The Superalloys

Fundamentals and Applications
Author: Roger C. Reed
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139458639
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: N.A
View: 1870
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Superalloys are unique high-temperature materials used in gas turbine engines, which display excellent resistance to mechanical and chemical degradation. This book presents the underlying metallurgical principles which have guided their development and practical aspects of component design and fabrication from an engineering standpoint. The topics of alloy design, process development, component engineering, lifetime estimation and materials behaviour are described, with emphasis on critical components such as turbine blading and discs. The first introductory text on this class of materials, it will provide a strong grounding for those studying physical metallurgy at the advanced level, as well as practising engineers. Included at the end of each chapter are exercises designed to test the reader's understanding of the underlying principles presented. Solutions for instructors and additional resources are available at www.cambridge.org/9780521859042.

High-Entropy Alloys

Fundamentals and Applications
Author: Michael C. Gao,Jien-Wei Yeh,Peter K. Liaw,Yong Zhang
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319270133
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 516
View: 7160
DOWNLOAD NOW »
This book provides a systematic and comprehensive description of high-entropy alloys (HEAs). The authors summarize key properties of HEAs from the perspective of both fundamental understanding and applications, which are supported by in-depth analyses. The book also contains computational modeling in tackling HEAs, which help elucidate the formation mechanisms and properties of HEAs from various length and time scales.

Fundamentals of Creep in Metals and Alloys


Author: Michael E. Kassner,Maria-Teresa Perez-Prado
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080532141
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 288
View: 7874
DOWNLOAD NOW »
* Numerous line drawings with consistent format and units allow easy comparison of the behavior of a very wide range of materials * Transmission electron micrographs provide a direct insight in the basic microstructure of metals deforming at high temperatures * Extensive literature review of over 1000 references provide an excellent reference document, and a very balanced discussion Understanding the strength of materials at a range of temperatures is critically important to a huge number of researchers and practitioners from a wide range of fields and industry sectors including metallurgists, industrial designers, aerospace R&D personnel, and structural engineers. The most up-to date and comprehensive book in the field, Fundamentals of Creep in Metals and Alloys discusses the fundamentals of time-dependent plasticity or creep plasticity in metals, alloys and metallic compounds. This is the first book of its kind that provides broad coverage of a range of materials not just a sub-group such as metallic compounds, superalloys or crystals. As such it presents the most balanced view of creep for all materials scientists. The theory of all of these phenomena are extensively reviewed and analysed in view of an extensive bibliography that includes the most recent publications in the field. All sections of the book have undergone extensive peer review and therefore the reader can be sure they have access to the most up-to-date research, fully interrogated, from the world’s leading investigators. · Numerous line drawings with consistent format and units allow easy comparison of the behavior of a very wide range of materials · Transmission electron micrographs provide a direct insight in the basic microstructure of metals deforming at high temperatures · Extensive literature review of over 1000 references provide an excellent reference document, and a very balanced discussion

Superalloys, Supercomposites and Superceramics


Author: John K Tien
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0323140386
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 755
View: 6969
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Superalloys, Supercomposites and Superceramics reviews the state of superalloy technology and some of the more salient aspects of alternative high temperature systems such as superceramics and supercomposites. Superalloy topics range from resource availability to advanced processing such as VIM, VAR, and VADAR, along with investment casting and single crystal growth, new superplastic forming techniques and powder metallurgy, structure property relationships, strengthening mechanisms, oxidation, hydrogen embrittlement, and phase predictions. This book is comprised of 22 chapters that explore key issues of high temperature materials in a synergistic manner. The first chapter reflects on the growth of the superalloy industry and its technology over the past 40 years. The discussion then turns to some of the trends in superalloy development, focusing on what is understood to be meant by the term strategic materials and the current status of resources and reserves in the United States. Particular attention is given to the supply sources and availability of strategic materials. The results achieved from the research program undertaken by NASA Lewis Research Center named Conservation Of Strategic Aerospace Materials (COSAM) are also presented. The chapters that follow explore alternative high temperature systems such as intermetallics, fiber reinforced superalloys, and the processing and high temperature properties of ceramics and carbon-carbon composites. This book will be a valuable resource for professionals and graduate students interested in learning about superalloys, supercomposites, and superceramics.

Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Nickel-Base Alloys


Author: John C. Lippold,Samuel D. Kiser,John N. DuPont
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118210034
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 456
View: 8150
DOWNLOAD NOW »
The most up-to-date coverage of welding metallurgy aspects and weldability issues associated with Ni-base alloys Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Nickel-Base Alloys describes the fundamental metallurgical principles that control the microstructure and properties of welded Ni-base alloys. It serves as a practical how-to guide that enables engineers to select the proper alloys, filler metals, heat treatments, and welding conditions to ensure that failures are avoided during fabrication and service. Chapter coverage includes: Alloying additions, phase diagrams, and phase stability Solid-solution strengthened Ni-base alloys Precipitation strengthened Ni-base alloys Oxide dispersion strengthened alloys and nickel aluminides Repair welding of Ni-base alloys Dissimilar welding Weldability testing High-chromium alloys used in nuclear power applications With its excellent balance between the fundamentals and practical problem solving, the book serves as an ideal reference for scientists, engineers, and technicians, as well as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses in welding metallurgy.

Cracks in superalloys


Author: Jonas Saarimäki
Publisher: Linköping University Electronic Press
ISBN: 9176853853
Category: Electronic books
Page: 50
View: 5572
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Gas turbines are widely used in industry for power generation and as a power source at hard to reach locations where other possibilities for electrical power supplies are insufficient. New ways of producing greener energy is needed to reduce emission levels. This can be achieved by increasing the combustion temperature of gas turbines. High combustion temperatures can be detrimental and degrade critical components. This raises the demands on the high temperature performance of the superalloys used in gas turbine components. These components are frequently subjected to different cyclic loads combined with for example dwell-times and overloads at elevated temperatures, which can influence the crack growth. Dwell-times have been shown to accelerate crack growth and change cracking behaviour in both Inconel 718, Haynes 282 and Hastelloy X. On the other hand, overloads at the beginning of a dwell-time cycle have been shown to retard the dwell-time effect on crack growth in Inconel 718. More experiments and microstructural investigations are needed to better understand these effects. The work presented in this thesis was conducted under the umbrella of the research program Turbo Power; "High temperature fatigue crack propagation in nickel-based superalloys", where I have mainly looked at fatigue crack growth mechanisms in superalloys subjected to dwell-fatigue, which can have a devastating effect on crack propagation behaviour. Mechanical testing was performed under operation-like cycles in order to achieve representative microstructures and material data for the subsequent microstructural work. Microstructures were investigated using light optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques such as electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The outcome of this work has shown that there is a significant increase in crack growth rate when dwell-times are introduced at maximum load (0 % overload) in the fatigue cycle. With the introduction of a dwell-time there is also a shift from transgranular to intergranular crack growth for both Inconel 718 and Haynes 282. The crack growth rate decreases with increasing overload levels in Inconel 718 when an overload is applied prior to the dwell-time. At high temperature, intergranular crack growth was observed in Inconel 718 as a result of oxidation and the creation of nanometric voids. Another observed growth mechanism was crack advance along δ-phase boundaries with subsequent oxidation of the δ-phase. This thesis comprises two parts. Part I gives an introduction to the field of superalloys and the acting microstructural mechanisms related to fatigue and crack propagation. Part II consists of five appended papers, which report the work completed as part of the project.

Superalloys II


Author: Chester Thomas Sims,N. S. Stoloff,William C. Hagel
Publisher: Wiley-Interscience
ISBN: N.A
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 615
View: 4966
DOWNLOAD NOW »
This is the first truly comprehensive review of the latest developments in the pursuit of superalloys since the publication, 15 years ago, of Superalloys, which quickly became the standard work in the field. The editors of this volume define superalloys as those alloys based on Group VIIIA-base elements developed for elevated temperature service (some of which operate at nearly 90% of their absolute melting temperature), which also demonstrate combined mechanical strength and surface stability. Topics covered include gas turbine design and superalloys, cobalt-base alloys, nickel-iron alloys, prediction of phase composition, high-temperature oxidation, wrought alloys, powder metallurgy, joining, alternative materials, and the future of superalloys. Contains appendixes of phase diagrams, superalloy data, and registered trademarks.

Advances in Brazing

Science, Technology and Applications
Author: Dušan P Sekulić
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0857096508
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 620
View: 9544
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Brazing processes offer enhanced control, adaptability and cost-efficiency in the joining of materials. Unsurprisingly, this has lead to great interest and investment in the area. Drawing on important research in the field, Advances in brazing provides a clear guide to the principles, materials, methods and key applications of brazing. Part one introduces the fundamentals of brazing, including molten metal wetting processes, strength and margins of safety of brazed joints, and modeling of associated physical phenomena. Part two goes on to consider specific materials, such as super alloys, filler metals for high temperature brazing, diamonds and cubic boron nitride, and varied ceramics and intermetallics. The brazing of carbon-carbon (C/C) composites to metals is also explored before applications of brazing and brazed materials are discussed in part three. Brazing of cutting materials, use of coating techniques, and metal-nonmetal brazing for electrical, packaging and structural applications are reviewed, along with fluxless brazing, the use of glasses and glass ceramics for high temperature applications and nickel-based filler metals for components in contact with drinking water. With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Advances in brazing is a technical guide for any professionals requiring an understanding of brazing processes, and offers a deeper understanding of the subject to researchers and engineers within the field of joining. Reviews the advances of brazing processes in joining materials Discusses the fundamentals of brazing and considers specific materials, including super alloys, filler metals, ceramics and intermetallics Brazing of cutting materials and structural applications are also discussed

Effect of Dwell-times on Crack Propagation in Superalloys


Author: Jonas Saarimäki
Publisher: Linköping University Electronic Press
ISBN: 9176858715
Category:
Page: 49
View: 5589
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Gas turbines are widely used in industry for power generation and as a power source at "hard to reach" locations where other possibilities for electrical supply are insufficient. There is a strong need for greener energy, considering the effect that pollution has had on global warming, and we need to come up with ways of producing cleaner electricity. A way to achieve this is by increasing the combustion temperature in gas turbines. This increases the demand on the high temperature performance of the materials used e.g. superalloys in the turbine. These high combustion temperatures can lead to detrimental degradation of critical components. These components are commonly subjected to cyclic loading of different types e.g. combined with dwell-times and overloads at elevated temperatures, which influence the crack growth. Dwell-times have shown to accelerate crack growth and change the cracking behaviour in both Inconel 718 and Haynes 282. Overloads at the beginning of the dwell-time cycle have shown to retard the dwell time effect on crack growth in Inconel 718. To understand these effects more microstructural investigations are needed. The work presented in this licentiate thesis was conducted under the umbrella of the research program Turbo Power; "High temperature fatigue crack propagation in nickel-based superalloys", concentrating on fatigue crack growth mechanisms in superalloys during dwell-times, which have shown to have a devastating effect on the crack propagation behaviour. Mechanical testing was performed under operation-like conditions in order to achieve representative microstructures and material data for the subsequent microstructural work. The microstructures were microscopically investigated in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) using electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) as well as using light optical microscopy. The outcome of this work has shown that there is a significant increase in crack growth rate when dwell-times are introduced at the maximum load (0% overload) in the fatigue cycle. With the introduction of a dwell-time there is also a shift from transgranular to intergranular crack growth for both Inconel 718 and Haynes 282. When an overload is applied prior to the dwell-time, the crack growth rate decreases with increasing overload levels in Inconel 718. At high temperature crack growth in Inconel 718 took place as intergranular crack growth along grain boundaries due to oxidation and the creation of nanometric voids. Another observed growth mechanism was crack advance along phase boundaries with subsequent severe oxidation of the phase.

Titanium and Titanium Alloys

Fundamentals and Applications
Author: Christoph Leyens,Manfred Peters
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527605207
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 532
View: 6671
DOWNLOAD NOW »
This handbook is an excellent reference for materials scientists and engineers needing to gain more knowledge about these engineering materials. Following introductory chapters on the fundamental materials properties of titanium, readers will find comprehensive descriptions of the development, processing and properties of modern titanium alloys. There then follows detailed discussion of the applications of titanium and its alloys in aerospace, medicine, energy and automotive technology.

Light Alloys

Metallurgy of the Light Metals
Author: Ian Polmear,David StJohn,Jian-Feng Nie,Ma Qian
Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann
ISBN: 008099430X
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 544
View: 656
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Light Alloys: From Traditional Alloys to Nanocrystals, Fifth Edition, covers the materials science, properties, manufacturing processes, and applications of key engineering metals in a single accessible volume. As use of these metals is now more widespread than ever, with routine use in motor vehicles and aircraft, this book includes materials characteristics and applications, heat treatment properties, fabrication, microstructure/property relationships, new applications, and processes. Provides a definitive, single volume overview on the light alloys Presents new material on the processing, characteristics, and applications of these essential metals Covers the latest applications and processes in the auto and aero industries

Proceedings of the 8th Pacific Rim International Conference on Advanced Materials and Processing (PRICM-8)


Author: FernD.S. Marquis
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319487647
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 3539
View: 4740
DOWNLOAD NOW »
PRICM-8 features the most prominent and largest-scale interactions in advanced materials and processing in the Pacific Rim region. The conference is unique in its intrinsic nature and architecture which crosses many traditional discipline and cultural boundaries. This is a comprehensive collection of papers from the 15 symposia presented at this event.

Cold and Hot Forging

Fundamentals and Applications
Author: Taylan Altan,Gracious Ngaile,Gangshu Shen
Publisher: ASM International
ISBN: 1615030948
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 341
View: 5829
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Editors Altan (Ohio State University), Ngaile (North Carolina University), and Shen (Ladish Company, Inc.) offer this extensive overview of the latest developments in the design of forging operations and dies. Basic technological principles are briefly reviewed in the first two chapters.

Superalloys

Alloying and Performance
Author: Blaine Geddes,Hugo Leon,Xiao Huang
Publisher: ASM International
ISBN: 1615031421
Category: Alloys
Page: 176
View: 3442
DOWNLOAD NOW »
"This practical guide provides an introduction for understanding the compositional complexity of superalloys superalloy and the wide range of alloys developed for specific applications. The basics of alloying, strengthening mechanisms, and structure of superalloys are explained in optimizing particular mechanical properties, oxidation/corrosion resistance, and manufacturing characteristics such as castability, forgeability, and weldability."--Publisher's description.

Mechanical Alloying

Fundamentals and Applications
Author: P. R. Soni
Publisher: Cambridge Int Science Publishing
ISBN: 1898326568
Category: Science
Page: 151
View: 9795
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Annotation ContentsIntroduction (history, benefits of mechanical alloying); Mechanical alloying (alloying mills, mills in practice, improved mills, the process, parameters); Variations of mechanical alloying (reaction milling, cryomilling, repeated rolling, double mechanical alloying, repeated forging); Process controlagents in MA; (ductile-ductile system, ductile-brittle system, brittle-brittle system, metastable phase formation, amorphisation, nanocrystallization, extension of solid solubility, activation of solid state chemical interaction); Energy transfer and energy maps; Consolidation of mechanically alloyed powders (consolidation techniques, thermomechanical treatment); Mechanical properties of mechanically alloyed materials (tensile properties, fracture, creep, stress corrosion cracking susceptibility); Modelling MA (mechanistic models, deformation, coalescence and fragmentation, evolution of particle size, milling time, powder heating, powder cooling, atomistic model, thermodynamic and kinetic model)Joining of mechanically alloyed materials; Rapid solidification and mechanical alloying; Applications (nickel-based superalloys, AI-based materials, supersaturated solutions, magnetic materials, mechanically alloyed powders for spray coatings, superplasticity, tribological materials, composites, amorphous solids, nanocrystalline materials, solid-state chemical reactions, etc).

Metal forming

fundamentals and applications
Author: Taylan Altan,Soo-Ik Oh,H. L. Gegel
Publisher: Asm Intl
ISBN: 9780871701671
Category: Crafts & Hobbies
Page: 353
View: 2158
DOWNLOAD NOW »


Modern Physical Metallurgy


Author: R. E. Smallman
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483105970
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 544
View: 8553
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Modern Physical Metallurgy, Fourth Edition discusses the fundamentals and applications of physical metallurgy. The book is comprised of 15 chapters that cover the experimental background of a metallurgical phenomenon. The text first talks about the structure of atoms and crystals, and then proceeds to dealing with the physical examination of metals and alloys. The third chapter tackles the phase diagrams and solidifications, while the fourth chapter covers the thermodynamics of crystals. Next, the book discusses the structure of alloys. The next four chapters deal with the deformations and defects of crystals, metals, and alloys. Chapter 10 discusses work hardening and annealing, while Chapters 11 and 12 cover phase transformations. The succeeding two chapters talk about creep, fatigue, and fracture, while the last chapter covers oxidation and corrosion. The text will be of great use to undergraduate students of materials engineering and other degrees that deal with metallurgical properties.

Manufacturing Technology for Aerospace Structural Materials


Author: Flake C Campbell Jr
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080462356
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 616
View: 3039
DOWNLOAD NOW »
The rapidly-expanding aerospace industry is a prime developer and user of advanced metallic and composite materials in its many products. This book concentrates on the manufacturing technology necessary to fabricate and assemble these materials into useful and effective structural components. Detailed chapters are dedicated to each key metal or alloy used in the industry, including aluminum, magnesium, beryllium, titanium, high strength steels, and superalloys. In addition the book deals with composites, adhesive bonding and presents the essentials of structural assembly. This book will be an important resource for all those involved in aerospace design and construction, materials science and engineering, as well as for metallurgists and those working in related sectors such as the automotive and mass transport industries. Flake Campbell Jr has over thirty seven years experience in the aerospace industry and is currently Senior Technical Fellow at the Boeing Phantom Works in Missouri, USA. * All major aerospace structural materials covered: metals and composites * Focus on details of manufacture and use * Author has huge experience in aerospace industry * A must-have book for materials engineers, design and structural engineers, metallurgical engineers and manufacturers for the aerospace industry

Superplasticity of Alloys, Intermetallides and Ceramics


Author: Oscar A. Kaibyshev
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642846734
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 317
View: 1629
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Superplasticity is shown to be a universal phenomenon in materials ranging from metals and intermetallics to ceramics. Superplastic deformation facilitates the production of materials with specifically chosen properties. This is illustrated using the examples of Mg-, Al-, and Ti-based commercial alloys, steels, and superalloys. Some of the strenghts of this book are: the broad range of materials studied, the reduction of scientific results to a form suitable for the practitioner, a profound physical analysis of the phenomenon, a new approach to superplastic treatment as a kind of strain-heat treatment, the presentation of new data on superplastic flow and on production techniques of micro- and submicrocrystalline structures.