The Strain of Representation

How Parties Represent Diverse Voters in Western and Eastern Europe
Author: Robert Rohrschneider,Stephen Whitefield
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199652783
Category: Political Science
Page: 208
View: 8809
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The Strain of Representation examines the quality of democratic representation in Europe, focusing on the way that political parties channel the preferences of different groups of citizens into government policies.

European Politics


Author: Bale Tim
Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education
ISBN: 1137581379
Category: Comparative government
Page: N.A
View: 6588
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The Routledge Handbook of East European Politics


Author: Adam Fagan,Petr Kopecký
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317418875
Category: Political Science
Page: 378
View: 3576
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The Routledge Handbook of East European Politics is an authoritative overview that will help a wide readership develop an understanding of the region in all its political, economic, and social complexity. Including Central Europe, the Baltic republics, South Eastern Europe, and the Western Balkans, as well as all the countries of the former Soviet Union, it is unrivalled in breadth and depth, affording a comprehensive overview of Eastern European politics provided by leading experts in the fields of comparative politics, international relations, and public administration. Through a series of cutting-edge articles, it seeks to explain and understand patterns of Eastern European politics today. The Routledge Handbook of East European Politics will be a key reference point both for advanced-level students developing knowledge about the subject, researchers producing new material in the area, and those interested and working in the fields of East European Politics, Russian Politics, EU Politics, and more broadly in European Politics, Comparative Politics, Democratization Studies, and International Relations.

Institutional Design and Party Government in Post-Communist Europe


Author: Csaba Nikolenyi
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199675309
Category: Political Science
Page: 240
View: 5299
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This books examines the institutional foundations of coalition government in the ten post-communist democracies of Eastern and Central Europe for the 1990-2010 period. Its central argument is that differences in the arrangement of political institutions systematically explain variations in patterns of multi-party government across these states. The book starts with the premise that electoral systems and constitutional provisions about the powers, the structure,and the relationship between parliament and the presidency determine the degree to which political power is dispersed or concentrated in the political system. The main finding of the book is that powerconcentration matters: political parties in those democracies where institutions are designed to concentrate political power tend to form large electoral coalitions, they tend to form majority rather than undersized governments, and they build more durable cabinets.

On Parties, Party Systems and Democracy

Selected Writings of Peter Mair
Author: Peter Mair
Publisher: ECPR Press
ISBN: 190730178X
Category: Political Science
Page: 666
View: 5736
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This collection brings together some of the most significant and influential work by leading comparativist Peter Mair (1951–2011). The selection ranges from considerations on the relevance of concept formation to the study of party systems and party organisations; and from reflections on the democratic legitimacy of the European Union to the future of party democracy. Including frequently cited papers alongside lesser-known work, the writings collected in this volume attest to the broad scope and depth of Mair’s insights into comparative party politics, and the changing realities of party government. As such, they form an important and enduring contribution to the study of politics, and a fitting tribute to an inspirational and much-missed figure in the global political science community. Edited and introduced by Ingrid van Biezen, with an intellectual portrait of Peter Mair by Stefano Bartolini and Hans Daalder.

Citizen Politics

Public Opinion and Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies
Author: Russell J. Dalton
Publisher: CQ Press
ISBN: 1483321436
Category: Political Science
Page: 360
View: 3026
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Now, more than ever, people drive the democratic process. What people think of their government and its leaders, how (or whether) they vote, and what they do or say about a host of political issues greatly affect the further strengthening or erosion of democracy and democratic ideals. This fully updated new sixth edition of Citizen Politics: Public Opinion and Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies, by Russell J. Dalton, continues to offer the only truly comparative study of political attitudes and behavior in the United States, Great Britain, France, and Germany. In addition to its comprehensive, thematic examination of political values, political activity, voting, and public images of government within a cross-national context, Citizen Politics explores new forms of political activity, such as Internet-based activism and new forms of political consumerism. All chapters have been updated with the latest research and empirical evidence. Further, Dalton includes new discussions of citizen sophistication and its implications for democratic citizenship.

The Oxford Handbook of Legislative Studies


Author: Shane Martin,Thomas Saalfeld,Kaare W. Strøm
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191019070
Category: Political Science
Page: 800
View: 882
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Legislatures are political bodies essential to democracy and the rule of law. They present social scientists with numerous intriguing puzzles, with far-reaching implications for our understanding of political institutions. Why, and how, have these ancient assemblies, established in pre-democratic times, survived the transition to mass democracies? How have they adapted? How do they structure such processes as budgeting, legislation, and executive oversight? How do their members get selected, and what consequences flow from differences in these rules? What roles do committees and political parties play in contemporary legislatures? What functions do legislatures perform in autocratic, semi-democratic or recently democratized societies? What explains the similarities and differences in legislative rules, powers and recruitment? What are the policy and other consequences of variation in how legislatures are organized and function? The 33 chapters in The Oxford Handbook of Legislative Studies, written by 47 of the most distinguished legislative scholars, provide a comprehensive and up-to-date description and assessment of the state of the art in legislative studies. Key themes explored include theoretical paradigms and methodological approaches to the study of legislatures, representation and legislative careers, internal organization, the role of parties within legislatures and the role of legislatures in policy making and accountability. The Handbook also explores the emergence of parliaments in historical and contemporary contexts, including new democracies and trans-national institutions.

Industrial Power and the Soviet State


Author: Stephen Whitefield
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198278818
Category: Political Science
Page: 279
View: 6936
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This book analyses the relationship between economic power and political authority in the Soviet system. In it, Stephen Whitefield takes issue with those who think that communist politicians successfully dominated the economy and society. He argues, on the contrary, that politicians' efforts to build authority in the industrial sector were a key source of political instability, and that perestroika was the last in a series of failed attempts by Soviet leaders to gain control of the behaviour of the institutions they themselves had created. In an administered economy, industrial organization is vitally important in structuring the interests and behaviour of social groups. The dilemma for Soviet politicians was that their attempts to build authority over industrial actors destabilized society and ultimately resulted in the collapse of the Soviet state itself. But industrial power has outlived the Soviet Union, and this book concludes by showing how industry continues toexert a crucial influence on Russian government and society.

Organizing Democratic Choice

Party Representation Over Time
Author: Ian Budge
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019965493X
Category: Political Science
Page: 313
View: 779
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Organizing Democratic Choice offers a new, invigorating theory of how democracy actually works. It also presents a challenge to democratic pessimists who would have everyone believe that neither political parties nor mass publics are up to the tasks that democracy assigns them.

The Meaning of Partisanship


Author: Jonathan White,Lea Ypi
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191507113
Category: Political Science
Page: 288
View: 6041
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For a century at least, parties have been central to the study of politics. Yet their typical conceptual reduction to a network of power-seeking elites has left many to wonder why parties were ever thought crucial to democracy. This book seeks to retrieve a richer conception of partisanship, drawing on modern political thought and extending it in the light of contemporary democratic theory and practice. Looking beyond the party as organization, the book develops an original account of what it is to be a partisan. It examines the ideas, orientations, obligations, and practices constitutive of partisanship properly understood, and how these intersect with the core features of democratic life. Such an account serves to underline in distinctive fashion why democracy needs its partisans, and puts in relief some of the key trends of contemporary politics.

Political Representation and Legitimacy in the European Union


Author: Hermann Schmitt,J. J. A. Thomassen
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0198296614
Category: Political Science
Page: 306
View: 7616
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How severe a problem is what many call the 'democratic deficit' of the European Union? Despite a voluminous theoretical literature dealing with this question, there is hardly any systematic empirical investigation of the effectiveness of the system of political representation in the EU and of the legitimacy beliefs of EU citizens that spring from it. This volume elaborates a conceptual framework for the empirical analysis of the alleged democratic deficit. Four dimensions of legitimacy beliefs are identified and analysed: the European political community, the scope of EU government, the institutions and processes of EU government, and EU policies. Based upon large-scale representative surveys among the mass publics, and different strata of the political elite of the EU and its member-states, the book examines the conditions of political representation in the EU. The results demonstrate, by and large, that legitimacy beliefs of EU citizens are the more positive, the less specific the object of identification and evaluations is; and that the process of political representation works pretty well as long as issues other than European Union issues are concerned. These findings are finally discussed in view of familiar strategies for institutional reform of the European Union.

Radical Islam in East Africa


Author: Angel Rabasa
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN: 0833046799
Category: Political Science
Page: 110
View: 4804
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American geopolitical interests and the potential threats to those interests are both on the rise in East Africa. The author places the spread of militant Islamism and the development of radical Islamist networks in East Africa in the broader context of the social, economic, and political factors that have shaped the region's security environment.

Social Policy Expansion in Latin America


Author: Candelaria Garay
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107152224
Category: Political Science
Page: 398
View: 9038
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Throughout the twentieth century, much of the population in Latin America lacked access to social protection. Since the 1990s, however, social policy for millions of outsiders - rural, informal, and unemployed workers and dependents - has been expanded dramatically. Social Policy Expansion in Latin America shows that the critical factors driving expansion are electoral competition for the vote of outsiders and social mobilization for policy change. The balance of partisan power and the involvement of social movements in policy design explain cross-national variation in policy models, in terms of benefit levels, coverage, and civil society participation in implementation. The book draws on in-depth case studies of policy making in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico over several administrations and across three policy areas: health care, pensions, and income support. Secondary case studies illustrate how the theory applies to other developing countries.

The Diversity Paradox

Political Parties, Legislatures, and the Organizational Foundations of Representation in America
Author: Kristin Kanthak,George A. Krause
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199891737
Category: Political Science
Page: 256
View: 4064
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In legislatures, group dynamics affect how the legislature operates, who is valued enough to play a critical decision-making role, and what voices matter in determining policy outcomes. An increase in a minority group's size within democratically-elected legislatures actually leads to the devaluation of individual minority group members. The authors assert that representative institutions such as legislatures face a 'diversity paradox': when the size of a minority group increases beyond mere 'tokenism' in representative institutions, it tends to create an unintended backlash toward the minority group's members that emanates from both majority and fellow minority group members. The inclusion of minority group voices in representative institutions is critical in a wide range of political decisions, ranging from legislative gender quotas in the new Iraqi constitution to attempts in the U.S. to increase minority representation through redistricting.

Human Nature in Politics

Human Understanding
Author: Graham Wallas
Publisher: 谷月社
ISBN: N.A
Category: Body, Mind & Spirit
Page: 130
View: 5728
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At first sight the main controversy as to the best form of government appears to have been finally settled in favour of representative democracy. Forty years ago it could still be argued that to base the sovereignty of a great modern nation upon a widely extended popular vote was, in Europe at least, an experiment which had never been successfully tried. England, indeed, by the 'leap in the dark' of 1867, became for the moment the only large European State whose government was democratic and representative. But to-day a parliamentary republic based upon universal suffrage exists in France without serious opposition or protest. Italy enjoys an apparently stable constitutional monarchy. Universal suffrage has just been enacted in Austria. Even the German Emperor after the election of 1907 spoke of himself rather as the successful leader of a popular electoral campaign than as the inheritor of a divine right. The vast majority of the Russian nation passionately desires a sovereign parliament, and a reactionary Duma finds itself steadily pushed by circumstances towards that position. The most ultramontane Roman Catholics demand temporal power for the Pope, no longer as an ideal system of world government, but as an expedient for securing in a few square miles of Italian territory liberty of action for the directors of a church almost all of whose members will remain voting citizens of constitutional States. None of the proposals for a non-representative democracy which were associated with the communist and anarchist movements of the nineteenth century have been at all widely accepted, or have presented themselves as a definite constructive scheme; and almost all those who now hope for a social change by which the results of modern scientific industry shall be more evenly distributed put their trust in the electoral activity of the working classes. And yet, in the very nations which have most whole-heartedly accepted representative democracy, politicians and political students seem puzzled and disappointed by their experience of it. The United States of America have made in this respect by far the longest and most continuous experiment. Their constitution has lasted for a century and a quarter, and, in spite of controversy and even war arising from opposing interpretations of its details, its principles have been, and still are, practically unchallenged. But, as far as an English visitor can judge, no American thinks with satisfaction of the electoral 'machine' whose power alike in Federal, State, and Municipal politics is still increasing. In England not only has our experience of representative democracy been much shorter than that of America, but our political traditions have tended to delay the full acceptance of the democratic idea even in the working of democratic institutions. Yet, allowing for differences of degree and circumstance, one finds in England among the most loyal democrats, if they have been brought into close contact with the details of electoral organisation, something of the same disappointment which has become more articulate in America. I have helped to fight a good many parliamentary contests, and have myself been a candidate in a series of five London municipal elections. In my last election I noticed that two of my canvassers, when talking over the day's work, used independently the phrase, 'It is a queer business.' I have heard much the same words used in England by those professional political agents whose efficiency depends on their seeing electoral facts without illusion. I have no first-hand knowledge of German or Italian electioneering, but when a year ago I talked with my hosts of the Paris Municipal Council, I seemed to detect in some of them indications of good-humoured disillusionment with regard to the working of a democratic electoral system.

Political Parties in Conflict-prone Societies

Regulation, Engineering and Democratic Development
Author: Ben Reilly,Per Nordlund
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Political Science
Page: 325
View: 7157
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The Logics and Politics of Post-WWII Migration to Western Europe


Author: Anthony M. Messina
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139463608
Category: Political Science
Page: N.A
View: 8850
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Few phenomena have been more disruptive to West European politics and society than the accumulative experience of post-WWII immigration. Against this backdrop spring two questions: Why have the immigrant-receiving states historically permitted high levels of immigration? To what degree can the social and political fallout precipitated by immigration be politically managed? Utilizing evidence from a variety of sources, this study explores the links between immigration and the surge of popular support for anti-immigrant groups; its implications for state sovereignty; its elevation to the policy agenda of the European Union; and its domestic legacies. It argues that post-WWII migration is primarily an interest-driven phenomenon that has historically served the macroeconomic and political interests of the receiving countries. Moreover, it is the role of politics in adjudicating the claims presented by domestic economic actors, foreign policy commitments, and humanitarian norms that creates a permissive environment for significant migration to Western Europe.

Social Movements

An Introduction
Author: Donatella della Porta,Mario Diani
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1405148217
Category: Social Science
Page: 360
View: 1698
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Social Movements is a comprehensive introduction and critical analysis of collective action in society today. In this new edition, the authors have updated all chapters with the most recent scientific literature, expanded on topics such as individual motivations, new media, public policies, and governance. Draws on research and empirical work across the social sciences to address the key questions in this international field. New edition expands on topics such as individual motivations, new media, public policies, and governance. Has been redesigned in a more user-friendly format.

Bankrupt Representation and Party System Collapse


Author: Jana Morgan
Publisher: Penn State Press
ISBN: 0271050624
Category: Political Science
Page: 362
View: 9504
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"Explores the phenomenon of party system collapse through a detailed examination of Venezuela's traumatic party system decay, as well as a comparative analysis of collapse in Bolivia, Colombia, and Argentina and survival in Argentina, India, Uruguay, and Belgium"--Provided by publisher.

Runaway State-Building

Patronage Politics and Democratic Development
Author: Conor O'Dwyer
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 9780801883651
Category: Political Science
Page: 278
View: 1428
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Here, Conor O'Dwyer introduces the phenomenon of runaway state-building as a consequence of patronage politics in underdeveloped, noncompetitive party systems. Analyzing the cases of three newly democratized nations in Eastern Europe—Poland, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia—O’Dwyer argues that competition among political parties constrains patronage-led state expansion. O’Dwyer uses democratization as a starting point, examining its effects on other aspects of political development. Focusing on the link between electoral competition and state-building, he is able to draw parallels between the problems faced by these three nations and broader historical and contemporary problems of patronage politics—such as urban machines in nineteenth-century America and the Philippines after Marcos. This timely study provides political scientists and political reformers with insights into points in the democratization process where appropriate intervention can minimize runaway state-building and cultivate efficient bureaucracy within a robust and competitive democratic system.