Urbanization, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities

A Global Assessment
Author: Thomas Elmqvist,Michail Fragkias,Julie Goodness,Burak Güneralp,Peter J. Marcotullio,Robert I. McDonald,Susan Parnell,Maria Schewenius,Marte Sendstad,Karen C. Seto,Cathy Wilkinson
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 940077088X
Category: Science
Page: 755
View: 8195
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Urbanization is a global phenomenon and the book emphasizes that this is not just a social-technological process. It is also a social-ecological process where cities are places for nature, and where cities also are dependent on, and have impacts on, the biosphere at different scales from local to global. The book is a global assessment and delivers four main conclusions: Urban areas are expanding faster than urban populations. Half the increase in urban land across the world over the next 20 years will occur in Asia, with the most extensive change expected to take place in India and China Urban areas modify their local and regional climate through the urban heat island effect and by altering precipitation patterns, which together will have significant impacts on net primary production, ecosystem health, and biodiversity Urban expansion will heavily draw on natural resources, including water, on a global scale, and will often consume prime agricultural land, with knock-on effects on biodiversity and ecosystem services elsewhere Future urban expansion will often occur in areas where the capacity for formal governance is restricted, which will constrain the protection of biodiversity and management of ecosystem services

Urbanization, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities

A Global Assessment
Author: Thomas Elmqvist,Michail Fragkias,Julie Goodness,Burak Güneralp,Peter J. Marcotullio,Robert I. McDonald,Susan Parnell,Maria Schewenius,Marte Sendstad,Karen C. Seto,Cathy Wilkinson
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9789402400915
Category: Science
Page: 755
View: 4841
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Urbanization is a global phenomenon and the book emphasizes that this is not just a social-technological process. It is also a social-ecological process where cities are places for nature, and where cities also are dependent on, and have impacts on, the biosphere at different scales from local to global. The book is a global assessment and delivers four main conclusions: Urban areas are expanding faster than urban populations. Half the increase in urban land across the world over the next 20 years will occur in Asia, with the most extensive change expected to take place in India and China Urban areas modify their local and regional climate through the urban heat island effect and by altering precipitation patterns, which together will have significant impacts on net primary production, ecosystem health, and biodiversity Urban expansion will heavily draw on natural resources, including water, on a global scale, and will often consume prime agricultural land, with knock-on effects on biodiversity and ecosystem services elsewhere Future urban expansion will often occur in areas where the capacity for formal governance is restricted, which will constrain the protection of biodiversity and management of ecosystem services

Urbanization, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities

A Global Assessment
Author: Thomas Elmqvist,Michail Fragkias,Julie Goodness,Burak Güneralp,Peter J. Marcotullio,Robert I. McDonald,Susan Parnell,Maria Schewenius,Marte Sendstad,Karen C. Seto,Cathy Wilkinson
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9789400770898
Category: Science
Page: 755
View: 6170
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Urbanization is a global phenomenon and the book emphasizes that this is not just a social-technological process. It is also a social-ecological process where cities are places for nature, and where cities also are dependent on, and have impacts on, the biosphere at different scales from local to global. The book is a global assessment and delivers four main conclusions: Urban areas are expanding faster than urban populations. Half the increase in urban land across the world over the next 20 years will occur in Asia, with the most extensive change expected to take place in India and China Urban areas modify their local and regional climate through the urban heat island effect and by altering precipitation patterns, which together will have significant impacts on net primary production, ecosystem health, and biodiversity Urban expansion will heavily draw on natural resources, including water, on a global scale, and will often consume prime agricultural land, with knock-on effects on biodiversity and ecosystem services elsewhere Future urban expansion will often occur in areas where the capacity for formal governance is restricted, which will constrain the protection of biodiversity and management of ecosystem services

Urban Biodiversity and Design


Author: Norbert Muller,P. Werner,J. G. Kelcey
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 144433266X
Category: Science
Page: 626
View: 953
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"Published in association with the Zoological Society of London"--Series title page.

Civic Ecology

Adaptation and Transformation from the Ground Up
Author: Marianne E. Krasny,Keith G. Tidball
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262527170
Category: POLITICAL SCIENCE
Page: 328
View: 2584
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Stories of environmental stewardship in communities from New Orleans to Soweto accompany an interdisciplinary framework for understanding civic ecology as a global phenomenon.

Towards Green Cities

Urban Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in China and Germany
Author: Karsten Grunewald,Junxiang Li,Gaodi Xie,Lennart Kümper-Schlake
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319582232
Category: Social Science
Page: 197
View: 9545
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The book aims to capture, describe and convey the current significance, the values and potentials of urban biodiversity and ecosystem services to scientists and professionals in the context of sustainable urban development and ongoing urbanization processes. Current developments, different approaches and future challenges in the competition of green spaces and urban land consumption in China and Germany are elaborated, discussed and illustrated within case studies and good practice examples. The strategic goal is a long-term appreciation of the potentials and increased consideration of urban green spaces in city planning and development. This book provides tangible recommendations for urban planners, politicians and stakeholders in the fields of green infrastructure at the interface of environment and urban landscape.

Conservation Drones

Mapping and Monitoring Biodiversity
Author: Serge A. Wich,Lian Pin Koh
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198787618
Category: Nature
Page: 144
View: 5768
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This book aims to further build capacity in the conservation community to use drones for conservation and inspire others to adapt emerging technologies for conservation.

Conservation for Cities

How to Plan & Build Natural Infrastructure
Author: Robert I. McDonald
Publisher: Island Press
ISBN: 1610915232
Category: Architecture
Page: 250
View: 6109
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It's time to think differently about cities and nature. Understanding how to better connect our cities with the benefits nature provides will be increasingly important as people migrate to cities and flourish in them. All this urban growth, along with challenges of adapting to climate change, will require a new approach to infrastructure if we're going to be successful. Yet guidance on how to plan and implement projects to protect or restore natural infrastructure is often hard to come by. With Conservation for Cities, Robert McDonald offers a comprehensive framework for maintaining and strengthening the supporting bonds between cities and nature through innovative infrastructure projects. After presenting a broad approach to incorporating natural infrastructure priorities into urban planning, he focuses each following chapter on a specific ecosystem service. He describes a wide variety of benefits, and helps practitioners answer fundamental questions: What are the best ecosystem services to enhance in a particular city or neighborhood? How might planners best combine green and grey infrastructure to solve problems facing a city? What are the regulatory and policy tools that can help fund and implement projects? Finally, McDonald explains how to develop a cost-effective mix of grey and green infrastructure and offers targeted advice on quantifying the benefits. Written by one of The Nature Conservancy's lead scientists on cities and natural infrastructure, Conservation for Cities is a book that ecologists, planners, and landscape architects will turn to again and again as they plan and implement a wide variety of projects.

Climate Change and Cities

First Assessment Report of the Urban Climate Change Research Network
Author: Cynthia Rosenzweig,William D. Solecki,Stephen A. Hammer,Shagun Mehrotra
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139497405
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 801
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Urban areas are home to over half the world's people and are at the forefront of the climate change issue. The need for a global research effort to establish the current understanding of climate change adaptation and mitigation at the city level is urgent. To meet this goal a coalition of international researchers - the Urban Climate Change Research Network (UCCRN) - was formed at the time of the C40 Large Cities Climate Summit in New York in 2007. This book is the First UCCRN Assessment Report on Climate Change and Cities. The authors are all international experts from a diverse range of cities with varying socio-economic conditions, from both the developing and developed world. It is invaluable for mayors, city officials and policymakers; urban sustainability officers and urban planners; and researchers, professors and advanced students.

Urban Ecology


Author: Jürgen Breuste,Hildegard Feldmann,Ogarit Uhlmann
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642885837
Category: Science
Page: 714
View: 8909
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Provides an overview of international developments in urban ecology, with many examples from cities worldwide. In addition, this book presents a unique exchange of experiences and ideas, with a focus on cooperation between researchers and those involved in putting ideas into practice. Topics include: aims and standards for ecological cities; the integration of ecologial, economic, social and cultural aspects; land use as a controlling factor; ecologically responsible mobility; and the integration of nature and landscape into urban development.

The Routledge Handbook of Urbanization and Global Environmental Change


Author: Karen C. Seto,William D. Solecki,Corrie A. Griffith
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317909321
Category: Architecture
Page: 582
View: 5630
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This volume provides a comprehensive overview of the interactions and feedbacks between urbanization and global environmental change. A key focus is the examination of how urbanization influences global environmental change, and how global environmental change in turn influences urbanization processes. It has four thematic foci: Theme 1 addresses the pathways through which urbanization drives global environmental change. Theme 2 addresses the pathways through which global environmental change affects the urban system. Theme 3 addresses the interactions and responses within the urban system in response to global environmental change. Theme 4 centers on critical emerging research.

Integrating Agriculture, Conservation and Ecotourism: Societal Influences


Author: W. Bruce Campbell,Silvia López Ortíz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400744854
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 280
View: 3264
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Agroecology not only encompasses aspects of ecology, but the ecology of sustainable food production systems, and related societal and cultural values. To provide effective communication regarding status and advances in this field, connections must be established with many disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, environmental sciences, ethics, agriculture, economics, ecology, rural development, sustainability, policy and education, or integrations of these general themes so as to provide integrated points of view that will help lead to a more sustainable construction of values than conventional economics alone. Such designs are inherently complex and dynamic, and go beyond the individual farm to include landscapes, communities, and biogeographic regions by emphasizing their unique agricultural and ecological values, and their biological, societal, and cultural components and processes.

Landscape Heterogeneity and Disturbance


Author: Monica G. Turner
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 146124742X
Category: Science
Page: 240
View: 9151
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Landscape pattern is generated by a variety of processes, including disturbances. In turn, the heterogeneity of the landscape may enhance or retard the spread of disturbance. The complex relationship between landscape pattern and disturbance is the subject of this book. It is designed to present an illustrative analysis of the topic, presenting the perspectives of several different disciplines. The book includes conceptual considerations, empirical studies, and management examples. Important features include: hypotheses about the spread of disturbance and the effects of scale changes in landscape studies; the multidisciplinary approach; and the explicit focus on the landscape level. The intended audience comprises graduate students, academics, and professionals interested in landscape ecology. The reader will receive a state-of-the-art treatment of a current topic in landscape ecology.

Ecosystem Services and Poverty Alleviation (OPEN ACCESS)

Trade-offs and Governance
Author: Kate Schreckenberg,Georgina Mace,Mahesh Poudyal
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 042901628X
Category: Nature
Page: 326
View: 9441
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Understanding how to sustain the services that ecosystems provide in support of human wellbeing is an active and growing research area. This book provides a state-of-the-art review of current thinking on the links between ecosystem services and poverty alleviation. In part it showcases the key findings of the Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) programme, which has funded over 120 research projects in more than 50 countries since 2010. ESPA’s goal is to ensure that ecosystems are being sustainably managed in a way that contributes to poverty alleviation as well as to inclusive and sustainable growth. As governments across the world map how they will achieve the 17 ambitious Sustainable Development Goals, most of which have poverty alleviation, wellbeing and sustainable environmental management at their heart, ESPA’s findings have never been more timely and relevant. The book synthesises the headline messages and compelling evidence to address the questions at the heart of ecosystems and wellbeing research. The authors, all leading specialists, address the evolving framings and contexts for the work, review the impacts of ongoing drivers of change, present new ways to achieve sustainable wellbeing, equity, diversity, and resilience, and evaluate the potential contributions from conservation projects, payment schemes, and novel governance approaches across scales from local to national and international. The cross-cutting, thematic chapters challenge conventional wisdom in some areas, and validate new methods and approaches for sustainable development in others. The book will provide a rich and important reference source for advanced students, researchers and policy-makers in ecology, environmental studies, ecological economics and sustainable development.

Quality of Life in Urban Landscapes

In Search of a Decision Support System
Author: Roberta Cocci Grifoni,Rosalba D'Onofrio,Massimo Sargolini
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319655817
Category: Political Science
Page: 399
View: 5771
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This volume introduces an innovative tool for the development of sustainable cities and the promotion of the quality of life of city inhabitants. It presents a decision-support system to orient public administrations in identifying development scenarios for sustainable urban and territorial transformations. The authors have split the volume into five parts, which respectively describe the theoretical basis of the book, the policies in question and indicators that influence them, the decision-support system that connects indicators to policies, the case study of Ancona, Italy, and potential future directions for this work. This volume is based on transdisciplinary research completed in May 2016 that involved about 40 researchers at The University of Camerino, Italy and other European universities. With purchase of this book, readers will also have access to Electronic Supplementary Material that contains a database with groups of indicators of assessment of urban quality of life and a toolkit containing the data processing system and management information system used in the book’s case study.

Integrative Observations and Assessments


Author: Shin-ichi Nakano,Tetsukazu Yahara,Tohru Nakashizuka
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 4431547835
Category: Science
Page: 431
View: 5303
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This volume focuses on new trends in monitoring biodiversity in the Asia-Pacific region, one of the most rapidly changing areas in the world. It provides reviews of the challenges in studying the spatial variability of biodiversity across various ecosystems. This book also describes newly developed concepts and methods for biodiversity observation including ubiquitous genotyping, systematic conservation, monitoring of the functions and services of ecosystems and biodiversity informatics. These contributions will lead to establishing integrative observations and assessments of biodiversity, essential for reporting the current status and for the effective conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. This work will interest biodiversity researchers not only in the Asia-Pacific region but also across the entire globe.

Ecology and Conservation of Birds in Urban Environments


Author: Enrique Murgui,Marcus Hedblom
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319433148
Category: Science
Page: 525
View: 7042
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This book provides syntheses of ecological theories and overarching patterns of urban bird ecology that have only recently become available. The numerous habitats represented in this book ranges from rows of trees in wooded alleys, to wastelands and remnants of natural habitats encapsulated in the urban matrix. Authored by leading scientists in this emergent field, the chapters explore how the characteristics of the habitat in urban environments influence bird communities and populations at multiple levels of ecological organization and at different spatial and temporal scales, and how this information should be incorporated in urban planning to achieve an effective conservation of bird fauna in urban environments. Birds are among the most conspicuous and fascinating residents of urban neighborhoods and provide urban citizens with everyday wildlife contact all over the world. However, present urbanization trends are rapidly depleting their habitats, and thus knowledge of urban bird ecology is urgently needed if birds are to thrive in cities. The book is unique in its inclusion of examples from all continents (except Antarctica) in an effort to arrive at a more holistic perspective. Among other issues, the individual chapters address the censusing of birds in urban green spaces; the relationship between bird communities and the structure of urban green spaces; the role of exotic plant species as food sources for urban bird fauna; the influence of artificial light and pollutants on bird fauna; trends in long-term urban bird research, and transdisciplinary studies on bird sounds and their effects on humans. Several chapters investigate how our current knowledge of the ecology of urban bird fauna should be applied in order to achieve better management of urban habitats so as to achieve conservation of species or even increase species diversity. The book also provides a forward-looking summary on potential research directions. As such, it provides a valuable resource for urban ecologists, urban ecology students, landscape architects, city planners, decision makers and anyone with an interest in urban ornithology and bird conservation. Moreover, it provides a comprehensive overview for researchers in the fields of ecology and conservation of urban bird fauna.

Africa's Urban Revolution


Author: Doctor Edgar Pieterse,Susan Parnell
Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.
ISBN: 1780325231
Category: Social Science
Page: 320
View: 2734
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The facts of Africa’s rapid urbanisation are startling. By 2030 African cities will have grown by more than 350 million people and over half the continent's population will be urban. Yet in the minds of policy makers, scholars and much of the general public, Africa remains a quintessentially rural place. This lack of awareness and robust analysis means it is difficult to make a policy case for a more overtly urban agenda. As a result, there is across the continent insufficient urgency directed to responding to the challenges and opportunities associated with the world’s last major wave of urbanisation. Drawing on the expertise of scholars and practitioners associated with the African Centre for Cities, and utilising a diverse array of case studies, Africa's Urban Revolution provides a comprehensive insight into the key issues - demographic, cultural, political, technical, environmental and economic - surrounding African urbanisation.

Mapping Forest Landscape Patterns


Author: Tarmo K. Remmel,Ajith H. Perera
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493973312
Category: Science
Page: 326
View: 5722
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This book explores the concepts, premises, advancements, and challenges in quantifying natural forest landscape patterns through mapping techniques. After several decades of development and use, these tools can now be examined for their foundations, intentions, scope, advancements, and limitations. When applied to natural forest landscapes, mapping techniques must address concepts such as stochasticity, heterogeneity, scale dependence, non-Euclidean geometry, continuity, non-linearity, and parsimony, as well as be explicit about the intended degree of abstraction and assumptions. These studies focus on quantifying natural (i.e., non-human engineered) forest landscape patterns, because those patterns are not planned, are relatively complex, and pose the greatest challenges in cartography, and landscape representation for further interpretation and analysis.

Forest Landscapes and Global Change

Challenges for Research and Management
Author: João C. Azevedo,Ajith H. Perera,M. Alice Pinto
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493909533
Category: Science
Page: 262
View: 5881
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Climate change, urban sprawl, abandonment of agriculture, intensification of forestry and agriculture, changes in energy generation and use, expansion of infrastructure networks, habitat destruction and degradation, and other drivers of change occur at increasing rates. They affect patterns and processes in forest landscapes, and modify ecosystem services derived from those ecosystems. Consequently, rapidly changing landscapes present many new challenges to scientists and managers. While it is not uncommon to encounter the terms “global change” and “landscape” together in the ecological literature, a global analyses of drivers of change in forest landscapes, and their ecological consequences have not been addressed adequately. That is the goal of this volume: an exploration of the state of knowledge of global changes in forested landscapes with emphasis on causes and effects, and challenges faced by researchers and land managers. Initial chapters identify and describe major agents of landscape change: climate, fire, and human activities. The next series of chapters address implications of changes on ecosystem services, biodiversity conservation and carbon flux. A chapter that describes methodologies of detecting and monitoring landscape changes is presented followed by chapter that highlights the many challenges forest landscape managers face amidst of global change. Finally, we present a summary and a synthesis of the main points presented in the book. Each chapter will contain the individual research experiences of chapter authors, augmented by review and synthesis of global scientific literature on relevant topics, as well as critical input from multiple peer reviewers.