The Shi'is of Iraq


Author: Yitzhak Nakash
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691115757
Category: History
Page: 312
View: 9839
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"The Shii's of Iraq" provides a comprehensive history of Iraq's majority group and its turbulent relations with the ruling Sunni minority. Yitzhak Nakash challenges the widely held belief that Shi'i society and politics in Iraq are a reflection of Iranian Shi'ism, pointing to the strong Arab attributes of Iraqi Shi'ism. A new introduction brings this book into the new century and illuminates the role that Shi'is could play in a future Iraq after Saddam Hussein.

The Shiʻis of Iraq


Author: Yitzhak Nakash
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780691034317
Category: History
Page: 312
View: 4369
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The Shi'is of Iraq provides a comprehensive history of Iraq's majority group and its turbulent relations with the ruling Sunni minority. Yitzhak Nakash challenges the widely held belief that Shi'i society and politics in Iraq are a reflection of Iranian Shi'ism, pointing to the strong Arab attributes of Iraqi Shi'ism. He contends that behind the power struggle in Iraq between Arab Sunnis and Shi'is there exist two sectarian groups that are quite similar. The tension fueling the sectarian problem between Sunnis and Shi'is is political rather than ethnic or cultural, and it reflects the competition of the two groups over the right to rule and to define the meaning of nationalism in Iraq. A new introduction brings this book into the new century and illuminates the role that Shi'is could play in a future Iraq after Saddam Hussein.

Reaching for Power

The Shi'a in the Modern Arab World
Author: Yitzhak Nakash
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400841461
Category: History
Page: 248
View: 9952
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As the world focuses on the conflict in Iraq, the most important political players in that country today are not the Sunni insurgents. Instead, they are Iraq's Shi'I majority--part of the Middle East's ninety million Shi'I Muslims who hold the key to the future of the region and the relations between Muslim and Western societies. So contends Yitzhak Nakash, one of the world's foremost experts on Shi'ism. With his characteristic verve and style, Nakash traces the role of the Shi'is in the struggle that is raging today among Muslims for the soul of Islam. He shows that in contrast to the growing militancy among Sunni groups since the 1990s, Shi'is have shifted their focus from confrontation to accommodation with the West. Constituting sixty percent of the population of Iraq, they stand squarely at the center of the U.S government's attempt to remake the Middle East and bring democracy to the region. This groundbreaking book addresses the crucial importance of Shi'is to the U.S. endeavor. Yet it also alerts readers to the strong nationalist sentiments of Shi'is, underscoring the difficult challenge that the United States faces in attempting to impose a new order in the Middle East. The book provides a comprehensive historical perspective on Shi'ism, beginning with the emergence of the movement during the seventh century, continuing through its rise as a political force since the Iranian Islamic Revolution of 1978-79, and leading up to the Iraqi elections of January 2005. Drawing extensively on Arabic sources, this comparative study highlights the reciprocal influences shaping the political development of Shi'is in Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, and Lebanon, as well as the impact of the revival of Shi'ism on the larger Arab world. The narrative concludes with an assessment of the risks and possibilities arising from the assertion of Shi'I power in Iraq and from America's attempt to play an increasingly forceful role in the Middle East. A landmark book and a work of remarkable scholarship, Reaching for Power illuminates the Shi'a resurgence amid the shifting geopolitics of the Middle East.

The Struggle of the Shi‘is in Indonesia


Author: Zulkifli
Publisher: ANU E Press
ISBN: 1925021300
Category: Religion
Page: 304
View: 7724
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The Struggle of the Shi‘is in Indonesia is a pioneering work. It is the first comprehensive scholarly examination in English of the development of Shiism in Indonesia. It focuses primarily on the important period between 1979 and 2004 – a period of nearly a quarter of a century that saw the notable dissemination of Shi’i ideas and a considerable expansion of the number of Shi’i adherents in Indonesia. Since Islam in Indonesia is overwhelmingly Sunni, this development of Shiism in a predominantly Sunni context is a remarkable phenomenon that calls for careful, critical investigation. There is also an important examination of the principal ideas underlying the Madhab Ahl al-Bayt, the Imamate and Imam Madhi, Ja‘fari jurisprudence and ritual piety. Appropriately, in his discussion, Zulkifli provides a succinct outline of contrasts with Sunni ideas and practice. He also examines the publishing efforts that underpinned the dissemination of Shi’i ideas and the founding of IJABI (Ikatan Jamaah Ahlul Bait Indonesia) in July 2000 for the propagation of Ahl al-Bayt teachings. Given the Indonesian context, Zulkifli is also concerned with Sunni reactions to these Shi’i developments – a story that continues to unfold to the present. This book as a work of great value and significance for the continuing understanding of the richness and complexity of Indonesian Islam.

Der Irak seit 1958

von der Revolution zur Diktatur
Author: Peter Sluglett,Marion Farouk-Sluglett
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783518116616
Category: Iraq
Page: 345
View: 5145
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Bush in Babylon

die Re-Kolonisierung des Irak
Author: Tariq Ali
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783720524803
Category: Iraq
Page: 224
View: 6764
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Iran, Iraq, and the Legacies of War


Author: L. Potter,G. Sick
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 140398042X
Category: Social Science
Page: 224
View: 6369
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Iraq and Iran are the two most important states in the Gulf region, given their population size, military strength, and the potential threat they pose to other states in the region. This book enhances our understanding of the troubled relationship between Iran and Iraq, placing it in historical context, examining the rapid deterioration leading to the eight-year war that started in 1980 and the effects of that trauma, and exploring the ongoing issues that currently bedevil bilateral relations. The authors cover such central issues as how each side has sought to use opposition groups in the other state to weaken it, ethnic divisions, the role of outside states (especially the United States), and a fascinating account of how the war affected a generation of Iraqis and Iranians. The role of the U.S. in the region and how U.S. policy has affected the two states are also considered. This book provides a basis for understanding the background of a tumultuous relationship that is entering a new era.

The Sunna and Shi'a in History

Division and Ecumenism in the Muslim Middle East
Author: Ofra Bengio,Meir Litvak
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
ISBN: 0230370748
Category: Religion
Page: 286
View: 1642
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Sunni-Shi'i relations have undergone significant transformations in recent decades. The 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran had a major spill-over effect on the entire Middle East, and the 2003 war in Iraq transformed the Shi'is into the dominant force in Iraq. The emergence of Iran as a regional power following Saddam Husayn's removal, along with the weakness of the Arab state system, raised the specter of the "Shi'i Crescent" threatening Sunni-Arab domination in the region. The present volume demonstrates the complexity of Sunni-Shi'i relations by analyzing political, ideological, and social encounters between the two communities from early Islamic history to the present. While analyzing specific case studies in various Middle Eastern regions, the book provides a panoramic picture ranging from hostility to efforts of cooperation and ecumenism.

Iraq Since 1958

From Revolution to Dictatorship
Author: Marion Farouk-Sluglett,Peter Sluglett
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857713736
Category: History
Page: 390
View: 2635
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In the West, the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in August 1990 and later Saddam Husain’s political survival following a punishing defeat in war have been greeted with bewilderment and incomprehension. The history of politics in Iraq and the context which has given rise to Saddam Husayn’s violent Ba’thist regime have been barely understood. This highly praised book is the first to explore the emergence of modern Iraq from its foundation in 1920 into the 21st century. It covers the period from the revolution in 1958, concentrating particularly on Saddam Husayn’s rise to power and his consolidation as leader. It is the only political history of modern Iraq now available to provide a critical analysis of the Ba’thist regime which has ruled since 1968. The authors also explore the role and decline of the Iraqi Communist Party, the shifting policies towards the Kurds and the Shi’is, the nationalisation of oil and Iraq’s relations with its neighbours. With the extensive revision and updatings of Peter Sluglett, they provide a stimulating analysis of the country’s economy, now so drastically affected by international sanctions. --------------------- Real Promo blurb As the world holds its breath while the US-Iraq confrontation approaches its denouement, here is the definitive story of Saddam Husayn, his rise to power and the historical background to his dictatorship. This highly praised book explores the emergence of modern Iraq from the revolution in 1958 and concentrating on Saddam Husayn’s rise to power and his consolidation as leader. The only political history of modern Iraq now available, it provides a critical analysis of the Ba’thist regime which has ruled since 1968. It explores the decline of the Iraqi Communist Party, the shifting policies towards the Kurds and the Shi‘is, and Iraq’s relations with its neighbours. Extensively updated by Peter Sluglett, it provides analysis of the country’s economy, now so damaged by international sanctions. `This is an excellent, reasoned, historical analysis of Iraq, lucidly written, theoretically astute, empirically based, politically firm.' Fred Halliday `A very good book indeed' Albert Hourani --------------------------------- Author aff. The late Marion Farouk-Sluglett lectured in Middle Eastern Politics at the University College of Wales. Peter Sluglett is Professor of History at the University of Utah.

Places in Motion

The Fluid Identities of Temples, Images, and Pilgrims
Author: Jacob N. Kinnard
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199359687
Category: Religion
Page: 320
View: 4719
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Jacob Kinnard offers an in-depth examination of the complex dynamics of religiously charged places. Focusing on several important shared and contested pilgrimage places-Ground Zero and Devils Tower in the United States, Ayodhya and Bodhgaya in India, Karbala in Iraq-he poses a number of crucial questions. What and who has made these sites important, and why? How are they shared, and how and why are they contested? What is at stake in their contestation? How are the particular identities of place and space established? How are individual and collective identity intertwined with space and place? Challenging long-accepted, clean divisions of the religious world, Kinnard explores specific instances of the vibrant messiness of religious practice, the multivocality of religious objects, the fluid and hybrid dynamics of religious places, and the shifting and tangled identities of religious actors. He contends that sacred space is a constructed idea: places are not sacred in and of themselves, but are sacred because we make them sacred. As such, they are in perpetual motion, transforming themselves from moment to moment and generation to generation. Places in Motion moves comfortably across and between a variety of historical and cultural settings as well as academic disciplines, providing a deft and sensitive approach to the topic of sacred places, with awareness of political, economic, and social realities as these exist in relation to questions of identity. It is a lively and much needed critical advance in analytical reflections on sacred space and pilgrimage.

Terror vor Europas Toren

Der Islamische Staat, Iraks Zerfall und Amerikas Ohnmacht
Author: Wilfried Buchta
Publisher: Campus Verlag
ISBN: 3593430711
Category: Political Science
Page: 413
View: 4571
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Der Vormarsch der Milizen des selbsternannten Islamischen Staats gehört derzeit zu den beherrschenden Nachrichtenthemen. In ihm zeigt sich eine neue Qualität des Terrors, der mit dem Export des Heiligen Kriegs, des Dschihad, auch nach Europa überzuschwappen droht. Doch wie konnte es zu dieser bedrohlichen Entwicklung kommen? Wilfried Buchta, ein ausgewiesener Kenner der Region, zeichnet die fatalen Ereignisse im Nahen Osten nach. Er beleuchtet dabei die Rolle der wichtigsten Akteure und Machtfaktoren und erklärt, welche Handlungsoptionen dem Westen heute noch bleiben.

The Shīʻite Movement in Iraq


Author: Fāliḥ ʻAbd al-Jabbār
Publisher: Saqi Books
ISBN: 9780863563959
Category: Political Science
Page: 391
View: 4201
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Long oppressed despite their majority status, the Shi'is of Iraq have seen their leaders assassinated or exiled and their rituals debased. But they are a force to be reckoned with, and will play a key role in the reshaping of Iraq. This book is a thorough investigation by one of the foremost experts on the region into the origins and development of Iraqi Shi'ite political activism. Tracing the course of the Shi'is' quest for self-representation, the book shows how their political formation has historically intersected with a variety of religious and geopolitical forces, contending with a series of modern-era strongman regimes culminating in the most violent of them all, the Ba'th rule under Saddam Hussein. Almost alone amongst observers of the region, Faleh A. Jabar greatly enlarges our understanding of Shi'ism in its social, cultural, political and economic dimensions, and underscores the fact that Iraq's Shi'is have never constituted the homogeneous group that political analysts have too often insisted upon. Timely and exhaustively researched, this book offers a perspective on the complexities of the Iraqi situation before and after the fall of Saddam Hussein. Long oppressed despite their majority status, the Shi'is of Iraq have seen their leaders assassinated or exiled and their rituals debased. But they are a force to be reckoned with, and will play a key role in the reshaping of Iraq. This book is a thorough investigation by one of the foremost experts on the region into the origins and development of Iraqi Shi'ite political activism. Tracing the course of the Shi'is' quest for self-representation, the book shows how their political formation has historically intersected with a variety of religious and geopolitical forces, contending with a series of modern-era strongman regimes culminating in the most violent of them all, the Ba'th rule under Saddam Hussein. Almost alone amongst observers of the region, Faleh A. Jabar greatly enlarges our understanding of Shi'ism in its social, cultural, political and economic dimensions, and underscores the fact that Iraq's Shi'is have never constituted the homogeneous group that political analysts have too often insisted upon. Timely and exhaustively researched, this book offers a perspective on the complexities of the Iraqi situation before and after the fall of Saddam Hussein.

Saddam's Word : The Political Discourse in Iraq

The Political Discourse in Iraq
Author: Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies Tel Aviv University Ofra Bengio Senior Research Fellow
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780198034636
Category: History
Page: 288
View: 8030
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This is the first serious attempt to understand modern Iraq through a close examination of the political discourse used by the Ba'th regime and its leader, Saddam Hussein. By analyzing political terms, concepts, and idioms as disseminated through the official Iraqi mouthpieces, author Ofra Bengio illuminates Iraq's political culture and the events that these expressions have both reflected and shaped. Not only does this study add to our understanding of the "Saddam enigma;" it also offers a more universal truth: that under any regime, political culture is built on public discourse. Saddam's Word will be of much interest to students of the contemporary Middle East, as well as to all other observers of Saddam Hussein and his regime.

Iraq

The Search for National Identity
Author: Liora Lukitz
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135778205
Category: History
Page: 256
View: 3640
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The 1990-1991 crisis in the Middle East and the disturbances that followed, threw the deep-seated divisions within the Iraqi population into focus. This book examines the complexities of the internal cultural, political and religious conflict within the modern state of Iraq.

The Shiʻis of Saudi Arabia


Author: Fouad N. Ibrahim
Publisher: Al Saqi
ISBN: N.A
Category: History
Page: 304
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The evolution of Shi'ite opposition in Saudi Arabia.

Shi'ism


Author: Hamid Dabashi
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674058755
Category: Religion
Page: 448
View: 1551
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For a Western world anxious to understand Islam and, in particular, Shi’ism, this book arrives with urgently needed information and critical analysis. Hamid Dabashi exposes the soul of Shi’ism as a religion of protest—successful only when in a warring position, and losing its legitimacy when in power.

The Ba'thification of Iraq

Saddam Hussein's Totalitarianism
Author: Aaron M. Faust
Publisher: University of Texas Press
ISBN: 1477305572
Category: Political Science
Page: 320
View: 4613
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Saddam Hussein ruled Iraq as a dictator for nearly a quarter century before the fall of his regime in 2003. Using the Ba’th party as his organ of meta-control, he built a broad base of support throughout Iraqi state and society. Why did millions participate in his government, parrot his propaganda, and otherwise support his regime when doing so often required betraying their families, communities, and beliefs? Why did the “Husseini Ba’thist” system prove so durable through uprisings, two wars, and United Nations sanctions? Drawing from a wealth of documents discovered at the Ba’th party’s central headquarters in Baghdad following the US-led invasion in 2003, The Ba’thification of Iraq analyzes how Hussein and the party inculcated loyalty in the population. Through a grand strategy of “Ba’thification,” Faust argues that Hussein mixed classic totalitarian means with distinctly Iraqi methods to transform state, social, and cultural institutions into Ba’thist entities, and the public and private choices Iraqis made into tests of their political loyalty. Focusing not only on ways in which Iraqis obeyed, but also how they resisted, and using comparative examples from Hitler’s Germany and Stalin’s Russia, The Ba’thification of Iraq explores fundamental questions about the roles that ideology and culture, institutions and administrative practices, and rewards and punishments play in any political system.

The Twelver Shia in Modern Times

Religious Culture and Political History
Author: Rainer Brunner,Werner Ende
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9789004118034
Category: Religion
Page: 395
View: 6268
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This publication discusses the development of Shiite Islam since the 18th century in its various aspects. Its 21 contributions focus on the transformation of theological traditions, the role of internal criticism and ideological and political tendencies in the 20the century.

The Ottoman Administration of Iraq, 1890-1908


Author: Gökhan Çetinsaya
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134294956
Category: History
Page: 256
View: 1825
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This is a study of the nature of Ottoman administration under Sultan Abdulhamid and the effects of this on the three provinces that were to form the modern state of Iraq. The author provides a general commentary on the late Ottoman provincial administration and a comprehensive picture of the nature of its interaction with provincial society. In drawing on sources of the Ottoman archives, bringing together and analyzing an abundance of complex documents, this book is a fascinating contribution to the field of Middle Eastern studies.

Populatn Soc Arab East Ils 68


Author: Gabriel Baer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136236295
Category: Social Science
Page: 288
View: 6866
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First published in 1998. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.