The Major Transitions in Evolution


Author: John Maynard Smith,Eors Szathmary
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198502944
Category: Nature
Page: 346
View: 1795
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During evolution there have been several major changes in the way genetic information is organized and transmitted from one generation to the next. These transitions include the origin of life itself, the first eukaryotic cells, reproduction by sexual means, the appearance of multicellular plants and animals, the emergence of cooperation and of animal societies. This is the first book to discuss all these major transitions and their implications for our understanding of evolution.Clearly written and illustrated with many original diagrams, this book will be welcomed by students and researchers in the fields of evolutionary biology, ecology, and genetics.

The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited


Author: Brett Calcott,Kim Sterelny
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262294539
Category: Science
Page: 336
View: 8874
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In 1995, John Maynard Smith and Eörs Szathmáry published their influential book The Major Transitions in Evolution. The "transitions" that Maynard Smith and Szathmáry chose to describe all constituted major changes in the kinds of organisms that existed but, most important, these events also transformed the evolutionary process itself. The evolution of new levels of biological organization, such as chromosomes, cells, multicelled organisms, and complex social groups radically changed the kinds of individuals natural selection could act upon. Many of these events also produced revolutionary changes in the process of inheritance, by expanding the range and fidelity of transmission, establishing new inheritance channels, and developing more open-ended sources of variation. Maynard Smith and Szathmáry had planned a major revision of their work, but the death of Maynard Smith in 2004 prevented this. In this volume, prominent scholars (including Szathmáry himself) reconsider and extend the earlier book's themes in light of recent developments in evolutionary biology. The contributors discuss different frameworks for understanding macroevolution, prokaryote evolution (the study of which has been aided by developments in molecular biology), and the complex evolution of multicellularity.

On the Origin of Autonomy

A New Look at the Major Transitions in Evolution
Author: Bernd Rosslenbroich
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 331904141X
Category: Philosophy
Page: 297
View: 7715
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This volume describes features of autonomy and integrates them into the recent discussion of factors in evolution. In recent years ideas about major transitions in evolution are undergoing a revolutionary change. They include questions about the origin of evolutionary innovation, their genetic and epigenetic background, the role of the phenotype and of changes in ontogenetic pathways. In the present book, it is argued that it is likewise necessary to question the properties of these innovations and what was qualitatively generated during the macroevolutionary transitions. The author states that a recurring central aspect of macroevolutionary innovations is an increase in individual organismal autonomy whereby it is emancipated from the environment with changes in its capacity for flexibility, self-regulation and self-control of behavior. The first chapters define the concept of autonomy and examine its history and its epistemological context. Later chapters demonstrate how changes in autonomy took place during the major evolutionary transitions and investigate the generation of organs and physiological systems. They synthesize material from various disciplines including zoology, comparative physiology, morphology, molecular biology, neurobiology and ethology. It is argued that the concept is also relevant for understanding the relation of the biological evolution of man to his cultural abilities. Finally the relation of autonomy to adaptation, niche construction, phenotypic plasticity and other factors and patterns in evolution is discussed. The text has a clear perspective from the context of systems biology, arguing that the generation of biological autonomy must be interpreted within an integrative systems approach.

Die Evolution des Fliegens – Ein Fotoshooting


Author: Georg Glaeser,Hannes F. Paulus,Werner Nachtigall
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3662498995
Category: Science
Page: 249
View: 8423
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Dieser Band nimmt sie mit auf eine spannende Reise in Bildern und Texten. Spektakuläre, großformatige Fotos auf Doppelseiten mit einem Erklärungstext machen die Leser neugierig auf das, was die Evolution im Bereich des Fliegens hervorgebracht hat: von der pflanzlichen Luftflotte (Pollenkörner, Flugsamen,...) über fliegende Schlangen und Fische, unter Wasser fliegende Pinguine bis zum Menschen, der sich in die Lüfte erhebt. Das Buch kann in beliebiger Reihenfolge, Doppelseite für Doppelseite, gelesen werden. Querverweise sorgen für bequemes Umspringen auf andere Doppelseiten. Die Textpassagen sind zumeist - abgesehen von der fundierten Einleitung - unabhängig von einander und besprechen besondere Highlights im evolutionären Prozess. Ergänzt wird die Doppelseite mit Literaturhinweisen und Verweisen auf instruktive Internet-Seiten.

Das Ende der Arbeit und ihre Zukunft

Neue Konzepte für das 21. Jahrhundert
Author: Jeremy Rifkin
Publisher: Campus Verlag
ISBN: 3593400855
Category: Political Science
Page: 240
View: 5423
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Die Arbeit hat sich im letzten Jahrzehnt weiter verändert. Bereits in 50 Jahren werden weniger als 10 Prozent der Bevölkerung ausreichen, um alle Güter und Dienstleistungen bereitzustellen. Die Konsequenzen für die sozialen Sicherungssysteme sind dramatisch, soziale Konlikte scheinen unvermeidlich. Dass "es nicht mehr genug Arbeit für alle geben wird" erkannte Jeremy Rifkin bereits in seinem Weltbesteller Das Ende der Arbeit - und seine Thesen sind heute aktueller denn je. In der Neuausgabe des in 16 Sprachen übersetzten Bestsellers entwickelt Rifkin seine radikalen Vorschläge weiter und zeigt mit gewohntem wirtschaftlichen und politischen Sachverstand, wie wir verhindern können, dass uns die Arbeit ausgeht. "Rifkins Buch wird uns noch lange beschäftigen." Süddeutsche Zeitung

Das egoistische Gen

Mit einem Vorwort von Wolfgang Wickler
Author: Richard Dawkins
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3642553915
Category: Science
Page: 489
View: 5707
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p”Ein auch heute noch bedeutsamer Klassiker“ Daily Express Sind wir Marionetten unserer Gene? Nach Richard Dawkins ́ vor über 30 Jahren entworfener und heute noch immer provozierender These steuern und dirigieren unsere von Generation zu Generation weitergegebenen Gene uns, um sich selbst zu erhalten. Alle biologischen Organismen dienen somit vor allem dem Überleben und der Unsterblichkeit der Erbanlagen und sind letztlich nur die "Einweg-Behälter" der "egoistischen" Gene. Sind wir Menschen also unserem Gen-Schicksal hilflos ausgeliefert? Dawkins bestreitet dies und macht uns Hoffnung: Seiner Meinung nach sind wir nämlich die einzige Spezies mit der Chance, gegen ihr genetisches Schicksal anzukämpfen.

Major Transitions in Vertebrate Evolution


Author: Jason S. Anderson,Hans-Dieter Sues
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Science
Page: 417
View: 7270
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New discoveries of ancient vertebrates, filling in gaps in the fossil record, are quickly eroding the traditionally recognized differences between the principal groups of vertebrates—for example, between dinosaurs and birds—and radically changing our understanding of the evolutionary history of the major group of animals to which our species belongs. This book describes this changing scientific landscape and contributes to the revolution in our knowledge of the developmental mechanisms that underlie evolutionary transformation.

Major Evolutionary Transitions in Flowering Plant Reproduction


Author: Spencer Charles Hilton Barrett
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226038165
Category: Science
Page: 209
View: 7700
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The first volume to address the study of evolutionary transitions in plants, Major Evolutionary Transitions in Flowering Plant Reproduction brings together compelling work from the three areas of significant innovation in plant biology: evolution and adaptation in flowers and pollination, mating patterns and gender strategies, and asexual reproduction and polyploidy. Spencer C. H. Barrett assembles here a distinguished group of authors who address evolutionary transitions using comparative and phylogenetic approaches, the tools of genomics, population genetics, and theoretical modeling, and through studies in development and field experiments in ecology. With special focus on evolutionary transitions and shifts in reproductive characters—key elements of biological diversification and research in evolutionary biology—Major Evolutionary Transitions in Flowering Plant Reproduction is the most up-to-date treatment of a fast-moving area of evolutionary biology and ecology.

Die Entstehung des Wohlstands

wie Evolution die Wirtschaft antreibt
Author: Eric D. Beinhocker
Publisher: MI Wirtschaftsbuch
ISBN: 9783636030863
Category:
Page: 592
View: 444
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Generelle morphologie der organismen ...


Author: Ernst Haeckel
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category:
Page: N.A
View: 2789
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Darwins Erbe im Umbau

die Säulen der erweiterten Synthese in der Evolutionstheorie
Author: Axel Lange
Publisher: Königshausen & Neumann
ISBN: 382604813X
Category:
Page: 424
View: 8886
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The Origins of Life

From the Birth of Life to the Origin of Language
Author: John Maynard Smith,Eörs Szathmáry
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 019286209X
Category: Science
Page: 180
View: 1368
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'I can recommend this book as a thoroughly interesting read' -Biologist 01/02/2002'exhilarating reading... challenging... stimulates the reader to think deeply on the many issues it raises.' -Margaret Ginzburg, Science and Christian belief, Vol.13, No.1, April 2001'...the authors provide a clear-eyed review of a large part of modern biology.' -Scientific American'...the book is well written, stimulating, and full of information nuggets.' -Choice

Evolution and Transitions in Complexity

The Science of Hierarchical Organization in Nature
Author: Gerard A.J.M Jagers op Akkerhuis
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319438026
Category: Science
Page: 295
View: 8017
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This book discusses several recent theoretic advancements in interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary integration in the field of evolution. While exploring novel views, the text maintains a close link with one of the most broadly held views on evolution, namely that of “Darwinian evolution.” This work puts forth a new point of view which allows researchers to define in detail the concept of evolution. To create this conceptual definition, the text applies a stringent object-based focus. With this focus, the editor has been able to develop an object-based pattern of evolution at the smallest scale. Subsequently, this smallest scale pattern is used as an innovative basis for generalizations. These generalizations create links between biological Darwinism and generalized Darwinism. The object-based approach that was used to suggest innovations in the field of Darwinian evolution also allowed for contributions to other topics, such as major evolutionary transitions theory, the definition of life and the relationships between evolution, self-organization and thermodynamics. Together, the chapters of this book and the multidisciplinary reflections and comments of various specialists on these chapters offer an exciting palette of innovative ideas.

Die soziale Eroberung der Erde

Eine biologische Geschichte des Menschen
Author: Edward O. Wilson
Publisher: C.H.Beck
ISBN: 3406645313
Category: Social Science
Page: 384
View: 6010
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Woher kommen wir? Was sind wir? Wohin gehen wir? Der große Biologe E. O. Wilson entschlüsselt die Evolution des Menschen Die soziale Eroberung der Erde ist die Summe lebenslanger innovativer Forschung, die Krönung des Lebenswerkes von Edward O. Wilson. Seine weitreichende These: Die soziale Gruppe und nicht das egoistische Gen war der entscheidende Faktor der Menschwerdung. "Keinem außer Edward O. Wilson konnte eine derart brillante Synthese aus Biologie und Geisteswissenschaften gelingen, die Licht wirft auf den Ursprung von Sprache, Religion, Kunst und der gesamten menschlichen Kultur." Oliver Sacks "Eine große, doch einfache Fragestellung, überzeugende Erklärungen, eine meisterhafte Beherrschung der Wissenschaft und eine anschauliche, verständliche Darstellung einmal mehr hat E.O. Wilson ein Buch geschrieben mit den Qualitäten, die ihm Pulitzerpreise und ein Millionenpublikum eingebracht haben." Jared Diamond "Ein fabelhaftes Buch." Bill Clinton

Earth System Analysis for Sustainability


Author: Dahlem Konferenzen
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262195133
Category: Science
Page: 454
View: 6776
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"Report of the 91st Dahlem Workshop on Earth System Analysis for Sustainabliity, Berlin, May 25-30, 2003. Held and published on behalf of the President, Freie Universiteat Berlin: D. Lenzen""--P. [2].

Advances in Artificial Life

6th European Conference, ECAL 2001, Prague, Czech Republic, September 10-14, 2001. Proceedings
Author: European Conference on Artificial Life 2,Jozef Kelemen,Petr Sosík
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540425675
Category: Computers
Page: 724
View: 8366
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Artificial Life, ECAL 2001, held in Prague, Czech Republic, in September 2001. The 54 revised papers and 25 posters presented together with five invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The book reflects the state of the art in ALife. It is divided into topical sections on agents in environments; artificial chemistry; cellular and neural systems; collaborative systems; evolution; robotics; vision, visualization, language, and communication; and miscellaneous.

Patterning in Vertebrate Development


Author: Cheryll Tickle
Publisher: Frontiers in Molecular Biology
ISBN: 9780199638697
Category: Medical
Page: 242
View: 2543
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One of the most fascinating problems in biology is how a single cell, the fertilised egg, gives rise to a new individual. The fertilised egg divides many times to form an embryo. This volume in the Frontiers in Molecular Biology series discusses the methods by which cells in distinct regions of an embryo become different, a process known as patterning. Patterning is fundamental to establishing the spatial organisation of the developing embryo. It ensures that all the parts of the body are generated and that they form in exactly the right places. The ultimate in patterning is the formation of precise arrangements of specialised cells and tissues within each organ. Understanding the process of patterning during the embryonic development of vertebrates is a particular challenge for developmental biologists because vertebrates have an intricate and complex anatomy and histology. The first two chapters of Patterning in Vertebrate Development are introductory, explaining to the reader the general principles of vertebrate patterning and early embryology. The subsequent chapters address patterning in both nervous system and specific parts of the body. Each chapter provides a detailed review of current research in a specific area of interest. These include topics such as neural specification, antero-posterior patterning of the neural tube, and molecular basis of vertebrate limb development. Throughout the volume, examples are drawn from a number of species, and particular emphasis is placed on recent discoveries about the molecular basis of patterning in vertebrates. The book concludes with a chapter which revisits many of the regions of the embryo previously discussed from an evolutionary perspective.

Wie das Zebra zu seinen Streifen kommt

Essays zur Naturgeschichte
Author: GOULD
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3034864655
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
Page: 400
View: 6133
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