The Rise and Fall of Arab Presidents for Life

With a New Afterword
Author: Roger Owen
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674735374
Category: History
Page: 258
View: 8215
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Monarchical presidential regimes in the Arab world looked as though they would last indefinitely—until events in Tunisia and Egypt made clear their time was up. This is the first book to lay bare the dynamics of a governmental system that largely defined the Arab Middle East in the twentieth century, and the popular opposition they engendered.

The Rise and Fall of Arab Presidents for Life

With a New Afterword
Author: Roger Owen
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674504895
Category: Political Science
Page: N.A
View: 1446
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Monarchical presidential regimes in the Arab world looked as though they would last indefinitely—until events in Tunisia and Egypt made clear their time was up. This is the first book to lay bare the dynamics of a governmental system that largely defined the Arab Middle East in the twentieth century, and the popular opposition they engendered.

The Rise and Fall of Arab Presidents for Life


Author: Roger Owen
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674065417
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 242
View: 8483
DOWNLOAD NOW »
The monarchical presidential regimes that prevailed in the Arab world for so long looked as though they would last indefinitely, until events in Tunisia and Egypt made clear their time was up. This book exposes for the first time the origins and dynamics of a governmental system that largely defined the Arab Middle East in the 20th century.

Syria

The Fall of the House of Assad
Author: David W. Lesch
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300197225
Category: History
Page: 304
View: 6101
DOWNLOAD NOW »
David Lesch charts Bashir Assad's turn towards repression and the inexorable steps towards the violence of 2011 and 2012. He recounts the causes of the Syrian uprising, the regime's tactics to remain in power, the responses of other nations to the bloodshed, and the determined efforts of regime opponents.

Soldiers, Spies, and Statesmen

Egypt's Road to Revolt
Author: Hazem Kandil
Publisher: Verso Trade
ISBN: 1781681422
Category: History
Page: 323
View: 4710
DOWNLOAD NOW »
A cautionary analysis of Egypt's transformation from a military regime to a police state traces Mubarak's loss of military support, offering a detailed historical study that argues that the revolt reflected an ongoing power struggle between the components of the country's authoritarian regime.

The Sunni Tragedy in the Middle East

Northern Lebanon from al-Qaeda to ISIS
Author: Bernard Rougier
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400873576
Category: Political Science
Page: 288
View: 1856
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Northern Lebanon is a land in turmoil. Long under the sway of the Assad regime in Syria, it is now a magnet for Sunni Muslim jihadists inspired by anti-Western and anti-Shi‘a worldviews. The Sunni Tragedy in the Middle East describes in harrowing detail the struggle led by an active minority of jihadist militants, some claiming allegiance to ISIS, to seize control of Islam and impose its rule over the region's Sunni Arab population. Bernard Rougier introduces us to men with links to the mujahidin in Afghanistan, the Sunni resistance in Iraq, al-Qaeda, and ISIS. He describes how they aspire to replace North Lebanon’s Sunni elites, who have been attacked and discredited by neighboring powers and jihadists alike, and explains how they have successfully positioned themselves as the local Sunni population’s most credible defender against powerful external enemies—such as Iran and the Shi‘a militia group Hezbollah. He sheds new light on the methods and actions of the jihadists, their internal debates, and their evolving political agenda over the past decade. This riveting book is based on more than a decade of research, more than one hundred in-depth interviews with players at all levels, and Rougier’s extraordinary access to original source material. Written by one of the world’s leading experts on jihadism, The Sunni Tragedy in the Middle East provides timely insight into the social, political, and religious life of this dangerous and strategically critical region of the Middle East.

ISIS

A History
Author: Fawaz A. Gerges
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400885590
Category: Political Science
Page: 392
View: 1454
DOWNLOAD NOW »
The Islamic State has stunned the world with its savagery, destructiveness, and military and recruiting successes. What explains the rise of ISIS and what does it portend for the future of the Middle East? In this book, one of the world's leading authorities on political Islam and jihadism sheds new light on these questions as he provides a unique history of the rise and growth of ISIS. Moving beyond journalistic accounts, Fawaz Gerges provides a clear and compelling account of the deeper conditions that fuel ISIS. The book describes how ISIS emerged in the chaos of Iraq following the 2003 U.S. invasion, how the group was strengthened by the suppression of the Arab Spring and by the war in Syria, and how ISIS seized leadership of the jihadist movement from Al Qaeda. Part of a militant Sunni revival, ISIS claims its goals are to resurrect a caliphate and rid "Islamic lands" of all Shia and other minorities. In contrast to Al Qaeda, ISIS initially focused on the "near enemy"—Shia, the Iraqi and Syrian regimes, and secular, pro-Western states in the Middle East. But in a tactical shift ISIS has now taken responsibility for spectacular attacks in Europe and other places beyond the Middle East, making it clear that the group is increasingly interested in targeting the "far enemy" as well. Ultimately, the book shows how decades of dictatorship, poverty, and rising sectarianism in the Middle East, exacerbated by foreign intervention, led to the rise of ISIS—and why addressing those problems is the only way to ensure its end. An authoritative introduction to arguably the most important conflict in the world today, this is an essential book for anyone seeking a deeper understanding of the social turmoil and political violence ravaging the Arab-Islamic world.

War and Peace and War

The Rise and Fall of Empires
Author: Peter Turchin
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 9781101126912
Category: History
Page: 416
View: 4932
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Like Jared Diamond in Guns, Germs, and Steel, Peter Turchin in War and Peace and War uses his expertise in evolutionary biology to make a highly original argument about the rise and fall of empires. Turchin argues that the key to the formation of an empire is a society’s capacity for collective action. He demonstrates that high levels of cooperation are found where people have to band together to fight off a common enemy, and that this kind of cooperation led to the formation of the Roman and Russian empires, and the United States. But as empires grow, the rich get richer and the poor get poorer, conflict replaces cooperation, and dissolution inevitably follows. Eloquently argued and rich with historical examples, War and Peace and War offers a bold new theory about the course of world history.

Triumphs of Experience


Author: George E. Vaillant
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674071816
Category: Psychology
Page: 480
View: 6835
DOWNLOAD NOW »
At a time when people are living into their tenth decade, the longest longitudinal study of human development ever undertaken offers welcome news for old age: our lives evolve in our later years and often become more fulfilling. Among the surprising findings: people who do well in old age did not necessarily do so well in midlife, and vice versa.

The Impossible Presidency

The Rise and Fall of America's Highest Office
Author: Jeremi Suri
Publisher: Basic Books
ISBN: 0465093906
Category: History
Page: 368
View: 9549
DOWNLOAD NOW »
A bold new history of the American presidency, arguing that the successful presidents of the past created unrealistic expectations for every president since JFK, with enormously problematic implications for American politics In The Impossible Presidency, celebrated historian Jeremi Suri charts the rise and fall of the American presidency, from the limited role envisaged by the Founding Fathers to its current status as the most powerful job in the world. He argues that the presidency is a victim of its own success-the vastness of the job makes it almost impossible to fulfill the expectations placed upon it. As managers of the world's largest economy and military, contemporary presidents must react to a truly globalized world in a twenty-four-hour news cycle. There is little room left for bold vision. Suri traces America's disenchantment with our recent presidents to the inevitable mismatch between presidential promises and the structural limitations of the office. A masterful reassessment of presidential history, this book is essential reading for anyone trying to understand America's fraught political climate.

The Arab Awakening

America and the Transformation of the Middle East
Author: Kenneth M. Pollack,Daniel L. Byman,Akram Al-Turk,Pavel Baev,Michael S. Doran
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 0815722273
Category: Political Science
Page: 381
View: 2605
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Even the most seasoned Middle East observers were taken aback by the events of early 2011. Protests born of oppression and socioeconomic frustration erupted throughout the streets; public unrest provoked violent police backlash; long-established dictatorships fell. How did this all happen? What might the future look like, and what are the likely ramifications for the United States and the rest of the world? In The Arab Awakening, experts from the Brookings Institution tackle such questions to make sense of this tumultuous region that remains at the heart of U.S. national interests. The first portion of The Arab Awakening offers broad lessons by analyzing key aspects of the Mideast turmoil, such as public opinion trends within the "Arab Street"; the role of social media and technology; socioeconomic and demographic conditions; the influence of Islamists; and the impact of the new political order on the Arab-Israeli peace process. The next section looks at the countries themselves, finding commonalties and grouping them according to the political evolutions that have (or have not) occurred in each country. The section offers insight into the current situation, and possible trajectory of each group of countries, followed by individual nation studies. The Arab Awakening brings the full resources of Brookings to bear on making sense of what may turn out to be the most significant geopolitical movement of this generation. It is essential reading for anyone looking to understand these developments and their consequences.

After the Sheikhs

The Coming Collapse of the Gulf Monarchies
Author: Christopher Davidson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019024450X
Category: Political Science
Page: 320
View: 5082
DOWNLOAD NOW »
The Gulf monarchies (Saudi Arabia and its five smaller neighbours: the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman, and Bahrain) have long been governed by highly autocratic and seemingly anachronistic regimes. Yet despite bloody conflicts on their doorsteps, fast-growing populations, and powerful modernising and globalising forces impacting on their largely conservative societies, they have demonstrated remarkable resilience. Obituaries for these traditional monarchies have frequently been penned, but even now these absolutist, almost medieval, entities still appear to pose the same conundrum as before: in the wake of the 2011 Arab Spring and the fall of incumbent presidents in Egypt, Tunisia, and Libya, the apparently steadfast Gulf monarchies have, at first glance, re-affirmed their status as the Middle East s only real bastions of stability. In this book, however, noted Gulf expert Christopher Davidson contends that the collapse of these kings, emirs, and sultans is going to happen, and was always going to. While the revolutionary movements in North Africa, Syria, and Yemen will undeniably serve as important, if indirect, catalysts for the coming upheaval, many of the same socio-economic pressures that were building up in the Arab republics are now also very much present in the Gulf monarchies. It is now no longer a matter of if but when the West s steadfast allies fall. This is a bold claim to make but Davidson, who accurately forecast the economic turmoil that afflicted Dubai in 2009, has an enviable record in diagnosing social and political changes afoot in the region.

The Invisible Bridge

The Fall of Nixon and the Rise of Reagan
Author: Rick Perlstein
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1476782423
Category: History
Page: 880
View: 1030
DOWNLOAD NOW »
The best-selling author of Nixonland presents a portrait of the United States during the turbulent political and economic upheavals of the 1970s, covering events ranging from the Arab oil embargo and the era of Patty Hearst to the collapse of the South Vietnamese government and the rise of Ronald Reagan.

Temptations of Power

Islamists and Illiberal Democracy in a New Middle East
Author: Shadi Hamid
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199314071
Category: Religion
Page: 288
View: 1849
DOWNLOAD NOW »
In 1989, Francis Fukuyama famously announced the "end of history." The Berlin Wall had fallen; liberal democracy had won out. But what of illiberal democracy--the idea that popular majorities, working through the democratic process, might reject gender equality, religious freedoms, and other norms that Western democracies take for granted? Nowhere have such considerations become more relevant than in the Middle East, where the uprisings of 2011 swept the Muslim Brotherhood and other Islamist groups to power. In Temptations of Power, Shadi Hamid draws on hundreds of interviews with leaders and activists from across the region to advance a new understanding of how Islamist movements change over time. He puts forward the bold thesis that repression "forced" Islamists to moderate their politics, work in coalitions, de-emphasize Islamic law, and set aside the dream of an Islamic state. Meanwhile, democratic openings in the 1980s--and again during the Arab Spring--pushed Islamists back toward their original conservatism. With the uprisings of 2011, Islamists found themselves in an enviable position, but one for which they were unprepared. Groups like the Brotherhood combine the features of both political parties and religious movements, leading to an inherent tension they have struggled to resolve. However pragmatic they may be, their ultimate goal remains the Islamization of society. When the electorate they represent is conservative as well, they can push their own form of illiberal democracy while insisting they are carrying out the popular will. This can lead to overreach and significant backlash. Yet, while the Egyptian coup and the subsequent crackdown were a devastating blow for the Islamist "project," obituaries of political Islam are premature. As long as the battle over the role of religion in public life continues, Islamist parties in countries as diverse as Egypt, Tunisia, and Jordan will remain an important force whether in the ranks of opposition or the halls of power. But what are the key factors driving their evolution? A timely and provocative reassessment, Hamid's account serves as an essential compass for those trying to understand where the region's varied Islamist groups have come from and where they might be headed.

The First World War in the Middle East


Author: Kristian Coates Ulrichsen
Publisher: Hurst
ISBN: 1849045054
Category: History
Page: 320
View: 2514
DOWNLOAD NOW »
The First World War in the Middle East is an accessibly written military and social history of the clash of world empires in the Dardanelles, Egypt and Palestine, Mesopotamia, Persia and the Caucasus. Coates Ulrichsen demonstrates how wartime exigencies shaped the parameters of the modern Middle East, and describes and assesses the major campaigns against the Ottoman Empire and Germany involving British and imperial troops from the French and Russian Empires, as well as their Arab and Armenian allies. Also documented are the enormous logistical demands placed on host societies by the Great Powers' conduct of industrialised warfare in hostile terrain. The resulting deepening of imperial penetration, and the extension of state controls across a heterogeneous sprawl of territories, generated a powerful backlash both during and immediately after the war, which played a pivotal role in shaping national identities as the Ottoman Empire was dismembered. This is a multidimensional account of the many seemingly discrete yet interlinked campaigns that resulted in one to one and a half million casualties. It details not just their military outcome but relates them to intelligence-gathering, industrial organisation, authoritarianism and the political economy of empires at war.

The Battle for the Arab Spring

Revolution, Counter-Revolution and the Making of a New Era
Author: Lin Noueihed,Alex Warren
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 9780300180862
Category: History
Page: 350
View: 377
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Drawn from research, interviews and a wealth of firsthand experience, this analysis of the Arab Spring, a revolution that spread across the Arab world in 2011, provides the first clear glimpse of the post-revolutionary future and the challenges many Arab nations face in building democratic institutions.

The Rise, Corruption and Coming Fall of the House of Saud

With an Updated Preface
Author: Saïd K. Aburish
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 0747578745
Category: History
Page: 352
View: 8501
DOWNLOAD NOW »
The explosive story of the dynasty whose greed and corruption have brought Saudi Arabia to the very brink of bankruptcy - a dynasty now on the verge of collapse

Arab Fall

How the Muslim Brotherhood Won and Lost Egypt in 891 Days
Author: Eric Trager
Publisher: Georgetown University Press
ISBN: 1626163626
Category: History
Page: 296
View: 4703
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Despite playing a marginal role in the spectacular 2011 Arab Spring uprising that ended Hosni Mubarak's reign, how did the Muslim Brotherhood win power so quickly in Egypt? And why did the Brotherhood's Mohamed Morsi, the country's first democratically elected president, fall from power only 891 days after Mubarak in the face of widespread protests and then a bloody military coup? In Arab Fall, Eric Trager examines the decisionmaking of the Brotherhood and their political arm, the Freedom and Justice Party, throughout this critical period and answers why their time in power was so short. Based in part on interviews with dozens of Brotherhood leaders and cadres including Morsi, Trager argues that the very organizational characteristics that helped the Brotherhood win power also contributed to their rapid downfall. While the organization's hierarchical structure allowed them unparalleled mobilizing capabilities, their autocratic governing style alienated much of the population and united diverse groups against them. Their insularity also left them entirely unprepared for the military coup and crackdown in July and August 2013. Trager concludes the book with an assessment the current state of Egyptian politics and whether or not the Brotherhood will reemerge in the future.

The New Middle East

The World After the Arab Spring
Author: Paul Danahar
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA
ISBN: 1620402548
Category: History
Page: 480
View: 5539
DOWNLOAD NOW »
BBC bureau chief Paul Danahar sets out the new order in the Middle East following the Arab Spring, and explains what it will mean both for the region and the West. For the past forty years the story of the Middle East has been simple. The news images flashing across our TV screens from the Middle East provoked anger, outrage and, sometimes military action from the international community. But now the handful of dictators who ruled over hundreds of millions of people with an iron fist are locked up, exiled, fighting for their lives or buried in unmarked graves, leaving behind countries in turmoil. Saddam Hussein, Assad, Ben Ali, Muammar Gaddafi and Hosni Mubarak all lived lives of cartoonish excess, stalked their own people, snatched them from their beds and murdered them before their children. The West propped these men up because, so the story went, the alternative was states falling under the influence of the communist block or later into the arms of radical Islam. That narrative of the old Middle East lasted as long as the old Arab dictators did. But now these men are gone. In 2011 the people of the western world realised for the first time that the people of the Arab world weren't all brooding fanatics who needed to be kept in check by a reign of terror. If now is the first time that they can speak openly then it is also our first chance to listen. We can ask what kind of societies they are going to build and learn how their decisions will change our lives. The countries engulfed by the Arab Spring -Tunisia, Egypt, Libya and Syria - are on a journey from dictatorship to democracy and together they will shape a New Middle East. Danahar also reveals the quiet but equally profound revolution going in Israel where tensions between religious and secular Jews are threatening the fabric of society. He investigates how that and the changing regional dynamics while shape the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

The Audacity of Hope

Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream
Author: Barack Obama
Publisher: Crown
ISBN: 0307382095
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 320
View: 1319
DOWNLOAD NOW »
In July 2004, Barack Obama electrified the Democratic National Convention with an address that spoke to Americans across the political spectrum. One phrase in particular anchored itself in listeners’ minds, a reminder that for all the discord and struggle to be found in our history as a nation, we have always been guided by a dogged optimism in the future, or what Obama called “the audacity of hope.” The Audacity of Hope is Barack Obama’s call for a different brand of politics—a politics for those weary of bitter partisanship and alienated by the “endless clash of armies” we see in congress and on the campaign trail; a politics rooted in the faith, inclusiveness, and nobility of spirit at the heart of “our improbable experiment in democracy.” He explores those forces—from the fear of losing to the perpetual need to raise money to the power of the media—that can stifle even the best-intentioned politician. He also writes, with surprising intimacy and self-deprecating humor, about settling in as a senator, seeking to balance the demands of public service and family life, and his own deepening religious commitment. At the heart of this book is Barack Obama’s vision of how we can move beyond our divisions to tackle concrete problems. He examines the growing economic insecurity of American families, the racial and religious tensions within the body politic, and the transnational threats—from terrorism to pandemic—that gather beyond our shores. And he grapples with the role that faith plays in a democracy—where it is vital and where it must never intrude. Underlying his stories about family, friends, and members of the Senate is a vigorous search for connection: the foundation for a radically hopeful political consensus. A public servant and a lawyer, a professor and a father, a Christian and a skeptic, and above all a student of history and human nature, Barack Obama has written a book of transforming power. Only by returning to the principles that gave birth to our Constitution, he says, can Americans repair a political process that is broken, and restore to working order a government that has fallen dangerously out of touch with millions of ordinary Americans. Those Americans are out there, he writes—“waiting for Republicans and Democrats to catch up with them.” From the Hardcover edition.