of others. While this idea has captivated philosophy, religion, and literature for millennia, it is now being considered as a scientific hypothesis—with different models emerging from cosmology, quantum mechanics, and string theory. Beginning with ancient Atomist and Stoic philosophies, Mary-Jane Rubenstein links contemporary models of the multiverse to their forerunners and explores the reasons for their recent appearance. One concerns the so-called fine-tuning of the universe: nature's constants are so delicately calibrated that it seems they have been set just right to allow life to emerge. For some thinkers, these "fine-tunings" are evidence of the existence of God; for others, however, and for most physicists, "God" is an insufficient scientific explanation. Hence the allure of the multiverse: if all possible worlds exist somewhere, then like monkeys hammering out Shakespeare, one universe is bound to be suitable for life. Of course, this hypothesis replaces God with an equally baffling article of faith: the existence of universes beyond, before, or after our own, eternally generated yet forever inaccessible to observation or experiment. In their very efforts to sidestep metaphysics, theoretical physicists propose multiverse scenarios that collide with it and even produce counter-theological narratives. Far from invalidating multiverse hypotheses, Rubenstein argues, this interdisciplinary collision actually secures their scientific viability. We may therefore be witnessing a radical reconfiguration of physics, philosophy, and religion in the modern turn to the multiverse.

Prologue to Super Quantum Mechanics

Something is Rotten in the State of Quantum Mechanics
Author: Victor Vaguine
Publisher: ConsReality Inc
ISBN: 1936795116
Category: Science
Page: 152
View: 9603
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Since its foundation more than eight decades ago, quantum mechanics has been plagued by enigmas, mysteries and paradoxes and held hostage by quantum positivism. This fact strongly suggests that something is fundamentally wrong with the quantum mechanics paradigm. The best scientific minds, such as Albert Einstein, Louis de Broglie, David Bohm, Richard Feynman and others have spent years of their professional lives attempting to find resolution to the quantum mechanics predicament, with not much success. A shift of the quantum mechanics paradigm toward a deeper physics theory is long overdue. The Prologue is an introduction by Victor Vaguine of a fundamentally new quantum mechanics paradigm which he calls Super Quantum Mechanics (SQM). The theory and concept will be further expanded in a companion book Conceptual and Philosophical Foundations of Super Quantum Mechanics (February 2013). In contrast with quantum mechanics, which remains an enigmatic and mysterious science full of paradoxes, SQM is an ontological science. The SQM is a giant step in the progression of quantum mechanics toward a deeper physics theory. Fulfilling Einstein s dream, the centerpiece of SQM is an elementary quantum entity/event which can be visualized by humans. Each quantum entity is tangible with all its physical attributes at all times and not hanging in limbo. The philosophy of SQM is non-local realism. SQM brings non-locality dimension into focus and into system. Einstein stubbornly rejected non-locality, in effect imposing a subjective constraint on objective reality. He thus missed a supreme opportunity of a lifetime to free quantum mechanics from the detrimental influence of quantum positivism and to bring it to a deeper level. In contrast with the Standard Model of particle physics, which assumes elementary particles as point-like with no structure, SQM states that elementary particles (and forces) have dimension and structure. Based on three fundamental reasons, Victor Vaguine declares that the string theory is not valid scientific theory. The author ventures into cosmology by declaring intrinsic connections of SQM with the origin of the Universe through his original concept of absolute quantum entanglement at the pre-Big Bang state. Victor Vaguine states that the inflationary multiverse theory is scientifically invalid and replaces it with a concept of Uni-Universe, a new term coined by the author. The Uni-Universe is an assembly of habitable universes in 4-dimensional space. Each individual universe, such as our Universe, is sharply and uniquely defined. Based on the law of fine tuning, the author estimates: expected time of arrival of humans on the cosmic scene versus actual timing size of our Universe (unknown to science until now) the extent of the habitability in the Milky Way galaxy, the observed Universe and our Universe a time window for emerging intelligence in our Universe. Never ending scientific progress is presented as a series of curtains, each hiding a fundamentally new scientific paradigm. None of the curtains can be opened by logic or mathematical formalism alone requiring instead great intuition and counter-intuition. Victor Vaguine declares that the lethal combination of materialism and quantum positivism is an impediment to scientific progress in theoretical physics and cosmology. The book, written at a high scientific level, contains minimal mathematical formalism and is accessible for laypersons with intellectual curiosity.

My Universe

Selected Reviews
Author: I︠A︡kov Borisovich Zelʹdovich,Jakov B. Zel'dovič,Boris IAkovlevich Zel'dovich
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9783718650040
Category: Science
Page: 252
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Eight papers by noted Soviet cosmologist Zeldovich (1944-89), translated from the Russian. Three, previously published, introduce general readers to the theories of the birth and expansion of the universe, and matter and antimatter. The others are review articles for more advanced readers, first published here. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

Are We There Yet?

The Search for a Theory of Everything
Author: Moataz H. Emam
Publisher: Bentham Science Publishers
ISBN: 1608052141
Category: Science
Page: 130
View: 9615
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We live in exciting times. the frontiers of physics have been pushed to unprecedented horizons. the Holy Grail of fundamental physics research today is to find and describe a theory that explains, at least in principle, all physical phenomena, which in turns explains chemistry, biology and other material sciences. This, however, is not without controversy. the current candidate for such a theory is known as string or superstring theory. It suffers from the problem of being a purely mathematical science with no experimental backing and belief in it has been criticized as bordering on "faith" as opposed to scientific scrutiny. On the other hand the recent switching-on of our most advanced experimental tool, the Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland, gives new hope in our search for clues as to what the universe is made of on a fundamental level. What happened exactly on, or even before, the Big Bang? Where are we coming from and where are we going? Questions that have never been addressed before by physicists. the game is afoot and the search is on. This book contains articles by leading physicists describing the current situation. Among them are proponents as well as opponents of string theory, proponents of other ideas, and experimentalists.

Gravity, Black Holes, and the Very Early Universe

An Introduction to General Relativity and Cosmology
Author: Tai L. Chow
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 038773631X
Category: Science
Page: 280
View: 9773
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Here it is, in a nutshell: the history of one genius’s most crucial work – discoveries that were to change the face of modern physics. In the early 1900s, Albert Einstein formulated two theories that would forever change the landscape of physics: the Special Theory of Relativity and the General Theory of Relativity. Respected American academic Professor Tai Chow tells us the story of these discoveries. He details the basic ideas of Einstein, including his law of gravitation. Deftly employing his inimitable writing style, he goes on to explain the physics behind black holes, weaving into his account an explanation of the structure of the universe and the science of cosmology.