Tortured Confessions

Prisons and Public Recantations in Modern Iran
Author: Ervand Abrahamian
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520922907
Category: History
Page: 284
View: 6469
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The role of torture in recent Iranian politics is the subject of Ervand Abrahamian's important and disturbing book. Although Iran officially banned torture in the early twentieth century, Abrahamian provides documentation of its use under the Shahs and of the widespread utilization of torture and public confession under the Islamic Republican governments. His study is based on an extensive body of material, including Amnesty International reports, prison literature, and victims' accounts that together give the book a chilling immediacy. According to human rights organizations, Iran has been at the forefront of countries using systematic physical torture in recent years, especially for political prisoners. Is the government's goal to ensure social discipline? To obtain information? Neither seem likely, because torture is kept secret and victims are brutalized until something other than information is obtained: a public confession and ideological recantation. For the victim, whose honor, reputation, and self-respect are destroyed, the act is a form of suicide. In Iran a subject's "voluntary confession" reaches a huge audience via television. The accessibility of television and use of videotape have made such confessions a primary propaganda tool, says Abrahamian, and because torture is hidden from the public, the victim's confession appears to be self-motivated, increasing its value to the authorities. Abrahamian compares Iran's public recantations to campaigns in Maoist China, Stalinist Russia, and the religious inquisitions of early modern Europe, citing the eerie resemblance in format, language, and imagery. Designed to win the hearts and minds of the masses, such public confessions—now enhanced by technology—continue as a means to legitimize those in power and to demonize "the enemy."

Torture

A Sociology of Violence and Human Rights
Author: Lisa Hajjar
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0415518067
Category: Social Science
Page: 83
View: 3165
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Torture is indisputably abhorrent. Why, you might ask, would you even want to think or read about torture? That is a very good question, and one this book addresses in a compelling and enlightening way. Torture is a very important issue, not least because millions of people around the world have been subjected to this odious practice--and many are enduring torture right now as you read these words.

Confessions of Guilt

From Torture to Miranda and Beyond
Author: George Conner Thomas,Richard A. Leo
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0195338936
Category: Law
Page: 317
View: 4191
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The extreme interrogation tactics permitted after the 9/11 attacks illustrate that the level of fear in society can influence the law of interrogation. In light of controversial water boarding policies and extraterritorial detention centers, what is the basis for interrogation law in theUnited States? What is the historical precedent for giving potential criminals the right to "remain silent" or confess to a crime? In Confessions of Guilt, esteemed scholars of law and criminal procedure George Thomas and Richard Leo tell the story of how, over the centuries, the law of interrogation moved from indifference about extreme pressure to concern over the slightest pressure, and back again. Demonstrating that the lawof interrogation is inherently unstable and highly dependent on the perceived levels of threat felt by a society, the authors shed light on the nuanced and fascinating history of interrogation practices, both new and old.

Mainstreaming Torture

Ethical Approaches in the Post-9/11 United States
Author: Rebecca Gordon
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199381984
Category: Religion
Page: 240
View: 1846
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The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 reopened what many people in America had long assumed was a settled ethical question: Is torture ever morally permissible? Within days, some began to suggest that, in these new circumstances, the new answer was "yes." Rebecca Gordon argues that September 11 did not, as some have said, "change everything," and that institutionalized state torture remains as wrong today as it was on the day before those terrible attacks. Furthermore, U.S. practices during the "war on terror" are rooted in a history that began long before September 11, a history that includes both support for torture regimes abroad and the use of torture in American jails and prisons. Gordon argues that the most common ethical approaches to torture-utilitarianism and deontology (ethics based on adherence to duty)-do not provide sufficient theoretical purchase on the problem. Both approaches treat torture as a series of isolated actions that arise in moments of extremity, rather than as an ongoing, historically and socially embedded practice. She advocates instead a virtue ethics approach, based in part on the work of Alasdair MacIntyre. Such an approach better illumines torture's ethical dimensions, taking into account the implications of torture for human virtue and flourishing. An examination of torture's effect on the four cardinal virtues-courage, temperance, justice, and prudence (or practical reason)-suggests specific ways in which each of these are deformed in a society that countenances torture. Mainstreaming Torture concludes with the observation that if the United States is to come to terms with its involvement in institutionalized state torture, there must be a full and official accounting of what has been done, and those responsible at the highest levels must be held accountable.

Torture and Democracy


Author: Darius Rejali
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400830877
Category: Political Science
Page: 880
View: 1657
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This is the most comprehensive, and most comprehensively chilling, study of modern torture yet written. Darius Rejali, one of the world's leading experts on torture, takes the reader from the late nineteenth century to the aftermath of Abu Ghraib, from slavery and the electric chair to electrotorture in American inner cities, and from French and British colonial prison cells and the Spanish-American War to the fields of Vietnam, the wars of the Middle East, and the new democracies of Latin America and Europe. As Rejali traces the development and application of one torture technique after another in these settings, he reaches startling conclusions. As the twentieth century progressed, he argues, democracies not only tortured, but set the international pace for torture. Dictatorships may have tortured more, and more indiscriminately, but the United States, Britain, and France pioneered and exported techniques that have become the lingua franca of modern torture: methods that leave no marks. Under the watchful eyes of reporters and human rights activists, low-level authorities in the world's oldest democracies were the first to learn that to scar a victim was to advertise iniquity and invite scandal. Long before the CIA even existed, police and soldiers turned instead to "clean" techniques, such as torture by electricity, ice, water, noise, drugs, and stress positions. As democracy and human rights spread after World War II, so too did these methods. Rejali makes this troubling case in fluid, arresting prose and on the basis of unprecedented research--conducted in multiple languages and on several continents--begun years before most of us had ever heard of Osama bin Laden or Abu Ghraib. The author of a major study of Iranian torture, Rejali also tackles the controversial question of whether torture really works, answering the new apologists for torture point by point. A brave and disturbing book, this is the benchmark against which all future studies of modern torture will be measured.

Confessions of an Innocent Man

Torture and Survival in a Saudi Prison
Author: William Sampson
Publisher: McClelland & Stewart Limited
ISBN: 9780771079054
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 419
View: 1008
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"What was it that I did to survive? Where did those ideas come from? Where did I find the resolve to enact them? At the time of my release, I had no ready answers beyond that I did what seemed natural and necessary. In looking back, I realize that the peculiarities of my personality helped me to adopt strategies that allowed for the reclamation of my identity and my integrity while in the hands of barbarians. Yet what I did is neither remarkable nor courageous nor beyond the capabilities of any person that finds himself in similar circumstances. What I have come to believe is that there exists in all of us the potential to stand and fight and reclaim." — William Sampson On Sunday, December 17, 2000, Canadian engineer William Sampson stepped outside his house in Riyadh only to be hauled into a car and beaten by two Saudi men he didn’t know. Within an hour, he was incarcerated in one of the city’s most notorious jails. Within two months, he was tortured into a confession of responsibility for a wave of car bombings he did not commit. Sometime in that first year, he was sentenced to death in a secret trial. For two and a half years, Sampson was continually subjected to beatings and torture, convinced his death was just around the corner. Inept diplomacy failed him but human rights groups took up his cause and on August 8, 2003, he was finally freed in a controversial prisoner exchange. It wasn’t until February 2005 that Sampson’s name was officially cleared when a British inquest exonerated him of the crimes. Angry, intelligent, and compelling, Sampson places his personal story within the context of the geopolitics that engineered his fate, and in doing so has crafted a searing exposé of Western foreign policy in the Arab Middle East. From the Hardcover edition.

Male Witches in Early Modern Europe


Author: Lara Apps,Andrew Gow
Publisher: Manchester University Press
ISBN: 9780719057090
Category: History
Page: 190
View: 7776
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This book critiques historians’ assumptions about witch-hunting as well as their explanations for this complex and perplexing phenomenon. It shows that large numbers of men were accused of witchcraft in their own right, in some regions, more men were accused than women. The authors insist on the centrality of gender, tradition, and ideas about witches in the construction of the witch as a dangerous figure. They challenge the marginalization of male witches by feminist and other historians.

Comparative Perspectives on Criminal Justice in China


Author: Michael McConville
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1781955867
Category: Law
Page: 593
View: 5421
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'Comparative Perspectives on Criminal Justice in China is highly recommended. The editors have assembled the leading Western and Chinese scholars in the field to examine the administration of criminal justice in China, showing both how far the system has come and the challenges that lie ahead. This is an important and timely book. It is essential reading for anyone who wants to understand or has to deal with the Chinese criminal justice system.' Klaus Mühlhahn, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany 'This highly informative and engaging volume on the Chinese criminal justice system today provides a window into the vagaries of law and its operation in the People's Republic. McConville and Pils bring together an impressive array of scholars whose studies span the criminal process. From initial police investigation, through to prosecution and sentencing of defendants, we see how dominant values in the Chinese state and its structures of power make the practice of criminal justice today still intensely political.' Susan Trevaskes, Griffith University, Australia Comparative Perspectives on Criminal Justice in China is an anthology of chapters on the contemporary criminal justice system in mainland China, bringing together the work of recognised scholars from China and around the world. The book addresses issues at various stages of the criminal justice process (investigation and prosecution of crime and criminal trial) as well as problems pertaining to criminal defence and to parallel systems of punishment. All of the contributions discuss the criminal justice system in the context of China's legal reforms. Several of the contributions urge the conclusion that the criminal process and related processes remain marred by overwhelming powers of the police and Party-State, and a chapter discussing China's 2012 revision of its Criminal Procedure Law argues that the revision is unlikely to bring significant improvement. This diverse comparative study will appeal to academics in Chinese law, society and politics, members of the human rights NGO and diplomatic communities as well as legal professionals interested in China.

Creating Good Work

The World’s Leading Social Entrepreneurs Show How to Build A Healthy Economy
Author: R. Schultz
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137313528
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 220
View: 9084
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Creating Good Work is a practical guide book, that recounts the stories of some of the most successful social entrepreneurial programs operating today, with real life examples of and how they overcame both physical and societal barriers to create a lasting impact on the world they encounter.

Torture and the Law of Proof

Europe and England in the Ancien Régime
Author: John H. Langbein
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226922618
Category: Law
Page: 240
View: 8443
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In Torture and the Law of Proof John H. Langbein explores the world of the thumbscrew and the rack, engines of torture authorized for investigating crime in European legal systems from medieval times until well into the eighteenth century. Drawing on juristic literature and legal records, Langbein's book, first published in 1977, remains the definitive account of how European legal systems became dependent on the use of torture in their routine criminal procedures, and how they eventually worked themselves free of it. The book has recently taken on an eerie relevance as a consequence of controversial American and British interrogation practices in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. In a new introduction, Langbein contrasts the "new" law of torture with the older European law and offers some pointed lessons about the difficulty of reconciling coercion with accurate investigation. Embellished with fascinating illustrations of torture devices taken from an eighteenth-century criminal code, this crisply written account will engage all those interested in torture's remarkable grip on European legal history.

Confessions at Any Cost

Police Torture in Russia
Author: Diederik Lohman
Publisher: Human Rights Watch
ISBN: 9781564322449
Category: Social Science
Page: 196
View: 9829
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The Council of Europe

Miranda V. Arizona

The Rights of the Accused
Author: Larry A. Van Meter
Publisher: Infobase Publishing
ISBN: 1438103395
Category: Police questioning
Page: 112
View: 2625
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You have the right to remain silent is the well-known introduction to a series of statements police are required to communicate to accused criminals upon arrest. Known as the Miranda warning, these famous instructions are a direct result of the Supreme Court case, Miranda v. Arizona. Ernesto Miranda, an Arizona laborer, was arrested in 1963 and convicted of raping a woman. He appealed his conviction and the Supreme Court overturned the decision, determining that Arizona authorities had violated two constitutional amendments. Miranda v. Arizona offers a clear understanding of the history of this decision and its consequences. Before the Miranda warning, it was not uncommon for police station confessions to be obtained by intimidation, making false promises, psychological game-playing, physical torture, or exploiting the ignorance of the accused. The Supreme Court's decision allowed that the privileges granted to a defendant in a courtroom - the right to counsel, the right to due process, and the right to not witness against oneself - were now extended to the police station.

Social Theory of Fear

Terror, Torture, and Death in a Post-Capitalist World
Author: G. Skoll
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230112633
Category: Political Science
Page: 234
View: 4908
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A PDF version of this book is available for free in open access via the OAPEN Library platform, www.oapen.org. In the current crisis of the capitalist world system, elites promote fear of crime and terrorism to keep and expand their privileges and control the masses. This book offers an analysis of the crisis and strategies for rebellion. This ebook is participating in an experiment and is available Open Access under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0) licence. Users are free to disseminate and reuse the ebook. The licence does not however permit commercial exploitation or the creation of derivative works without specific permission. To view a copy of this license visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0

A Psychoanalytic History of the Jews


Author: Avner Falk
Publisher: Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press
ISBN: 9780838636602
Category: History
Page: 850
View: 7903
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A Psychoanalytic History of the Jews is an interdisciplinary rewriting and reinterpretation of four thousand years of Jewish history. It integrates insights from history, archaeology, biblical scholarship, anthropology, sociology and Jewish studies with those of psychoanalysis to achieve a deep understanding of Jewish history. The main thrust of this work is the application of psychoanalytic insight to Jewish history. This includes the evolution of the Hebrew religion as a projective response to the inner conflicts produced by the human family; the sociopsychological development of the Israelite kingdoms in Canaan; the fascinating duality of Jewish life in the "Diaspora"; and the emotional ties of the Jews to their idealized motherland from the Babylonian exile to modern political Zionism.

Screening Torture

Media Representations of State Terror and Political Domination
Author: Michael Flynn,Fabiola Fernandez Salek
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231526970
Category: Social Science
Page: 336
View: 2449
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Before 9/11, films addressing torture outside of the horror/slasher genre depicted the practice in a variety of forms. In most cases, torture was cast as the act of a desperate and depraved individual, and the viewer was more likely to identify with the victim rather than the torturer. Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, scenes of brutality and torture in mainstream comedies, dramatic narratives, and action films appear for little other reason than to titillate and delight. In these films, torture is devoid of any redeeming qualities, represented as an exercise in brutal senselessness carried out by authoritarian regimes and institutions. This volume follows the shift in the representation of torture over the past decade, specifically in documentary, action, and political films. It traces and compares the development of this trend in films from the United States, Europe, China, Latin America, South Africa, and the Middle East. Featuring essays by sociologists, psychologists, historians, journalists, and specialists in film and cultural studies, the collection approaches the representation of torture in film and television from multiple angles and disciplines, connecting its aesthetics and practices to the dynamic of state terror and political domination.

Oath Betrayed

America’s Torture Doctors
Author: Steven H. Miles
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520259683
Category: Medical
Page: 274
View: 2075
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"This, quite simply, is the most devastating and detailed investigation into a question that has remained a no-no in the current debate on American torture in George Bush's war on terror: the role of military physicians, nurses and other medical personnel. Dr. Miles writes in a white rage, with great justification—but he lets the facts tell the story."—Seymour M. Hersh "Steven Miles has written exactly the book we require on medical complicity in torture. His admirable combination of scholarship and moral passion does great service to the medical profession and to our country."—Robert Jay Lifton, author of The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide and Home from the War: Vietnam Veterans - Neither Victims nor Executioners

Problems of Post-communism


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Communism
Page: N.A
View: 3537
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History of the German people at the close of the middle ages


Author: Johannes Janssen
Publisher: Рипол Классик
ISBN: 5879793338
Category: History
Page: N.A
View: 6676
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A Reading on the Use of Torture in the Criminal Law of England Previously to the Common Wealth


Author: David Jardine
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Torture
Page: 109
View: 7408
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Die Bekenntnisse des heiligen Augustinus


Author: Aurelius Augustinus
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category:
Page: 433
View: 6995
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