Uniform Random Numbers

Theory and Practice
Author: Shu Tezuka
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461523176
Category: Mathematics
Page: 209
View: 3671
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In earlier forewords to the books in this series on Discrete Event Dynamic Systems (DEDS), we have dwelt on the pervasive nature of DEDS in our human-made world. From manufacturing plants to computer/communication networks, from traffic systems to command-and-control, modern civilization cannot function without the smooth operation of such systems. Yet mathemat ical tools for the analysis and synthesis of DEDS are nascent when compared to the well developed machinery of the continuous variable dynamic systems char acterized by differential equations. The performance evaluation tool of choice for DEDS is discrete event simulation both on account of its generality and its explicit incorporation of randomness. As it is well known to students of simulation, the heart of the random event simulation is the uniform random number generator. Not so well known to the practitioners are the philosophical and mathematical bases of generating "random" number sequence from deterministic algorithms. This editor can still recall his own painful introduction to the issues during the early 80's when he attempted to do the first perturbation analysis (PA) experiments on a per sonal computer which, unbeknownst to him, had a random number generator with a period of only 32,768 numbers. It is no exaggeration to say that the development of PA was derailed for some time due to this ignorance of the fundamentals of random number generation.

Random Number Generation and Monte Carlo Methods


Author: James E. Gentle
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 147572960X
Category: Computers
Page: 247
View: 5402
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Monte Carlo simulation has become one of the most important tools in all fields of science. This book surveys the basic techniques and principles of the subject, as well as general techniques useful in more complicated models and in novel settings. The emphasis throughout is on practical methods that work well in current computing environments.

Monte Carlo and Quasi-Monte Carlo Sampling


Author: Christiane Lemieux
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 038778165X
Category: Mathematics
Page: 373
View: 2370
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Quasi–Monte Carlo methods have become an increasingly popular alternative to Monte Carlo methods over the last two decades. Their successful implementation on practical problems, especially in finance, has motivated the development of several new research areas within this field to which practitioners and researchers from various disciplines currently contribute. This book presents essential tools for using quasi–Monte Carlo sampling in practice. The first part of the book focuses on issues related to Monte Carlo methods—uniform and non-uniform random number generation, variance reduction techniques—but the material is presented to prepare the readers for the next step, which is to replace the random sampling inherent to Monte Carlo by quasi–random sampling. The second part of the book deals with this next step. Several aspects of quasi-Monte Carlo methods are covered, including constructions, randomizations, the use of ANOVA decompositions, and the concept of effective dimension. The third part of the book is devoted to applications in finance and more advanced statistical tools like Markov chain Monte Carlo and sequential Monte Carlo, with a discussion of their quasi–Monte Carlo counterpart. The prerequisites for reading this book are a basic knowledge of statistics and enough mathematical maturity to follow through the various techniques used throughout the book. This text is aimed at graduate students in statistics, management science, operations research, engineering, and applied mathematics. It should also be useful to practitioners who want to learn more about Monte Carlo and quasi–Monte Carlo methods and researchers interested in an up-to-date guide to these methods.

Scientific and Engineering Computations for the 21st Century

Methodologies and Applications : Proceedings of the 15th Toyota Conference
Author: Masatake Mori,T. Mitsui
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780444509949
Category: Computers
Page: 371
View: 7785
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The 20th century saw tremendous achievements and progress in science and technology. Undoubtedly, computers and computer-related technologies acted as one of vital catalysts for accelerating this progress in the latter half of the century. The contributions of mathematical sciences have been equally profound, and the synergy between mathematics and computer science has played a key role in accelerating the progress of both fields as well as science and engineering. Mathematical sciences will undoubtedly continue to play this vital role in this new century. In particular, mathematical modeling and numerical simulation will continue to be among the essential methodologies for solving massive and complex problems that arise in science, engineering and manufacturing. Underpinning this all from a sound, theoretical perspective will be numerical algorithms. In recognition of this observation, this volume focuses on the following specific topics. (1) Fundamental numerical algorithms (2) Applications of numerical algorithms (3) Emerging technologies. The articles included in this issue by experts on advanced scientific and engineering computations from numerous countries elucidate state-of-the-art achievements in these three topics from various angles and suggest the future directions. Although we cannot hope to cover all the aspects in scientific and engineering computations, we hope that the articles will interest, inform and inspire members of the science and engineering community.

Digital Nets and Sequences

Discrepancy Theory and Quasi–Monte Carlo Integration
Author: Josef Dick,Friedrich Pillichshammer
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139490052
Category: Computers
Page: N.A
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Indispensable for students, invaluable for researchers, this comprehensive treatment of contemporary quasi–Monte Carlo methods, digital nets and sequences, and discrepancy theory starts from scratch with detailed explanations of the basic concepts and then advances to current methods used in research. As deterministic versions of the Monte Carlo method, quasi–Monte Carlo rules have increased in popularity, with many fruitful applications in mathematical practice. These rules require nodes with good uniform distribution properties, and digital nets and sequences in the sense of Niederreiter are known to be excellent candidates. Besides the classical theory, the book contains chapters on reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces and weighted integration, duality theory for digital nets, polynomial lattice rules, the newest constructions by Niederreiter and Xing and many more. The authors present an accessible introduction to the subject based mainly on material taught in undergraduate courses with numerous examples, exercises and illustrations.

Introduction to Quasi-Monte Carlo Integration and Applications


Author: Gunther Leobacher,Friedrich Pillichshammer
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319034251
Category: Mathematics
Page: 195
View: 6662
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This textbook introduces readers to the basic concepts of quasi-Monte Carlo methods for numerical integration and to the theory behind them. The comprehensive treatment of the subject with detailed explanations comprises, for example, lattice rules, digital nets and sequences and discrepancy theory. It also presents methods currently used in research and discusses practical applications with an emphasis on finance-related problems. Each chapter closes with suggestions for further reading and with exercises which help students to arrive at a deeper understanding of the material presented. The book is based on a one-semester, two-hour undergraduate course and is well-suited for readers with a basic grasp of algebra, calculus, linear algebra and basic probability theory. It provides an accessible introduction for undergraduate students in mathematics or computer science.

Computer Vision

Algorithms and Applications
Author: Richard Szeliski
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9781848829466
Category: Computers
Page: 812
View: 3295
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Humans perceive the three-dimensional structure of the world with apparent ease. However, despite all of the recent advances in computer vision research, the dream of having a computer interpret an image at the same level as a two-year old remains elusive. Why is computer vision such a challenging problem and what is the current state of the art? Computer Vision: Algorithms and Applications explores the variety of techniques commonly used to analyze and interpret images. It also describes challenging real-world applications where vision is being successfully used, both for specialized applications such as medical imaging, and for fun, consumer-level tasks such as image editing and stitching, which students can apply to their own personal photos and videos. More than just a source of “recipes,” this exceptionally authoritative and comprehensive textbook/reference also takes a scientific approach to basic vision problems, formulating physical models of the imaging process before inverting them to produce descriptions of a scene. These problems are also analyzed using statistical models and solved using rigorous engineering techniques Topics and features: structured to support active curricula and project-oriented courses, with tips in the Introduction for using the book in a variety of customized courses; presents exercises at the end of each chapter with a heavy emphasis on testing algorithms and containing numerous suggestions for small mid-term projects; provides additional material and more detailed mathematical topics in the Appendices, which cover linear algebra, numerical techniques, and Bayesian estimation theory; suggests additional reading at the end of each chapter, including the latest research in each sub-field, in addition to a full Bibliography at the end of the book; supplies supplementary course material for students at the associated website, http://szeliski.org/Book/. Suitable for an upper-level undergraduate or graduate-level course in computer science or engineering, this textbook focuses on basic techniques that work under real-world conditions and encourages students to push their creative boundaries. Its design and exposition also make it eminently suitable as a unique reference to the fundamental techniques and current research literature in computer vision.

Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning


Author: Christopher M. Bishop
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9781493938438
Category: Computers
Page: 738
View: 1614
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This is the first textbook on pattern recognition to present the Bayesian viewpoint. The book presents approximate inference algorithms that permit fast approximate answers in situations where exact answers are not feasible. It uses graphical models to describe probability distributions when no other books apply graphical models to machine learning. No previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning concepts is assumed. Familiarity with multivariate calculus and basic linear algebra is required, and some experience in the use of probabilities would be helpful though not essential as the book includes a self-contained introduction to basic probability theory.

Optimization of Stochastic Models

The Interface Between Simulation and Optimization
Author: Georg Ch. Pflug
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461314496
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 382
View: 5144
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Stochastic models are everywhere. In manufacturing, queuing models are used for modeling production processes, realistic inventory models are stochastic in nature. Stochastic models are considered in transportation and communication. Marketing models use stochastic descriptions of the demands and buyer's behaviors. In finance, market prices and exchange rates are assumed to be certain stochastic processes, and insurance claims appear at random times with random amounts. To each decision problem, a cost function is associated. Costs may be direct or indirect, like loss of time, quality deterioration, loss in production or dissatisfaction of customers. In decision making under uncertainty, the goal is to minimize the expected costs. However, in practically all realistic models, the calculation of the expected costs is impossible due to the model complexity. Simulation is the only practicable way of getting insight into such models. Thus, the problem of optimal decisions can be seen as getting simulation and optimization effectively combined. The field is quite new and yet the number of publications is enormous. This book does not even try to touch all work done in this area. Instead, many concepts are presented and treated with mathematical rigor and necessary conditions for the correctness of various approaches are stated. Optimization of Stochastic Models: The Interface Between Simulation and Optimization is suitable as a text for a graduate level course on Stochastic Models or as a secondary text for a graduate level course in Operations Research.

Sūgaku Expositions

A Translation of Sūgaku
Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Mathematics
Page: N.A
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Recent Trends in Social Systems: Quantitative Theories and Quantitative Models


Author: Antonio Maturo,Šárka Hošková-Mayerová,Daniela-Tatiana Soitu,Janusz Kacprzyk
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319405853
Category: Computers
Page: 426
View: 9572
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The papers collected in this volume focus on new perspectives on individuals, society, and science, specifically in the field of socio-economic systems. The book is the result of a scientific collaboration among experts from “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi (Romania), “G. d’Annunzio” University of Chieti-Pescara (Italy), "University of Defence" of Brno (Czech Republic), and "Pablo de Olavide" University of Sevilla (Spain). The heterogeneity of the contributions presented in this volume reflects the variety and complexity of social phenomena. The book is divided in four Sections as follows. The first Section deals with recent trends in social decisions. Specifically, it aims to understand which are the driving forces of social decisions. The second Section focuses on the social and public sphere. Indeed, it is oriented on recent developments in social systems and control. Trends in quantitative theories and models are described in Section 3, where many new formal, mathematical-statistical tools for modelling complex social phenomena are presented. Finally, Section 4 shows integrative theories and models; particularly, it deals with the ethical, cultural and political approaches to social science, the pedagogical methods, and the relationship between literature, politics, religion and society. The book is addressed to sociologists, philosophers, mathematicians, statisticians, people interested in ethics, and specialists in the fields of communication, social, and political sciences.

An Introduction to Statistical Learning

with Applications in R
Author: Gareth James,Daniela Witten,Trevor Hastie,Robert Tibshirani
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461471389
Category: Mathematics
Page: 426
View: 5479
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An Introduction to Statistical Learning provides an accessible overview of the field of statistical learning, an essential toolset for making sense of the vast and complex data sets that have emerged in fields ranging from biology to finance to marketing to astrophysics in the past twenty years. This book presents some of the most important modeling and prediction techniques, along with relevant applications. Topics include linear regression, classification, resampling methods, shrinkage approaches, tree-based methods, support vector machines, clustering, and more. Color graphics and real-world examples are used to illustrate the methods presented. Since the goal of this textbook is to facilitate the use of these statistical learning techniques by practitioners in science, industry, and other fields, each chapter contains a tutorial on implementing the analyses and methods presented in R, an extremely popular open source statistical software platform. Two of the authors co-wrote The Elements of Statistical Learning (Hastie, Tibshirani and Friedman, 2nd edition 2009), a popular reference book for statistics and machine learning researchers. An Introduction to Statistical Learning covers many of the same topics, but at a level accessible to a much broader audience. This book is targeted at statisticians and non-statisticians alike who wish to use cutting-edge statistical learning techniques to analyze their data. The text assumes only a previous course in linear regression and no knowledge of matrix algebra.

Time Series Analysis and Its Applications

With R Examples
Author: Robert H. Shumway,David S. Stoffer
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319524526
Category: Mathematics
Page: 562
View: 1922
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The fourth edition of this popular graduate textbook, like its predecessors, presents a balanced and comprehensive treatment of both time and frequency domain methods with accompanying theory. Numerous examples using nontrivial data illustrate solutions to problems such as discovering natural and anthropogenic climate change, evaluating pain perception experiments using functional magnetic resonance imaging, and monitoring a nuclear test ban treaty. The book is designed as a textbook for graduate level students in the physical, biological, and social sciences and as a graduate level text in statistics. Some parts may also serve as an undergraduate introductory course. Theory and methodology are separated to allow presentations on different levels. In addition to coverage of classical methods of time series regression, ARIMA models, spectral analysis and state-space models, the text includes modern developments including categorical time series analysis, multivariate spectral methods, long memory series, nonlinear models, resampling techniques, GARCH models, ARMAX models, stochastic volatility, wavelets, and Markov chain Monte Carlo integration methods. This edition includes R code for each numerical example in addition to Appendix R, which provides a reference for the data sets and R scripts used in the text in addition to a tutorial on basic R commands and R time series. An additional file is available on the book’s website for download, making all the data sets and scripts easy to load into R.

Nonuniform Sampling

Theory and Practice
Author: Farokh Marvasti
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461512298
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 924
View: 8917
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Our understanding of nature is often through nonuniform observations in space or time. In space, one normally observes the important features of an object, such as edges. The less important features are interpolated. History is a collection of important events that are nonuniformly spaced in time. Historians infer between events (interpolation) and politicians and stock market analysts forecast the future from past and present events (extrapolation). The 20 chapters of Nonuniform Sampling: Theory and Practice contain contributions by leading researchers in nonuniform and Shannon sampling, zero crossing, and interpolation theory. Its practical applications include NMR, seismology, speech and image coding, modulation and coding, optimal content, array processing, and digital filter design. It has a tutorial outlook for practising engineers and advanced students in science, engineering, and mathematics. It is also a useful reference for scientists and engineers working in the areas of medical imaging, geophysics, astronomy, biomedical engineering, computer graphics, digital filter design, speech and video processing, and phased array radar.

The Elements of Statistical Learning

Data Mining, Inference, and Prediction
Author: Trevor Hastie,Robert Tibshirani,Jerome Friedman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387216065
Category: Mathematics
Page: 536
View: 417
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During the past decade there has been an explosion in computation and information technology. With it have come vast amounts of data in a variety of fields such as medicine, biology, finance, and marketing. The challenge of understanding these data has led to the development of new tools in the field of statistics, and spawned new areas such as data mining, machine learning, and bioinformatics. Many of these tools have common underpinnings but are often expressed with different terminology. This book describes the important ideas in these areas in a common conceptual framework. While the approach is statistical, the emphasis is on concepts rather than mathematics. Many examples are given, with a liberal use of color graphics. It should be a valuable resource for statisticians and anyone interested in data mining in science or industry. The book’s coverage is broad, from supervised learning (prediction) to unsupervised learning. The many topics include neural networks, support vector machines, classification trees and boosting---the first comprehensive treatment of this topic in any book. This major new edition features many topics not covered in the original, including graphical models, random forests, ensemble methods, least angle regression & path algorithms for the lasso, non-negative matrix factorization, and spectral clustering. There is also a chapter on methods for “wide” data (p bigger than n), including multiple testing and false discovery rates. Trevor Hastie, Robert Tibshirani, and Jerome Friedman are professors of statistics at Stanford University. They are prominent researchers in this area: Hastie and Tibshirani developed generalized additive models and wrote a popular book of that title. Hastie co-developed much of the statistical modeling software and environment in R/S-PLUS and invented principal curves and surfaces. Tibshirani proposed the lasso and is co-author of the very successful An Introduction to the Bootstrap. Friedman is the co-inventor of many data-mining tools including CART, MARS, projection pursuit and gradient boosting.

Distribution of sequences

a sampler
Author: Oto Strauch,Štefan Porubský
Publisher: Peter Lang Publishing
ISBN: N.A
Category: Mathematics
Page: 570
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The monograph covers material scattered throughout books and journals and focuses on the distribution properties of sequences which may be expressed in terms of distribution function, upper and lower distribution function, the discrepancy, diaphony, dispersion etc. The individual character of sequences reflected in their distribution properties may be an object of study from various points of view, and as such they are often the primary goal of investigation. In that case the studied properties are caught in separate results and are consequently accessible in a displayed form. On the other hand, the various distribution properties of sequences play only a subsidiary role in proofs and thus remain often hidden and are not manifested in a visible form. The enormous wealth of information contained in both cases may be of value not only to those working directly in the field, but also to those working in related branches of number theory, combinatorics, real or numerical analysis in the process of finding sequence possessing the required properties. Last, but not least browsing throughout the book may provide the impetus for prospective further research. This is what we hope may address a wide class of working mathematicians.

Concise Computer Vision

An Introduction into Theory and Algorithms
Author: Reinhard Klette
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1447163206
Category: Computers
Page: 429
View: 6918
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This textbook provides an accessible general introduction to the essential topics in computer vision. Classroom-tested programming exercises and review questions are also supplied at the end of each chapter. Features: provides an introduction to the basic notation and mathematical concepts for describing an image and the key concepts for mapping an image into an image; explains the topologic and geometric basics for analysing image regions and distributions of image values and discusses identifying patterns in an image; introduces optic flow for representing dense motion and various topics in sparse motion analysis; describes special approaches for image binarization and segmentation of still images or video frames; examines the basic components of a computer vision system; reviews different techniques for vision-based 3D shape reconstruction; includes a discussion of stereo matchers and the phase-congruency model for image features; presents an introduction into classification and learning.

Vector Quantization and Signal Compression


Author: Allen Gersho,Robert M. Gray
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 146153626X
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 732
View: 2787
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Herb Caen, a popular columnist for the San Francisco Chronicle, recently quoted a Voice of America press release as saying that it was reorganizing in order to "eliminate duplication and redundancy. " This quote both states a goal of data compression and illustrates its common need: the removal of duplication (or redundancy) can provide a more efficient representation of data and the quoted phrase is itself a candidate for such surgery. Not only can the number of words in the quote be reduced without losing informa tion, but the statement would actually be enhanced by such compression since it will no longer exemplify the wrong that the policy is supposed to correct. Here compression can streamline the phrase and minimize the em barassment while improving the English style. Compression in general is intended to provide efficient representations of data while preserving the essential information contained in the data. This book is devoted to the theory and practice of signal compression, i. e. , data compression applied to signals such as speech, audio, images, and video signals (excluding other data types such as financial data or general purpose computer data). The emphasis is on the conversion of analog waveforms into efficient digital representations and on the compression of digital information into the fewest possible bits. Both operations should yield the highest possible reconstruction fidelity subject to constraints on the bit rate and implementation complexity.

Introduction to Applied Optimization


Author: Urmila Diwekar
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475737459
Category: Mathematics
Page: 335
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This text presents a multi-disciplined view of optimization, providing students and researchers with a thorough examination of algorithms, methods, and tools from diverse areas of optimization without introducing excessive theoretical detail. This second edition includes additional topics, including global optimization and a real-world case study using important concepts from each chapter. Introduction to Applied Optimization is intended for advanced undergraduate and graduate students and will benefit scientists from diverse areas, including engineers.

Transactions on Engineering Technologies

World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2015
Author: Sio-Iong Ao,Haeng Kon Kim,Mahyar A. Amouzegar
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 981102717X
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 590
View: 6338
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This proceedings volume contains selected revised and extended research articles written by researchers who participated in the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2015, held in San Francisco, USA, 21-23 October 2015. Topics covered include engineering mathematics, electrical engineering, circuits, communications systems, computer science, chemical engineering, systems engineering, manufacturing engineering, and industrial applications. The book offers the reader an overview of the state of the art in engineering technologies, computer science, systems engineering and applications, and will serve as an excellent reference work for researchers and graduate students working in these fields.