The Unthinkable Revolution in Iran


Author: Charles Kurzman
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674039834
Category: History
Page: 304
View: 792
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The shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, would remain on the throne for the foreseeable future: This was the firm conclusion of a top-secret CIA analysis issued in October 1978. One hundred days later the shah--despite his massive military, fearsome security police, and superpower support was overthrown by a popular and largely peaceful revolution. But the CIA was not alone in its myopia, as Charles Kurzman reveals in this penetrating work; Iranians themselves, except for a tiny minority, considered a revolution inconceivable until it actually occurred. Revisiting the circumstances surrounding the fall of the shah, Kurzman offers rare insight into the nature and evolution of the Iranian revolution and into the ultimate unpredictability of protest movements in general. As one Iranian recalls, "The future was up in the air." Through interviews and eyewitness accounts, declassified security documents and underground pamphlets, Kurzman documents the overwhelming sense of confusion that gripped pre-revolutionary Iran, and that characterizes major protest movements. His book provides a striking picture of the chaotic conditions under which Iranians acted, participating in protest only when they expected others to do so too, the process approaching critical mass in unforeseen and unforeseeable ways. Only when large numbers of Iranians began to "think the unthinkable," in the words of the U.S. ambassador, did revolutionary expectations become a self-fulfilling prophecy. A corrective to 20-20 hindsight, this book reveals shortcomings of analyses that make the Iranian revolution or any major protest movement seem inevitable in retrospect.

The Unthinkable Revolution in Iran


Author: Charles Kurzman
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: History
Page: 287
View: 6656
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The shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, would remain on the throne for the foreseeable future: This was the firm conclusion of a top-secret CIA analysis issued in October 1978. One hundred days later the shah--despite his massive military, fearsome security police, and superpower support was overthrown by a popular and largely peaceful revolution. But the CIA was not alone in its myopia, as Charles Kurzman reveals in this penetrating work; Iranians themselves, except for a tiny minority, considered a revolution inconceivable until it actually occurred. Revisiting the circumstances surrounding the fall of the shah, Kurzman offers rare insight into the nature and evolution of the Iranian revolution and into the ultimate unpredictability of protest movements in general. As one Iranian recalls, "The future was up in the air." Through interviews and eyewitness accounts, declassified security documents and underground pamphlets, Kurzman documents the overwhelming sense of confusion that gripped pre-revolutionary Iran, and that characterizes major protest movements. His book provides a striking picture of the chaotic conditions under which Iranians acted, participating in protest only when they expected others to do so too, the process approaching critical mass in unforeseen and unforeseeable ways. Only when large numbers of Iranians began to "think the unthinkable," in the words of the U.S. ambassador, did revolutionary expectations become a self-fulfilling prophecy. A corrective to 20-20 hindsight, this book reveals shortcomings of analyses that make the Iranian revolution or any major protest movement seem inevitable in retrospect.

The Unthinkable Revolution in Iran


Author: Charles Kurzman
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780674018433
Category: History
Page: 287
View: 3523
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The shah of Iran would remain on the throne for the foreseeable future: This was the firm conclusion of a 1978 CIA analysis. One hundred days later the shah was overthrown by a popular revolution. The CIA was not alone in its myopia, as Kurzman reveals in this penetrating work; Iranians themselves considered a revolution inconceivable until it actually occurred. This book offers rare insight into the nature and evolution of the Iranian revolution and into the ultimate unpredictability of protest movements in general.

Social Origins of the Iranian Revolution


Author: Misagh Parsa
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
ISBN: 9780813514123
Category: History
Page: 348
View: 8874
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The Turban for the Crown

The Islamic Revolution in Iran
Author: Said Amir Arjomand
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0195042581
Category: Mathematics
Page: 283
View: 8643
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Describes the background and causes of the Iranian Revolution, identifies the factors to Khomeini's successful return, and examines the impact of the Revolution

Unthinkable

Iran, the Bomb, and American Strategy
Author: Kenneth Pollack
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1476733937
Category: Political Science
Page: 536
View: 2217
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A foremost expert on Middle Eastern relations examines Iran's current nuclear potential while charting America's future course of action, recounting the prolonged clash between both nations to outline options for American policymakers. By the author of The Persian Puzzle.

The Carter Administration and the Fall of Iran’s Pahlavi Dynasty

US-Iran Relations on the Brink of the 1979 Revolution
Author: Javier Gil Guerrero
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137598735
Category: Political Science
Page: 264
View: 6589
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This book is a tale of loss: the loss of Iran as America's main ally and agent in the Middle East and the downfall of the short-lived Pahlavi monarchy and America's inability and unwillingness to prevent its demise. Khomeini's triumph altered America's perception of Islam and fundamentally changed its relationship with Iran.

A Social Revolution

Politics and the Welfare State in Iran
Author: Kevan Harris
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520280814
Category: History
Page: 325
View: 1686
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For decades, political observers and pundits have characterized the Islamic Republic of Iran as an ideologically rigid state on the verge of collapse, exclusively connected to a narrow social base. In A Social Revolution, Kevan Harris convincingly demonstrates how they are wrong. Previous studies ignore the forceful consequences of three decades of social change following the 1979 revolution. Today, more people in the country are connected to welfare and social policy institutions than to any other form of state organization. In fact, much of Iran’s current political turbulence is the result of the success of these social welfare programs, which have created newly educated and mobilized social classes advocating for change. Based on extensive fieldwork conducted in Iran between 2006 and 2011, Harris shows how the revolutionary regime endured though the expansion of health, education, and aid programs that have both embedded the state in everyday life and empowered its challengers. This first serious book on the social policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran opens a new line of inquiry into the study of welfare states in countries where they are often overlooked or ignored.

The United Nations, Iran, and Iraq

How Peacemaking Changed
Author: Cameron R. Hume
Publisher: Indiana University Press
ISBN: 9780253328748
Category: History
Page: 269
View: 9447
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"Hume has written a ground-breaking study... his analysis is thoughtful and objective in the best tradiiton of the practitioner scholar." -- Choice "... a ground-breaking book written by a rising star of the American diplomatic service who was himself intimately involved in the Beekman Place negotiations... Mr. Hume... guides the reader through the complex diplomacy that surrounded the Iraq-Iran war, showing how the great powers came to recognize that ending the conflict was in their interests." -- Paul Lewis, New York Times Book Review "Cameron Hume shows how the problems and perils arising from the war served as timely grist to the mills of the Security Council at the UN... This is something that well deserves to be saved from oblivion." -- The Economist "... well-informed... an ably written diplomatic history that will be referred to for years to come by those who want to understand how the United Nations is meant to operate." -- Foreign Affairs "This book describes how the member states operate, in good times and bad. And it does so with grace and insight." -- Gary Sick, Middle East Journal "... a serious and insightful account of the changing role of the UN in the Iran-Iraq conflict... by an able diplomat who was directly involved." -- Shibley Telhami "This insider's account of the revolutionary changes in the U.N. Security Council... is a major contribution to understanding why the U.N. and the Council are now more effective and more used.... a well-written, important book." -- U.S. Ambassador Thomas R. Pickering Hume's authoritative account follows the transformation of the Security Council, since 1985, from a stage for acrimonious public diplomacy into a forum where governments collaborate to settle regional disputes.

Khomeini

Life of the Ayatollah
Author: Baqer Moin
Publisher: Macmillan
ISBN: 1466893060
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 368
View: 3866
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The Ayatollah Khomeini was the most radical Muslim leader of this age. In transforming himself from a traditional Muslim theologian into the charismatic Iranian ruler who took on the world, Khomeini launched an Islamic revival movement that, with the collapse of communism, quickly evolved for some as the centre-piece in the pantheon of western demonology, and for others as the inspiration for spiritual and political rebirth. Whether viewed as a hero by his supporters or as a villain by his enemies, Khomeini was undoubtedly one of the seminal figures of the twentieth century, whose influence will extend some way into the new millennium. Baqer Moin here explores how and why this frail octogenarian, dressed in the traditional robes of a Muslim cleric, overthrew the secular Shah of Iran and became the spiritual leader of a new and militant Islamic regime. Still an enigma in the West, Khomeini transformed the Middle East and the world. But where did the man come from? What was his childhood and family background? What lay behind his implacable opposition to the Shah? What role did the turbulent events in Iran during his youth play in shaping Khomeini's political perceptions? What changed him from an obscure traditional theologian with mystical and poetic inclinations into a combative and highly vengeful radical? How will his vision of an international community of Muslims, a kind of Islamic Internationale, affect the Middle East? Drawing on many exclusive personal interviews with Khomeini's associates, on unpublished new materials and on the author's firsthand experience in Islamic seminaries, this biography provides a fascinating, well-documented and highly accessible analysis of the life and thought of one of the most controversial leaders of the late twentieth century.

Making History in Iran

Education, Nationalism, and Print Culture
Author: Farzin Vejdani
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 080479281X
Category: History
Page: 288
View: 7444
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Iranian history was long told through a variety of stories and legend, tribal lore and genealogies, and tales of the prophets. But in the late nineteenth century, new institutions emerged to produce and circulate a coherent history that fundamentally reshaped these fragmented narratives and dynastic storylines. Farzin Vejdani investigates this transformation to show how cultural institutions and a growing public-sphere affected history-writing, and how in turn this writing defined Iranian nationalism. Interactions between the state and a cross-section of Iranian society—scholars, schoolteachers, students, intellectuals, feminists, and poets—were crucial in shaping a new understanding of nation and history. This enlightening book draws on previously unexamined primary sources—including histories, school curricula, pedagogical materials, periodicals, and memoirs—to demonstrate how the social locations of historians writ broadly influenced their interpretations of the past. The relative autonomy of these historians had a direct bearing on whether history upheld the status quo or became an instrument for radical change, and the writing of history became central to debates on social and political reform, the role of women in society, and the criteria for citizenship and nationality. Ultimately, this book traces how contending visions of Iranian history were increasingly unified as a centralized Iranian state emerged in the early twentieth century.

Iraq in Wartime

Soldiering, Martyrdom, and Remembrance
Author: Dina Rizk Khoury
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107310660
Category: History
Page: N.A
View: 5527
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When US-led forces invaded Iraq in 2003, they occupied a country that had been at war for 23 years. Yet in their attempts to understand Iraqi society and history, few policy makers, analysts and journalists took into account the profound impact that Iraq's long engagement with war had on the Iraqis' everyday engagement with politics, the business of managing their daily lives, and their cultural imagination. Drawing on government documents and interviews, Dina Rizk Khoury traces the political, social and cultural processes of the normalization of war in Iraq during the last twenty-three years of Ba'thist rule. Khoury argues that war was a form of everyday bureaucratic governance and examines the Iraqi government's policies of creating consent, managing resistance and religious diversity, and shaping public culture. Coming on the tenth anniversary of the US-led invasion of Iraq, this book tells a multilayered story of a society in which war has become the norm.

Foucault in Iran

Islamic Revolution After the Enlightenment
Author: Behrooz Ghamari-Tabrizi
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780816699490
Category: Iran
Page: 272
View: 9658
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Were the thirteen essays Michel Foucault wrote in 1978-1979 endorsing the Iranian Revolution an aberration of his earlier work or an inevitable pitfall of his stance on Enlightenment rationality, as critics have long alleged? Behrooz Ghamari-Tabrizi argues that the critics are wrong. He declares that Foucault recognized that Iranians were at a threshold and were considering if it were possible to think of dignity, justice, and liberty outside the cognitive maps and principles of the European Enlightenment. Foucault in Iran centers not only on the significance of the great thinker's writings on the revolution but also on the profound mark the event left on his later lectures on ethics, spirituality, and fearless speech. Contemporary events since 9/11, the War on Terror, and the Arab Uprisings have made Foucault's essays on the Iranian Revolution more relevant than ever. Ghamari-Tabrizi illustrates how Foucault saw in the revolution an instance of his antiteleological philosophy: here was an event that did not fit into the normative progressive discourses of history. What attracted him to the Iranian Revolution was precisely its ambiguity. Theoretically sophisticated and empirically rich, this interdisciplinary work will spark a lively debate in its insistence that what informed Foucault's writing was not an effort to understand Islamism but, rather, his conviction that Enlightenment rationality has not closed the gate of unknown possibilities for human societies.

The Chinese Revolution in Historical Perspective


Author: John E. Schrecker
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
ISBN: 9780275974756
Category: History
Page: 316
View: 609
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Offers a succinct history of China in terms of traditional Chinese historical theories, emphasizing the relationship between China's modern era and its past.

The Persians


Author: Gene R. Garthwaite
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1405144009
Category: History
Page: 336
View: 4470
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The Persians is a succinct narrative of Iranian history from the time of Cyrus the Great in 560BC to the present day. A succinct narrative of Iranian history from the time of Cyrus the Great in 560BC to the present day. Traces events from the rise of the Persian empire, through competition with Rome and conquest by the Arabs, through to the re-establishment of a Persian state in the sixteenth century, and finally the Islamic Revoltuion on 1979 and the establishment of the current Islamic Republic. Uses the most recent scholarship to examine Iran's political, social and cultural history. Focuses on rulership as a central theme in Iranian identity. Also shows how land, language and literature relate to Iranian identity.

The Persian Puzzle

The Conflict Between Iran And America
Author: Kenneth M. Pollack
Publisher: Random House Incorporated
ISBN: 0812973364
Category: Social Science
Page: 539
View: 6864
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A former CIA analyst, National Security Council official, and author of The Threatening Storm looks back at the turbulent relationship between Iran and the United States on the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Iran hostage crisis, examining the hostage crisis, the Iran-Contra scandal, the 1996 Khobar Towers terrorist attack, and U.S.-Iran clashes over Afghanistan and Iraq. Reprint.

A Time to Betray

A Gripping True Spy Story of Betrayal, Fear, and Courage
Author: Reza Kahlili
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1439189684
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 352
View: 8531
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Offers the true story of a former CIA operative who was recruited out of Iran while serving as a member of the secretive and feared Revolutionary Guards.

Foucault and the Iranian Revolution

Gender and the Seductions of Islamism
Author: Janet Afary,Kevin B. Anderson
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226007878
Category: Political Science
Page: 312
View: 2802
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In 1978, as the protests against the Shah of Iran reached their zenith, philosopher Michel Foucault was working as a special correspondent for Corriere della Sera and le Nouvel Observateur. During his little-known stint as a journalist, Foucault traveled to Iran, met with leaders like Ayatollah Khomeini, and wrote a series of articles on the revolution. Foucault and the Iranian Revolution is the first book-length analysis of these essays on Iran, the majority of which have never before appeared in English. Accompanying the analysis are annotated translations of the Iran writings in their entirety and the at times blistering responses from such contemporaneous critics as Middle East scholar Maxime Rodinson as well as comments on the revolution by feminist philosopher Simone de Beauvoir. In this important and controversial account, Janet Afary and Kevin B. Anderson illuminate Foucault's support of the Islamist movement. They also show how Foucault's experiences in Iran contributed to a turning point in his thought, influencing his ideas on the Enlightenment, homosexuality, and his search for political spirituality. Foucault and the Iranian Revolution informs current discussion on the divisions that have reemerged among Western intellectuals over the response to radical Islamism after September 11. Foucault's provocative writings are thus essential for understanding the history and the future of the West's relationship with Iran and, more generally, to political Islam. In their examination of these journalistic pieces, Afary and Anderson offer a surprising glimpse into the mind of a celebrated thinker.

Vanguard of the Imam

Religion, Politics, and Iran's Revolutionary Guards
Author: Afshon Ostovar
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019049171X
Category: Political Science
Page: 240
View: 3701
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Iran's Revolutionary Guards are one of the most important forces in the Middle East today. As the appointed defender of Iran's revolution, the Guards have evolved into a pillar of the Islamic Republic and the spearhead of its influence. Their sway has spread across the Middle East, where the Guards have overseen loyalist support to Bashar al-Assad in Syria and been a staunch backer in Iraq's war against ISIS-bringing its own troops, Lebanon's Hezbollah, and Shiite militias to the fight. Links to terrorism, human rights abuses, and the suppression of popular democracy have shrouded the Revolutionary Guards in controversy. In spite of their prominence, the Guards remain poorly understood to outside observers. In Vanguard of the Imam, Afshon Ostovar has written the first comprehensive history of the organization. Situating the rise of the Guards in the larger contexts of Shiite Islam, modern Iranian history, and international affairs, Ostovar takes a multifaceted approach in demystifying the organization and detailing its evolution since 1979. Politics, power, and religion collide in this story, wherein the Revolutionary Guards transform from a rag-tag militia established in the midst of revolutionary upheaval into a military and covert force with a global reach. The Guards have been fundamental to the success of the Islamic revolution. The symbiotic relationship between them and Iran's clerical rulers underpins the regime's nearly unshakeable system of power. The Guards have used their privileged position at home to export Iran's revolution beyond its borders, establishing client armies in their image and extending Iran's strategic footprint in the process. Ostovar tenaciously documents the Guards' transformation into a power-player and explores why the group matters now more than ever to regional and global affairs. The book simultaneously serves as a history of modern Iran, and provides a crucial and engrossing entryway into the complex world of war, politics, and identity in the Middle East.

The Fall of Heaven

The Pahlavis and the Final Days of Imperial Iran
Author: Andrew Scott Cooper
Publisher: Henry Holt and Company
ISBN: 0805098984
Category: History
Page: 416
View: 9247
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An immersive, gripping account of the rise and fall of Iran's glamorous Pahlavi dynasty, written with the cooperation of the late Shah's widow, Empress Farah, Iranian revolutionaries and US officials from the Carter administration In this remarkably human portrait of one of the twentieth century's most complicated personalities, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Andrew Scott Cooper traces the Shah's life from childhood through his ascension to the throne in 1941. He draws the turbulence of the post-war era during which the Shah survived assassination attempts and coup plots to build a modern, pro-Western state and launch Iran onto the world stage as one of the world's top five powers. Readers get the story of the Shah's political career alongside the story of his courtship and marriage to Farah Diba, who became a power in her own right, the beloved family they created, and an exclusive look at life inside the palace during the Iranian Revolution. Cooper's investigative account ultimately delivers the fall of the Pahlavi dynasty through the eyes of those who were there: leading Iranian revolutionaries; President Jimmy Carter and White House officials; US Ambassador William Sullivan and his staff in the American embassy in Tehran; American families caught up in the drama; even Empress Farah herself, and the rest of the Iranian Imperial family. Intimate and sweeping at once, The Fall of Heaven recreates in stunning detail the dramatic and final days of one of the world's most legendary ruling families, the unseating of which helped set the stage for the current state of the Middle East.