Understanding Computers and Cognition

A New Foundation for Design
Author: Terry Winograd,Fernando Flores
Publisher: Intellect Books
ISBN: 9780893910501
Category: Computers
Page: 207
View: 3135
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Understanding Computers and Cognition presents an important and controversial new approach to understanding what computers do and how their functioning is related to human language, thought, and action. While it is a book about computers, Understanding Computers and Cognition goes beyond the specific issues of what computers can or can't do. It is a broad-ranging discussion exploring the background of understanding in which the discourse about computers and technology takes place. Understanding Computers and Cognition is written for a wide audience, not just those professionals involved in computer design or artificial intelligence. It represents an important contribution to the ongoing discussion about what it means to be a machine, and what it means to be human.

Representation and Understanding

Studies in Cognitive Science
Author: Jerry Bobrow
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483299155
Category: Computers
Page: 427
View: 2553
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Representation and Understanding

Disclosing New Worlds

Entrepreneurship, Democratic Action, and the Cultivation of Solidarity
Author: Charles Spinosa,Fernando Flores,Hubert L. Dreyfus
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262692243
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 232
View: 8704
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Arguesthat human beings are at their best not when they are engaged inabstractreflection, but when they are intensely involved in changingthe taken-for-granted, everydaypractices in some domain of theirculture—that is, when they are making history.

Autopoiesis and Cognition

The Realization of the Living
Author: H.R. Maturana,F. J. Varela
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400989474
Category: Science
Page: 146
View: 8710
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This is a bold, brilliant, provocative and puzzling work. It demands a radical shift in standpoint, an almost paradoxical posture in which living systems are described in terms of what lies outside the domain of descriptions. Professor Humberto Maturana, with his colleague Francisco Varela, have undertaken the construction of a systematic theoretical biology which attempts to define living systems not as they are objects of observation and description, nor even as in teracting systems, but as self-contained unities whose only reference is to them selves. Thus, the standpoint of description of such unities from the 'outside', i. e. , by an observer, already seems to violate the fundamental requirement which Maturana and Varela posit for the characterization of such system- namely, that they are autonomous, self-referring and self-constructing closed systems - in short, autopoietic systems in their terms. Yet, on the basis of such a conceptual method, and such a theory of living systems, Maturana goes on to define cognition as a biological phenomenon; as, in effect, the very nature of all living systems. And on this basis, to generate the very domains of interac tion among such systems which constitute language, description and thinking.

Conversations for Action and Collected Essays

Instilling a Culture of Commitment in Working Relationships
Author: Fernando Flores
Publisher: Createspace Independent Pub
ISBN: 9781478378488
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 160
View: 7866
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How do we create value for ourselves and others while at the same time participating in today's free market economy? How do we produce results while at the same time developing relationships where we take care of each other in the process? Today, instead of productively and joyfully engaging with broad networks of people, we are increasingly stressed by our working relationships. With networked technology, disconnecting is becoming increasingly more difficult. In order to build productive and trusting relationships, we must learn skills that will enable us to build trust, coordinate our commitments more effectively, listen to each other and build networks of commitments for the sake of producing value for ourselves, for our families, for the organizations in which we participate, for our communities, and for our world as a whole. The essays in this collection offer a framework for developing more effective, productive relationships in the workplace or in any context where a person must coordinate with others to make something happen. The essays describe how to effectively make commitments that allow us to create something of value. Describing Flores' network of commitments/conversations for action framework, a framework that has been cited in more than three thousand books, the author paints a vivid view of language as action rather than just words that transfer information from one place (the speaker) to another (the listener). When people engage in conversations, commitments are made, and spaces of possibilities are opened up. Therefore, the theme is of “instilling a culture of commitment” in our working relationships, allowing us to focus on what we are creating of value together rather than the ongoing stress of attempting to calculate tradeoffs of individual interests. Edited by Maria Flores Letelier, it was Maria's mission to make available works that had rested as private papers in hard copy form only for twenty to thirty years. She selected and edited a group of essays and placed them in an effective order for the reader.

Design Knowing and Learning: Cognition in Design Education


Author: C. Eastman,W. Newstetter,M. McCracken
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080530311
Category: Education
Page: 328
View: 9052
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Wide aspects of a university education address design: the conceptualization, planning and implementation of man-made artifacts. All areas of engineering, parts of computer science and of course architecture and industrial design all claim to teach design. Yet the education of design tends ot follow tacit practices, without explicit assumptions, goals and processes. This book is premised on the belief that design education based on a cognitive science approach can lead to significant improvements in the effectiveness of university design courses and to the future capabilities of practicing designers. This applies to all professional areas of design. The book grew out of publications and a workshop focusing on design education. This volume attempts to outline a framework upon which new efforts in design education might be based. The book includes chapters dealing with six broad aspects of the study of design education: • Methodologies for undertaking studies of design learning • Longitudinal assessment of design learning • Methods and cases for assessing beginners, experts and special populations • Studies of important component processes • Structure of design knowledge • Design cognition in the classroom

Program Development in Java

Abstraction, Specification, and Object-Oriented Design
Author: Barbara Liskov,John Guttag
Publisher: Pearson Education
ISBN: 076868496X
Category: Computers
Page: 464
View: 5854
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Written by a world-renowned expert on programming methodology, and the winner of the 2008 Turing Award, this book shows how to build production-quality programs--programs that are reliable, easy to maintain, and quick to modify. Its emphasis is on modular program construction: how to get the modules right and how to organize a program as a collection of modules. The book presents a methodology effective for either an individual programmer, who may be writing a small program or a single module in a larger one; or a software engineer, who may be part of a team developing a complex program comprised of many modules. Both audiences will acquire a solid foundation for object-oriented program design and component-based software development from this methodology. Because each module in a program corresponds to an abstraction, such as a collection of documents or a routine to search the collection for documents of interest, the book first explains the kinds of abstractions most useful to programmers: procedures; iteration abstractions; and, most critically, data abstractions. Indeed, the author treats data abstraction as the central paradigm in object-oriented program design and implementation. The author also shows, with numerous examples, how to develop informal specifications that define these abstractions--specifications that describe what the modules do--and then discusses how to implement the modules so that they do what they are supposed to do with acceptable performance. Other topics discussed include: Encapsulation and the need for an implementation to provide the behavior defined by the specification Tradeoffs between simplicity and performance Techniques to help readers of code understand and reason about it, focusing on such properties as rep invariants and abstraction functions Type hierarchy and its use in defining families of related data abstractions Debugging, testing, and requirements analysis Program design as a top-down, iterative process, and design patterns The Java programming language is used for the book's examples. However, the techniques presented are language independent, and an introduction to key Java concepts is included for programmers who may not be familiar with the language.

Computation and Cognition

Toward a Foundation for Cognitive Science
Author: Zenon W. Pylyshyn
Publisher: Bradford Books
ISBN: 9780262660587
Category: Computers
Page: 292
View: 664
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This systematic investigation of computation and mental phenomena by a noted psychologist and computer scientist argues that cognition is a form of computation, that the semantic contents of mental states are encoded in the same general way as computer representations are encoded. It is a rich and sustained investigation of the assumptions underlying the directions cognitive science research is taking.

Neurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience


Author: Mark D'Esposito
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262042093
Category: Medical
Page: 290
View: 4757
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A review of a broad range of neurobehavioral syndromes from both neurological and cognitive neuroscientific perspectives.

On Intelligence

How a New Understanding of the Brain Will Lead to the Creation of Truly Intelligent Machines
Author: Jeff Hawkins,Sandra Blakeslee
Publisher: Macmillan
ISBN: 9781429900454
Category: Computers
Page: 272
View: 2058
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From the inventor of the PalmPilot comes a new and compelling theory of intelligence, brain function, and the future of intelligent machines Jeff Hawkins, the man who created the PalmPilot, Treo smart phone, and other handheld devices, has reshaped our relationship to computers. Now he stands ready to revolutionize both neuroscience and computing in one stroke, with a new understanding of intelligence itself. Hawkins develops a powerful theory of how the human brain works, explaining why computers are not intelligent and how, based on this new theory, we can finally build intelligent machines. The brain is not a computer, but a memory system that stores experiences in a way that reflects the true structure of the world, remembering sequences of events and their nested relationships and making predictions based on those memories. It is this memory-prediction system that forms the basis of intelligence, perception, creativity, and even consciousness. In an engaging style that will captivate audiences from the merely curious to the professional scientist, Hawkins shows how a clear understanding of how the brain works will make it possible for us to build intelligent machines, in silicon, that will exceed our human ability in surprising ways. Written with acclaimed science writer Sandra Blakeslee, On Intelligence promises to completely transfigure the possibilities of the technology age. It is a landmark book in its scope and clarity.

Designing with the Mind in Mind

Simple Guide to Understanding User Interface Design Guidelines
Author: Jeff Johnson
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 012411556X
Category: Computers
Page: 250
View: 2061
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In this completely updated and revised edition of Designing with the Mind in Mind, Jeff Johnson provides you with just enough background in perceptual and cognitive psychology that user interface (UI) design guidelines make intuitive sense rather than being just a list or rules to follow. Early UI practitioners were trained in cognitive psychology, and developed UI design rules based on it. But as the field has evolved since the first edition of this book, designers enter the field from many disciplines. Practitioners today have enough experience in UI design that they have been exposed to design rules, but it is essential that they understand the psychology behind the rules in order to effectively apply them. In this new edition, you'll find new chapters on human choice and decision making, hand-eye coordination and attention, as well as new examples, figures, and explanations throughout. Provides an essential source for user interface design rules and how, when, and why to apply them Arms designers with the science behind each design rule, allowing them to make informed decisions in projects, and to explain those decisions to others Equips readers with the knowledge to make educated tradeoffs between competing rules, project deadlines, and budget pressures Completely updated and revised, including additional coverage on human choice and decision making, hand-eye coordination and attention, and new mobile and touch-screen examples throughout

Designing with Blends

Conceptual Foundations of Human-computer Interaction and Software Engineering
Author: Manuel Imaz,David Benyon
Publisher: Mit Press
ISBN: N.A
Category: Computers
Page: 229
View: 9951
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How recent research in cognitive science offers new ways to understand theinteraction of people and computers and develops a new literacy for well-informed, sensitivesoftware design.

Cognitive Computing and Big Data Analytics


Author: Judith Hurwitz,Marcia Kaufman,Adrian Bowles
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118896785
Category: Computers
Page: 288
View: 1597
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A comprehensive guide to learning technologies that unlock the value in big data Cognitive Computing provides detailed guidance toward building a new class of systems that learn from experience and derive insights to unlock the value of big data. This book helps technologists understand cognitive computing's underlying technologies, from knowledge representation techniques and natural language processing algorithms to dynamic learning approaches based on accumulated evidence, rather than reprogramming. Detailed case examples from the financial, healthcare, and manufacturing walk readers step-by-step through the design and testing of cognitive systems, and expert perspectives from organizations such as Cleveland Clinic, Memorial Sloan-Kettering, as well as commercial vendors that are creating solutions. These organizations provide insight into the real-world implementation of cognitive computing systems. The IBM Watson cognitive computing platform is described in a detailed chapter because of its significance in helping to define this emerging market. In addition, the book includes implementations of emerging projects from Qualcomm, Hitachi, Google and Amazon. Today's cognitive computing solutions build on established concepts from artificial intelligence, natural language processing, ontologies, and leverage advances in big data management and analytics. They foreshadow an intelligent infrastructure that enables a new generation of customer and context-aware smart applications in all industries. Cognitive Computing is a comprehensive guide to the subject, providing both the theoretical and practical guidance technologists need. Discover how cognitive computing evolved from promise to reality Learn the elements that make up a cognitive computing system Understand the groundbreaking hardware and software technologies behind cognitive computing Learn to evaluate your own application portfolio to find the best candidates for pilot projects Leverage cognitive computing capabilities to transform the organization Cognitive systems are rightly being hailed as the new era of computing. Learn how these technologies enable emerging firms to compete with entrenched giants, and forward-thinking established firms to disrupt their industries. Professionals who currently work with big data and analytics will see how cognitive computing builds on their foundation, and creates new opportunities. Cognitive Computing provides complete guidance to this new level of human-machine interaction.

The Semantic Turn

A New Foundation for Design
Author: Klaus Krippendorff
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0203299957
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 368
View: 3121
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Responding to cultural demands for meaning, user-friendliness, and fun as well as the opportunities of the emerging information society, The Semantic Turn boldly outlines a new science for design that gives designers previously unavailable grounds on which to state their claims and validate their designs. It sets the stage by reviewing the history of semantic concerns in design, presenting their philosophical roots, examining the new social and technological challenges that professional designers are facing, and offering distinctions among contemporary artifacts that challenge designers. Written by Klaus Krippendorff, recognized designer and distinguished scholar of communication and language use, the book builds an epistemological bridge between language/communication theory and human-centered conceptions of contemporary artifacts. Clarifying how the semantic turn goes beyond product semantics and differs from other approaches to meaning, Krippendorff develops four new theories of how artifacts make sense and presents a series of meaning-sensitive design methods, illustrated by examples, and evaluative techniques that radically depart from the functionalist and technology-centered tradition in design. An indispensable guide for the future of the design profession, this book outlines not only a science for design that encourages asking and answering new kinds of questions, it also provides concepts and a vocabulary that enables designers to better partner with the more traditional disciplines of engineering, ergonomics, ecology, cognitive science, information technology, management, and marketing.

The Enigma of Reason


Author: Hugo Mercier,Dan Sperber
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674368304
Category: Philosophy
Page: 408
View: 1608
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If reason is so useful and reliable, why didn’t it evolve in other animals and why do humans produce so much thoroughly reasoned nonsense? Hugo Mercier and Dan Sperber argue that reason is not geared to solitary use. It evolved to help justify our beliefs to others, evaluate their arguments, and better exploit our uniquely rich social environment.

The Rationality of Science


Author: W.H. Newton-Smith
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134930968
Category: Philosophy
Page: 308
View: 9145
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First published in 2002. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Where the Action Is

The Foundations of Embodied Interaction
Author: Paul Dourish
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262260611
Category: Computers
Page: 248
View: 6693
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Computer science as an engineering discipline has been spectacularly successful. Yet it is also a philosophical enterprise in the way it represents the world and creates and manipulates models of reality, people, and action. In this book, Paul Dourish addresses the philosophical bases of human-computer interaction. He looks at how what he calls "embodied interaction" -- an approach to interacting with software systems that emphasizes skilled, engaged practice rather than disembodied rationality -- reflects the phenomenological approaches of Martin Heidegger, Ludwig Wittgenstein, and other twentieth-century philosophers. The phenomenological tradition emphasizes the primacy of natural practice over abstract cognition in everyday activity. Dourish shows how this perspective can shed light on the foundational underpinnings of current research on embodied interaction. He looks in particular at how tangible and social approaches to interaction are related, how they can be used to analyze and understand embodied interaction, and how they could affect the design of future interactive systems.

Information Systems Foundations

The Role of Design Science
Author: Dennis Hart,Shirley Gregor
Publisher: ANU E Press
ISBN: 1921666358
Category: Computers
Page: 303
View: 9004
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This volume presents papers from the fourth biennial Information Systems Foundation Workshop, held at The Australian National University in Canberra from 2¿3 October, 2008. The focus of the workshop was, as for the others in the series, the foundations of Information Systems as an academic discipline. The emphasis in this workshop was on the movement known as 'Design Science' and its importance in practical disciplines such as Information Systems. The chapters in the volume provide a critical examination of current design science ideas, with the role of human creativity given special mention. The philosophical underpinnings of design science thinking are also examined. Practically, the volume shows how the design science approach can be used in academic research that leads to artefacts that add value for individuals, organizations and society.