Twice Dead

Organ Transplants and the Reinvention of Death
Author: Margaret M. Lock
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520228146
Category: Social Science
Page: 429
View: 7373
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Medical knowledge and technology have been sufficiently advanced for surgeons to perform thousands of transplants each year. This text traces the discourse since 1970 that contributed to the locating of a new criterion of death in the brain.

When Bodies Remember

Experiences and Politics of AIDS in South Africa
Author: Didier Fassin
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520250273
Category: History
Page: 365
View: 4960
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Didier Fassin takes on one of the most tragic stories of the global AIDS crisis - the failure of the ANC government to stem the tide of the AIDS epidemic in South Africa. This work traces the deep roots of the AIDS crisis to apartheid and, before that, to the colonial period.

Encounters With Aging

Mythologies of Menopause in Japan and North America
Author: Margaret M. Lock
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520201620
Category: FAMILY & RELATIONSHIPS
Page: 439
View: 2915
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"A powerful intervention into one of the most important debates of our time. Meticulous in her methods and wise in her insight, Lock tames a sea of stormy argument to show how complex and consequential is the interplay of culture and biology. Her book will make great strides toward her ultimate goal: to dislodge the myth of the Menopausal Woman."—Jean Comaroff, University of Chicago

"Camp Pain"

Talking with Chronic Pain Patients
Author: Jean E. Jackson
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 0812204735
Category: Medical
Page: 280
View: 2403
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Pain is the most frequent cause of disability in America. And pain specialists estimate that as many as thirty to sixty million Americans suffer from chronic pain. Chronic pain is a complex phenomenon—often extremely difficult to treat, and surprisingly difficult to define. Just as medical literature in general neglects the experience of illness, so the clinical literature on pain neglects the experience of pain. "Camp Pain" takes an approach different from most studies of chronic pain, which are typically written from a medical or social perspective. Based on a year's fieldwork in a pain treatment center, this book focuses on patients' perspectives—on their experiences of pain, what these experiences mean to them, and how this meaning is socially constructed. Jackson explores the psychological burden imposed on many sufferers when they are judged not to have "real" pain, and by harsh moral judgments that sufferers are weak, malingering, or responsible in some way for their pain. Jackson also looks at the ways in which severe pain erodes and destroys personal identity, studying in particular the role of language. While keeping her focus on patients' experiences, Jackson explores Western concepts of disease, health, mind, and body; assumptions about cause and effect; and notions of shame, guilt, and stigma. "Camp Pain" does not attempt to resolve the uncertainties and misperceptions associated with pain but rather aims at enhancing our understanding of the wider implications of chronic pain by focusing on the sufferers themselves.

The International Trafficking of Human Organs

A Multidisciplinary Perspective
Author: Leonard Territo,Rande Matteson
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439867895
Category: Law
Page: 286
View: 2057
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International illicit trade in human organs is on the increase, fueled by growing demand and unscrupulous traffickers. In order to truly understand the problem of organ trafficking, an analysis should take into account the various perspectives that come into play in this multifaceted issue. With contributions from international scholars and experts, The International Trafficking of Human Organs: A Multidisciplinary Perspective provides a broad-based exploration of this controversial phenomenon. Divided into four parts, the book examines the issue of human organ trafficking from the perspectives of criminal justice, business, medicine, ethics, philosophy, and theology. The book begins by presenting case studies of the trafficking of body parts occurring in the U.S. and Mexico. It examines the increase in organ harvesting from Chinese prisoners and describes widespread instances of trafficking in Europe. Diverse perspectives Next, it examines the economic ramifications of possible legislation of the sale of body parts and discusses other proposals for increasing the supply of kidneys and other organs. It explores ethical issues surrounding the kidney shortage and incentives to promote donation. It also offers arguments for and against compensation for transplant organs from Kantian, Dworkinian, and other perspectives. Lastly, theologians discuss opposing Catholic and Protestant perspectives on the sale of human organs. Learning tools Each chapter provides discussion questions to provoke vigorous debate and references to facilitate further study. The wide-ranging analysis provided by this volume is certain to enhance further inquiry into a disturbing and increasingly prevalent issue.

Envisioning Power

Ideologies of Dominance and Crisis
Author: Eric R. Wolf
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520215362
Category: Philosophy
Page: 339
View: 9704
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This text explores the historical relationship of ideas, power and culture. Looking at several case studies, it analyses how the regnant ideology intertwines with power around the pivotal relationships that govern social labour.

Face/On

Face Transplants and the Ethics of the Other
Author: Sharrona Pearl
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022646153X
Category: Medical
Page: 272
View: 9181
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Are our identities attached to our faces? If so, what happens when the face connected to the self is gone forever—or replaced? In Face/On, Sharrona Pearl investigates the stakes for changing the face–and the changing stakes for the face—in both contemporary society and the sciences. The first comprehensive cultural study of face transplant surgery, Face/On reveals our true relationships to faces and facelessness, explains the significance we place on facial manipulation, and decodes how we understand loss, reconstruction, and transplantation of the face. To achieve this, Pearl draws on a vast array of sources: bioethical and medical reports, newspaper and television coverage, performances by pop culture icons, hospital records, personal interviews, films, and military files. She argues that we are on the cusp of a new ethics, in an opportune moment for reframing essentialist ideas about appearance in favor of a more expansive form of interpersonal interaction. Accessibly written and respectfully illustrated, Face/On offers a new perspective on face transplant surgery as a way to consider the self and its representation as constantly present and evolving. Highly interdisciplinary, this study will appeal to anyone wishing to know more about critical interventions into recent medicine, makeover culture, and the beauty industry.

Disability and Mobile Citizenship in Postsocialist Ukraine


Author: Sarah D. Phillips
Publisher: Indiana University Press
ISBN: 0253004861
Category: History
Page: 318
View: 7038
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Sarah D. Phillips examines the struggles of disabled persons in Ukraine and the other former Soviet states to secure their rights during the tumultuous political, economic, and social reforms of the last two decades. Through participant observation and interviews with disabled Ukrainians across the social spectrum -- rights activists, politicians, students, workers, entrepreneurs, athletes, and others -- Phillips documents the creative strategies used by people on the margins of postsocialist societies to assert claims to "mobile citizenship." She draws on this rich ethnographic material to argue that public storytelling is a powerful means to expand notions of relatedness, kinship, and social responsibility, and which help shape a more tolerant and inclusive society.

Science, Technology, and Society

An Encyclopedia
Author: Sal P. Restivo
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0195141938
Category: Social Science
Page: 701
View: 8781
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'Science, Technology, and Society' offers approximately 150 articles written by major scholars and experts from academic and scientific institutions worldwide. The theme is the functions and effects of science and technology in society and culture.

The Alzheimer Conundrum

Entanglements of Dementia and Aging
Author: Margaret Lock
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400848466
Category: Social Science
Page: 328
View: 8994
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Due to rapidly aging populations, the number of people worldwide experiencing dementia is increasing, and the projections are grim. Despite billions of dollars invested in medical research, no effective treatment has been discovered for Alzheimer's disease, the most common form of dementia. The Alzheimer Conundrum exposes the predicaments embedded in current efforts to slow down or halt Alzheimer’s disease through early detection of pre-symptomatic biological changes in healthy individuals. Based on a meticulous account of the history of Alzheimer’s disease and extensive in-depth interviews, Margaret Lock highlights the limitations and the dissent associated with biomarker detection. Lock argues that basic research must continue, but should be complemented by a public health approach to prevention that is economically feasible, more humane, and much more effective globally than one exclusively focused on an increasingly harried search for a cure.

Global Outlaws

Crime, Money, and Power in the Contemporary World
Author: Carolyn Nordstrom
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520940636
Category: Social Science
Page: 256
View: 1063
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Carolyn Nordstrom explores the pathways of global crime in this stunning work of anthropology that has the power to change the way we think about the world. To write this book, she spent three years traveling to hot spots in Africa, Europe, Asia, and the United States investigating the dynamics of illegal trade around the world—from blood diamonds and arms to pharmaceuticals, exotica, and staples like food and oil. Global Outlaws peels away the layers of a vast economy that extends from a war orphan in Angola selling Marlboros on the street to powerful transnational networks reaching across continents and oceans. Nordstrom's extraordinary fieldwork includes interviews with scores of informants, including the smugglers, victims, power elite, and profiteers who populate these economic war zones. Her compelling investigation, showing that the sum total of extra-legal activities represents a significant part of the world's economy, provides a new framework for understanding twenty-first-century economics and economic power. Global Outlaws powerfully reveals the illusions and realities of security in all areas of transport and trade and illuminates many of the difficult ethical problems these extra-legal activities pose.

Beyond the Body Proper

Reading the Anthropology of Material Life
Author: Margaret M. Lock,Judith Farquhar
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 9780822338451
Category: Social Science
Page: 688
View: 3373
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A theoretically sophisticated and cross-disciplinary reader in the anthropology of the body.

Biomedicine in an Unstable Place

Infrastructure and Personhood in a Papua New Guinean Hospital
Author: Alice Street
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 0822376660
Category: Social Science
Page: 304
View: 7516
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Biomedicine in an Unstable Place is the story of people's struggle to make biomedicine work in a public hospital in Papua New Guinea. It is a story encompassing the history of hospital infrastructures as sites of colonial and postcolonial governance, the simultaneous production of Papua New Guinea as a site of global medical research and public health, and people's encounters with urban institutions and biomedical technologies. In Papua New Guinea, a century of state building has weakened already inadequate colonial infrastructures, and people experience the hospital as a space of institutional, medical, and ontological instability. In the hospital's clinics, biomedical practitioners struggle amid severe resource shortages to make the diseased body visible and knowable to the clinical gaze. That struggle is entangled with attempts by doctors, nurses, and patients to make themselves visible to external others—to kin, clinical experts, global scientists, politicians, and international development workers—as socially recognizable and valuable persons. Here hospital infrastructures emerge as relational technologies that are fundamentally fragile but also offer crucial opportunities for making people visible and knowable in new, unpredictable, and powerful ways.

Fatal Isolation

The Devastating Paris Heat Wave of 2003
Author: Richard C. Keller
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022625111X
Category: History
Page: 244
View: 2640
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In a cemetery on the outskirts of Paris lie the bodies of a hundred of what many have called the first casualties of global climate change. They are the so-called abandoned or forgotten victims of the worst natural disaster in French history, the devastating heat wave that struck France in August 2003, leaving 15,000 people dead. They are those who died alone in Paris and its suburbs, buried at public expense when no family claimed their bodies. They died (and to a great extent lived) unnoticed by their neighbors, discovered in some cases only weeks after their deaths. And as with the victims of Hurricane Katrina, they rapidly became the symbols of the disaster for a nation wringing its hands over the mismanagement of the heat wave and the social and political dysfunctions it revealed. "Chasing Ghosts" tells the stories of these victims and the catastrophe that took their lives. It explores the official story of the crisis and its aftermath, as presented by the media and the state; the anecdotal lives and deaths of its victims, and the ways in which they illuminate and challenge typical representations of the disaster; and the scientific understandings of catastrophe and its management. It is at once a social history of risk and vulnerability in the urban landscape, and an ethnographic account of how a city copes with dramatic change and emerging threats.

Culturing Life


Author: Hannah Landecker
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674039904
Category: Science
Page: 288
View: 3593
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How did cells make the journey from their origin in living bodies to something that can be grown and manipulated on artificial media in the laboratory? This is the question at the heart of Hannah Landecker's book. She shows how cell culture changed the way we think about such central questions of the human condition as individuality, hybridity, and even immortality and asks what it means that we can remove cells from the spatial constraints of the body and "harness them to human intention."

Embodying Culture

Pregnancy in Japan and Israel
Author: Tsipy Ivry
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
ISBN: 9780813548302
Category: Social Science
Page: 312
View: 6674
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Embodying Culture is an ethnographically grounded exploration of pregnancy in two different cultures—Japan and Israel—both of which medicalize pregnancy. Tsipy Ivry focuses on "low-risk" or "normal" pregnancies, using cultural comparison to explore the complex relations among ethnic ideas about procreation, local reproductive politics, medical models of pregnancy care, and local modes of maternal agency. The ethnography pieces together the voices of pregnant Japanese and Israeli women, their doctors, their partners, the literature they read, and depicts various clinical encounters such as ultrasound scans, explanatory classes for amniocentesis, birthing classes, and special pregnancy events. The emergent pictures suggest that athough experiences of pregnancy in Japan and Israel differ, pregnancy in both cultures is an energy-consuming project of meaning-making— suggesting that the sense of biomedical technologies are not only in the technologies themselves but are assigned by those who practice and experience them.

Final Days

Japanese Culture and Choice at the End of Life
Author: Susan Orpett Long
Publisher: University of Hawaii Press
ISBN: 9780824829100
Category: Social Science
Page: 287
View: 5094
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"Grounded in ethnographic data, the book offers an examination of how policy and meaning frame the choices Japanese make about how to die. As an essay in descriptive bioethics, it engages an extensive literature in the social sciences and bioethics to examine some of the answers people have constructed to end-of-life issues. Like their counterparts in other postindustrial societies, Japanese find no simple way of handling situations such as disclosure of diagnosis, discontinuing or withholding treatment, organ donation, euthanasia, and hospice. Through interviews and case studies in hospitals and homes, Susan Orpett Long offers a window on the ways in which "ordinary" people respond to serious illness and the process of dying."--BOOK JACKET.

America, History and Life


Author: Eric H. Boehm
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Dissertations, Academic
Page: N.A
View: 4131
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Article abstracts and citations of reviews and dissertations covering the United States and Canada.

The Pseudoscience Wars

Immanuel Velikovsky and the Birth of the Modern Fringe
Author: Michael D. Gordin
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226304434
Category: Science
Page: 312
View: 5864
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Properly analyzed, the collective mythological and religious writings of humanity reveal that around 1500 BC, a comet swept perilously close to Earth, triggering widespread natural disasters and threatening the destruction of all life before settling into solar orbit as Venus, our nearest planetary neighbor. Sound implausible? Well, from 1950 until the late 1970s, a huge number of people begged to differ, as they devoured Immanuel Velikovsky’s major best-seller, Worlds in Collision, insisting that perhaps this polymathic thinker held the key to a new science and a new history. Scientists, on the other hand, assaulted Velikovsky’s book, his followers, and his press mercilessly from the get-go. In The Pseudoscience Wars, Michael D. Gordin resurrects the largely forgotten figure of Velikovsky and uses his strange career and surprisingly influential writings to explore the changing definitions of the line that separates legitimate scientific inquiry from what is deemed bunk, and to show how vital this question remains to us today. Drawing on a wealth of previously unpublished material from Velikovsky’s personal archives, Gordin presents a behind-the-scenes history of the writer’s career, from his initial burst of success through his growing influence on the counterculture, heated public battles with such luminaries as Carl Sagan, and eventual eclipse. Along the way, he offers fascinating glimpses into the histories and effects of other fringe doctrines, including creationism, Lysenkoism, parapsychology, and more—all of which have surprising connections to Velikovsky’s theories. Science today is hardly universally secure, and scientists seem themselves beset by critics, denialists, and those they label “pseudoscientists”—as seen all too clearly in battles over evolution and climate change. The Pseudoscience Wars simultaneously reveals the surprising Cold War roots of our contemporary dilemma and points readers to a different approach to drawing the line between knowledge and nonsense.

Unfinished

The Anthropology of Becoming
Author: João Biehl,Peter Locke
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 0822372452
Category: Social Science
Page: 400
View: 883
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This original, field-changing collection explores the plasticity and unfinishedness of human subjects and lifeworlds, advancing the conceptual terrain of an anthropology of becoming. People's becomings trouble and exceed ways of knowing and acting, producing new possibilities for research, methodology, and writing. The contributors creatively bridge ethnography and critical theory in a range of worlds on the edge, from war and its aftermath, economic transformation, racial inequality, and gun violence to religiosity, therapeutic markets, animal rights activism, and abrupt environmental change. Defying totalizing analytical schemes, these visionary essays articulate a human science of the uncertain and unknown and restore a sense of movement and possibility to ethics and political practice. Unfinished invites readers to consider the array of affects, ideas, forces, and objects that shape contemporary modes of existence and future horizons, opening new channels for critical thought and creative expression. Contributors. Lucas Bessire, João Biehl, Naisargi N. Dave, Elizabeth A. Davis, Michael M. J. Fischer, Angela Garcia, Peter Locke, Adriana Petryna, Bridget Purcell, Laurence Ralph, Lilia M. Schwarcz