The Superalloys

Fundamentals and Applications
Author: Roger C. Reed
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139458639
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: N.A
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Superalloys are unique high-temperature materials used in gas turbine engines, which display excellent resistance to mechanical and chemical degradation. This book presents the underlying metallurgical principles which have guided their development and practical aspects of component design and fabrication from an engineering standpoint. The topics of alloy design, process development, component engineering, lifetime estimation and materials behaviour are described, with emphasis on critical components such as turbine blading and discs. The first introductory text on this class of materials, it will provide a strong grounding for those studying physical metallurgy at the advanced level, as well as practising engineers. Included at the end of each chapter are exercises designed to test the reader's understanding of the underlying principles presented. Solutions for instructors and additional resources are available at www.cambridge.org/9780521859042.

Cracks in superalloys


Author: Jonas Saarimäki
Publisher: Linköping University Electronic Press
ISBN: 9176853853
Category: Electronic books
Page: 50
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Gas turbines are widely used in industry for power generation and as a power source at hard to reach locations where other possibilities for electrical power supplies are insufficient. New ways of producing greener energy is needed to reduce emission levels. This can be achieved by increasing the combustion temperature of gas turbines. High combustion temperatures can be detrimental and degrade critical components. This raises the demands on the high temperature performance of the superalloys used in gas turbine components. These components are frequently subjected to different cyclic loads combined with for example dwell-times and overloads at elevated temperatures, which can influence the crack growth. Dwell-times have been shown to accelerate crack growth and change cracking behaviour in both Inconel 718, Haynes 282 and Hastelloy X. On the other hand, overloads at the beginning of a dwell-time cycle have been shown to retard the dwell-time effect on crack growth in Inconel 718. More experiments and microstructural investigations are needed to better understand these effects. The work presented in this thesis was conducted under the umbrella of the research program Turbo Power; "High temperature fatigue crack propagation in nickel-based superalloys", where I have mainly looked at fatigue crack growth mechanisms in superalloys subjected to dwell-fatigue, which can have a devastating effect on crack propagation behaviour. Mechanical testing was performed under operation-like cycles in order to achieve representative microstructures and material data for the subsequent microstructural work. Microstructures were investigated using light optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques such as electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The outcome of this work has shown that there is a significant increase in crack growth rate when dwell-times are introduced at maximum load (0 % overload) in the fatigue cycle. With the introduction of a dwell-time there is also a shift from transgranular to intergranular crack growth for both Inconel 718 and Haynes 282. The crack growth rate decreases with increasing overload levels in Inconel 718 when an overload is applied prior to the dwell-time. At high temperature, intergranular crack growth was observed in Inconel 718 as a result of oxidation and the creation of nanometric voids. Another observed growth mechanism was crack advance along δ-phase boundaries with subsequent oxidation of the δ-phase. This thesis comprises two parts. Part I gives an introduction to the field of superalloys and the acting microstructural mechanisms related to fatigue and crack propagation. Part II consists of five appended papers, which report the work completed as part of the project.

Effect of Dwell-times on Crack Propagation in Superalloys


Author: Jonas Saarimäki
Publisher: Linköping University Electronic Press
ISBN: 9176858715
Category:
Page: 49
View: 2773
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Gas turbines are widely used in industry for power generation and as a power source at "hard to reach" locations where other possibilities for electrical supply are insufficient. There is a strong need for greener energy, considering the effect that pollution has had on global warming, and we need to come up with ways of producing cleaner electricity. A way to achieve this is by increasing the combustion temperature in gas turbines. This increases the demand on the high temperature performance of the materials used e.g. superalloys in the turbine. These high combustion temperatures can lead to detrimental degradation of critical components. These components are commonly subjected to cyclic loading of different types e.g. combined with dwell-times and overloads at elevated temperatures, which influence the crack growth. Dwell-times have shown to accelerate crack growth and change the cracking behaviour in both Inconel 718 and Haynes 282. Overloads at the beginning of the dwell-time cycle have shown to retard the dwell time effect on crack growth in Inconel 718. To understand these effects more microstructural investigations are needed. The work presented in this licentiate thesis was conducted under the umbrella of the research program Turbo Power; "High temperature fatigue crack propagation in nickel-based superalloys", concentrating on fatigue crack growth mechanisms in superalloys during dwell-times, which have shown to have a devastating effect on the crack propagation behaviour. Mechanical testing was performed under operation-like conditions in order to achieve representative microstructures and material data for the subsequent microstructural work. The microstructures were microscopically investigated in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) using electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) as well as using light optical microscopy. The outcome of this work has shown that there is a significant increase in crack growth rate when dwell-times are introduced at the maximum load (0% overload) in the fatigue cycle. With the introduction of a dwell-time there is also a shift from transgranular to intergranular crack growth for both Inconel 718 and Haynes 282. When an overload is applied prior to the dwell-time, the crack growth rate decreases with increasing overload levels in Inconel 718. At high temperature crack growth in Inconel 718 took place as intergranular crack growth along grain boundaries due to oxidation and the creation of nanometric voids. Another observed growth mechanism was crack advance along phase boundaries with subsequent severe oxidation of the phase.

Proceedings of the 8th Pacific Rim International Conference on Advanced Materials and Processing (PRICM-8)


Author: FernD.S. Marquis
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319487647
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 3539
View: 9066
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PRICM-8 features the most prominent and largest-scale interactions in advanced materials and processing in the Pacific Rim region. The conference is unique in its intrinsic nature and architecture which crosses many traditional discipline and cultural boundaries. This is a comprehensive collection of papers from the 15 symposia presented at this event.

Mechanical Alloying

Fundamentals and Applications
Author: P. R. Soni
Publisher: Cambridge Int Science Publishing
ISBN: 1898326568
Category: Science
Page: 151
View: 2855
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Annotation ContentsIntroduction (history, benefits of mechanical alloying); Mechanical alloying (alloying mills, mills in practice, improved mills, the process, parameters); Variations of mechanical alloying (reaction milling, cryomilling, repeated rolling, double mechanical alloying, repeated forging); Process controlagents in MA; (ductile-ductile system, ductile-brittle system, brittle-brittle system, metastable phase formation, amorphisation, nanocrystallization, extension of solid solubility, activation of solid state chemical interaction); Energy transfer and energy maps; Consolidation of mechanically alloyed powders (consolidation techniques, thermomechanical treatment); Mechanical properties of mechanically alloyed materials (tensile properties, fracture, creep, stress corrosion cracking susceptibility); Modelling MA (mechanistic models, deformation, coalescence and fragmentation, evolution of particle size, milling time, powder heating, powder cooling, atomistic model, thermodynamic and kinetic model)Joining of mechanically alloyed materials; Rapid solidification and mechanical alloying; Applications (nickel-based superalloys, AI-based materials, supersaturated solutions, magnetic materials, mechanically alloyed powders for spray coatings, superplasticity, tribological materials, composites, amorphous solids, nanocrystalline materials, solid-state chemical reactions, etc).

Superalloys 1984

Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Superalloys Sponsored by the High Temperature Alloys Committee of the Metallurgical Society of AIME, Held October 7-11, 1984, Seven Springs Mountain Resort, Champion, Pennsylvania
Author: Maurice Gell
Publisher: Tms
ISBN: N.A
Category: Alloys
Page: 826
View: 8573
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Handbook of Crystal Growth

Bulk Crystal Growth
Author: Peter Rudolph
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444633065
Category: Science
Page: 1418
View: 7708
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Vol 2A: Basic Technologies Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIA (Basic Technologies) presents basic growth technologies and modern crystal cutting methods. Particularly, the methodical fundamentals and development of technology in the field of bulk crystallization on both industrial and research scales are explored. After an introductory chapter on the formation of minerals, ruling historically the basic crystal formation parameters, advanced basic technologies from melt, solution, and vapour being applied for research and production of the today most important materials, like silicon, semiconductor compounds and oxides are presented in detail. The interdisciplinary and general importance of crystal growth for human live are illustrated. Vol 2B: Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIB (Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics) deals with characteristic mechanisms and dynamics accompanying each bulk crystal growth method discussed in Volume IIA. Before the atoms or molecules pass over from a position in the fluid medium (gas, melt or solution) to their place in the crystalline face they must be transported in the fluid over macroscopic distances by diffusion, buoyancy-driven convection, surface-tension-driven convection, and forced convection (rotation, acceleration, vibration, magnetic mixing). Further, the heat of fusion and the part carried by the species on their way to the crystal by conductive and convective transport must be dissipated in the solid phase by well-organized thermal conduction and radiation to maintain a stable propagating interface. Additionally, segregation and capillary phenomena play a decisional role for chemical composition and crystal shaping, respectively. Today, the increase of high-quality crystal yield, its size enlargement and reproducibility are imperative conditions to match the strong economy. Volume 2A Presents the status and future of Czochralski and float zone growth of dislocation-free silicon Examines directional solidification of silicon ingots for photovoltaics, vertical gradient freeze of GaAs, CdTe for HF electronics and IR imaging as well as antiferromagnetic compounds and super alloys for turbine blades Focuses on growth of dielectric and conducting oxide crystals for lasers and non-linear optics Topics on hydrothermal, flux and vapour phase growth of III-nitrides, silicon carbide and diamond are explored Volume 2B Explores capillarity control of the crystal shape at the growth from the melt Highlights modeling of heat and mass transport dynamics Discusses control of convective melt processes by magnetic fields and vibration measures Includes imperative information on the segregation phenomenon and validation of compositional homogeneity Examines crystal defect generation mechanisms and their controllability Illustrates proper automation modes for ensuring constant crystal growth process Exhibits fundamentals of solution growth, gel growth of protein crystals, growth of superconductor materials and mass crystallization for food and pharmaceutical industries

Titanium and Titanium Alloys

Fundamentals and Applications
Author: Christoph Leyens,Manfred Peters
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527605207
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 532
View: 5426
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This handbook is an excellent reference for materials scientists and engineers needing to gain more knowledge about these engineering materials. Following introductory chapters on the fundamental materials properties of titanium, readers will find comprehensive descriptions of the development, processing and properties of modern titanium alloys. There then follows detailed discussion of the applications of titanium and its alloys in aerospace, medicine, energy and automotive technology.

High-Entropy Alloys

Fundamentals and Applications
Author: Michael C. Gao,Jien-Wei Yeh,Peter K. Liaw,Yong Zhang
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319270133
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 516
View: 3768
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This book provides a systematic and comprehensive description of high-entropy alloys (HEAs). The authors summarize key properties of HEAs from the perspective of both fundamental understanding and applications, which are supported by in-depth analyses. The book also contains computational modeling in tackling HEAs, which help elucidate the formation mechanisms and properties of HEAs from various length and time scales.

Cold and Hot Forging

Fundamentals and Applications
Author: Taylan Altan,Gracious Ngaile,Gangshu Shen
Publisher: ASM International
ISBN: 1615030948
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 341
View: 6232
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Editors Altan (Ohio State University), Ngaile (North Carolina University), and Shen (Ladish Company, Inc.) offer this extensive overview of the latest developments in the design of forging operations and dies. Basic technological principles are briefly reviewed in the first two chapters.

Frontiers of materials science


Author: Tomohiro Akiyama
Publisher: Ios PressInc
ISBN: 9781586038045
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 269
View: 6938
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Summary: "The book covers a wide area ranging from the basic principles familiar in materials science and engineering to practical applications and is expected to serve as a first course text for graduate students, researchers, and engineers engaged in this field. Some chapters are added on the novel materials processing operations and recent topics attracting deep interest of researchers and engineers in the iron and steel industry. Chapter 1 provides information on the stability and time evolution of microstructure in metals and the related principles in statistical thermodynamics. Chapter 2 presents the structure and properties of anodic films on aluminum and micro- and nano-technologies based on anodizing. Chapter 3 is devoted to explain the hydrogen behavior in BCC metals. Chapter 4 describes some features of high-temperature oxidation and corrosion of metals and alloys used in, for example, engines and turbines working at very high temperatures. Chapter 5 is concerned with advanced high-temperature energy materials such as heat resistant ferritic steel and ODS ferritic steel. In Chapter 6 we introduce the basic principles in corrosion engineering. We describe the development of microstructure and its design in Chapter 7 focusing on the solidification of molten metal, peritectic reaction under supercooling condition and grain growth. Chapter 8 treats transport phenomena occurring in the conventional steelmaking reactors such as the converter and ladle. In Chapter 9 we describe environment-friendly titanium with special emphasis on its characteristics, resources, industrial production process currently used, and new production processes. Chapter 10 discusses how to recuperate material and energy for an ecological network."--Publisher description.

Fundamentals of Creep in Metals and Alloys


Author: Michael E. Kassner,Maria-Teresa Perez-Prado
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080532141
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 288
View: 2195
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* Numerous line drawings with consistent format and units allow easy comparison of the behavior of a very wide range of materials * Transmission electron micrographs provide a direct insight in the basic microstructure of metals deforming at high temperatures * Extensive literature review of over 1000 references provide an excellent reference document, and a very balanced discussion Understanding the strength of materials at a range of temperatures is critically important to a huge number of researchers and practitioners from a wide range of fields and industry sectors including metallurgists, industrial designers, aerospace R&D personnel, and structural engineers. The most up-to date and comprehensive book in the field, Fundamentals of Creep in Metals and Alloys discusses the fundamentals of time-dependent plasticity or creep plasticity in metals, alloys and metallic compounds. This is the first book of its kind that provides broad coverage of a range of materials not just a sub-group such as metallic compounds, superalloys or crystals. As such it presents the most balanced view of creep for all materials scientists. The theory of all of these phenomena are extensively reviewed and analysed in view of an extensive bibliography that includes the most recent publications in the field. All sections of the book have undergone extensive peer review and therefore the reader can be sure they have access to the most up-to-date research, fully interrogated, from the world’s leading investigators. · Numerous line drawings with consistent format and units allow easy comparison of the behavior of a very wide range of materials · Transmission electron micrographs provide a direct insight in the basic microstructure of metals deforming at high temperatures · Extensive literature review of over 1000 references provide an excellent reference document, and a very balanced discussion

Creep deformation: fundamentals and applications

proceedings of a symposium sponsored by the Mechanical Behavior Committee (Jt. SMD/ASM-MSCTS) of the Structural Materials Division (SMD) and the Powder Materials Committee of the Materials Processing and Manufacturing Division (MPMD) of TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society) : held during the 2002 TMS Annual Meeting in Seattle, Washington, Feburary 17-21, 2002
Author: Minerals, Metals and Materials Society. Mechanical Behavior Committee,Minerals, Metals and Materials Society. Powder Materials Committee
Publisher: Tms
ISBN: N.A
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 432
View: 7886
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These proceedings focus on the application of fundamental creep research to the design and development of high-temperature materials for engineering applications. The book deals with all aspects of creep deformation and high-temperature materials development, specifically the influence of microstructures on various aspects of creep and the application of this information in the design of highly creep-resistant materials. Emphasis will be placed on advanced ceramic and metal-matrix composites and advanced intermetallics. This volume brings together researchers working on fundamental issues relating to the development and characterization of high-temperature materials and design engineers involved in high-temperature applications.

American Book Publishing Record


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: American literature
Page: N.A
View: 644
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Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Nickel-Base Alloys


Author: John C. Lippold,Samuel D. Kiser,John N. DuPont
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118210034
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 456
View: 2882
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The most up-to-date coverage of welding metallurgy aspects and weldability issues associated with Ni-base alloys Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Nickel-Base Alloys describes the fundamental metallurgical principles that control the microstructure and properties of welded Ni-base alloys. It serves as a practical how-to guide that enables engineers to select the proper alloys, filler metals, heat treatments, and welding conditions to ensure that failures are avoided during fabrication and service. Chapter coverage includes: Alloying additions, phase diagrams, and phase stability Solid-solution strengthened Ni-base alloys Precipitation strengthened Ni-base alloys Oxide dispersion strengthened alloys and nickel aluminides Repair welding of Ni-base alloys Dissimilar welding Weldability testing High-chromium alloys used in nuclear power applications With its excellent balance between the fundamentals and practical problem solving, the book serves as an ideal reference for scientists, engineers, and technicians, as well as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses in welding metallurgy.

Advanced High-Strength Steels

Science, Technology, and Applications
Author: Mahmoud Y. Demeri
Publisher: ASM International
ISBN: 1627080058
Category: Electronic books
Page: 312
View: 2303
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Examines the types, microstructures and attributes of AHSSAlso reviews the current and future applications, the benefits, trends and environmental and sustainability issues.

Physical Metallurgy and Advanced Materials


Author: R. E. Smallman,A.H.W. Ngan
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080552862
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 672
View: 4620
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Physical Metallurgy and Advanced Materials is the latest edition of the classic book previously published as Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering. Fully revised and expanded, this new edition is developed from its predecessor by including detailed coverage of the latest topics in metallurgy and material science. It emphasizes the science, production and applications of engineering materials and is suitable for all post-introductory materials science courses. This book provides coverage of new materials characterization techniques, including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and nanoindentation. It also boasts an updated coverage of sports materials, biomaterials and nanomaterials. Other topics range from atoms and atomic arrangements to phase equilibria and structure; crystal defects; characterization and analysis of materials; and physical and mechanical properties of materials. The chapters also examine the properties of materials such as advanced alloys, ceramics, glass, polymers, plastics, and composites. The text is easy to navigate with contents split into logical groupings: fundamentals, metals and alloys, nonmetals, processing and applications. It includes detailed worked examples with real-world applications, along with a rich pedagogy comprised of extensive homework exercises, lecture slides and full online solutions manual (coming). Each chapter ends with a set of questions to enable readers to apply the scientific concepts presented, as well as to emphasize important material properties. Physical Metallurgy and Advanced Materials is intended for senior undergraduates and graduate students taking courses in metallurgy, materials science, physical metallurgy, mechanical engineering, biomedical engineering, physics, manufacturing engineering and related courses. Renowned coverage of metals and alloys, plus other materials classes including ceramics and polymers. Updated coverage of sports materials, biomaterials and nanomaterials. Covers new materials characterization techniques, including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and nanoindentation. Easy to navigate with contents split into logical groupings: fundamentals, metals and alloys, nonmetals, processing and applications. Detailed worked examples with real-world applications. Rich pedagogy includes extensive homework exercises.

Jet Propulsion

A Simple Guide to the Aerodynamic and Thermodynamic Design and Performance of Jet Engines
Author: N. A. Cumpsty
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521541442
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 303
View: 798
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Updated and revised edition of Cumpsty's excellent introduction to jet engines now includes noise control and emissions.

Advances in Brazing

Science, Technology and Applications
Author: Dušan P Sekulić
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0857096508
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 620
View: 1227
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Brazing processes offer enhanced control, adaptability and cost-efficiency in the joining of materials. Unsurprisingly, this has lead to great interest and investment in the area. Drawing on important research in the field, Advances in brazing provides a clear guide to the principles, materials, methods and key applications of brazing. Part one introduces the fundamentals of brazing, including molten metal wetting processes, strength and margins of safety of brazed joints, and modeling of associated physical phenomena. Part two goes on to consider specific materials, such as super alloys, filler metals for high temperature brazing, diamonds and cubic boron nitride, and varied ceramics and intermetallics. The brazing of carbon-carbon (C/C) composites to metals is also explored before applications of brazing and brazed materials are discussed in part three. Brazing of cutting materials, use of coating techniques, and metal-nonmetal brazing for electrical, packaging and structural applications are reviewed, along with fluxless brazing, the use of glasses and glass ceramics for high temperature applications and nickel-based filler metals for components in contact with drinking water. With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Advances in brazing is a technical guide for any professionals requiring an understanding of brazing processes, and offers a deeper understanding of the subject to researchers and engineers within the field of joining. Reviews the advances of brazing processes in joining materials Discusses the fundamentals of brazing and considers specific materials, including super alloys, filler metals, ceramics and intermetallics Brazing of cutting materials and structural applications are also discussed

Physikalische Metallkunde


Author: P. Haasen
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3662127024
Category: Science
Page: 333
View: 5699
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Seit 1959 versuche ich in Göttingen, Studierende der Physik nach dem V 01' examen für ein Aufbaustudium der Physikalischen Metallkunde zu interessieren. Diese Aufgabe stellt sich heute an vielen Hochschulen, denn allgemein hat sich der Beruf des Metallkundlers in der Forschung, der Entwicklung metallischer Werkstoffe und ihrer industriellen Produktion als sehr befriedigend und aus sichtsreich erwiesen. Nicht nur ist die Metall-Technik außerordentlich vielseitig und lädt zu wissenschaftlicher Durchdringung ein, sondern auch andere Bereiche der Festkörper-verarbeitenden Industrie benutzen unter der Überschrift" Werk stoffwissenschaften" (Materials Science) zunehmend metallkundliche Methoden, etwa bei keramischen Werkstoffen, Halbleitermaterialien, Kunststoffen usw. Für ein solches Berufsbild ist heute ein Grundstudium der Physik sehr geeignet, während Metallkundler früherer Jahrgänge häufig als Chemiker oder Maschinen bau-Ingenieure begonnen haben. Das Grundstudium der Physik bietet neben strengem mathematischen Rüstzeug verschiedene Vorlesungen und Praktika der Experimentalphysik sowie den theoretisch-physikalischen Kursus incl. der Quantentheorie. Im 5. und 6. Semester leiten Einführungsvorlesungen über Festkörperphysik in das Gebiet der Physikalischen Metallkunde über. Sie lehnen sich auch in Deutschland häufig an das Lehrbuch von Ch. Kittel [1.1] an.