Voice of the Muslim Brotherhood

Da'wa, Discourse, and Political Communication
Author: Noha Mellor
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351628046
Category: Political Science
Page: 248
View: 6353
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In the wake of the 25 January revolution and the coup that followed in 2013, Egyptian bookstores recorded a significant increase in demand for books by and about the Muslim Brotherhood. However, despite the burgeoning literature on the Brotherhood, knowledge about the movement is still rather limited, particularly with regard to its most strategic tool – media and communications. This book offers a fresh and close look into the communication strategy of the group, focusing on published periodicals, biographies, and websites that represent the voice of the Brotherhood. The book analyses the core mission of the Brotherhood, namely its da?wa (call, invitation to faith) – how it is articulated and how it is defined by the movement as an ideology and a process. Have the media represented a coherent voice of the Brotherhood over the past decades? What can they communicate regarding the Brothers’ perception of the needs of their audiences? How have the media served to sustain, preserve, and distinguish the movement for nine decades? The book argues that the Brotherhood media speak with an intermittent voice and deliver an incoherent message whose tone is changeable and fluctuating and cannot be claimed to truly represent the heterogeneity of the group. Adopting an interdisciplinary approach that integrates Media Studies and Social Movement Theory, the book provides a fresh analysis of the Brotherhood movement as an interpretive community and will be a valuable resource for anyone studying Egypt or the Muslim Brotherhood.

The Society of the Muslim Brothers


Author: Richard Paul Mitchell
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0195084373
Category: Religion
Page: 349
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Orignally published in 1969, this monograph has become known as a standard source for the history of the revivalist Egyptian movement, the Muslim Brethren, up to the time of Nasser. The work has been reissued for those scholars and students interested in the Muslim revival.

The Muslim Brotherhood and the West

A History of Enmity and Engagement
Author: Martyn Frampton
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674984897
Category: History
Page: 672
View: 6409
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Drawing on the Muslim Brotherhood’s Arabic and English writings and on archival research in London and Washington, Martyn Frampton provides the first comprehensive history of the charged relationship between the world’s largest Islamist movement and the Western powers that have dominated the Middle East for a century: Britain and the United States.

The Muslim Brotherhood in Contemporary Egypt

Democracy Redefined or Confined?
Author: Mariz Tadros
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136296220
Category: Political Science
Page: 208
View: 4276
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The Muslim Brotherhood is one of the oldest and most influential Islamist movements. As the party ascends to power in Egypt, it is poised to adopt a new system of governance and state–society relations, the effects of which are likely to extend well beyond Egypt’s national borders. This book examines the Brotherhood’s visions and practices, from its inception in 1928, up to its response to the 2011 uprising, as it moves to redefine democracy along Islamic lines. The book analyses the Muslim Brotherhood’s position on key issues such as gender, religious minorities, and political plurality, and critically analyses whether claims that the Brotherhood has abandoned extremism and should be engaged with as a moderate political force can be substantiated. It also considers the wider political context of the region, and assesses the extent to which the Brotherhood has the potential to transform politics in the Middle East.

The Muslim Brotherhood

Evolution of an Islamist Movement
Author: Carrie Rosefsky Wickham
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400866243
Category: Political Science
Page: 424
View: 5477
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Following the Arab Spring, the Muslim Brotherhood achieved a level of influence previously unimaginable. Yet the implications of the Brotherhood's rise and dramatic fall for the future of democratic governance, peace, and stability in the region are disputed and remain open to debate. Drawing on more than one hundred in-depth interviews as well as Arabic-language sources never before accessed by Western researchers, Carrie Rosefsky Wickham traces the evolution of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt from its founding in 1928 to the fall of Hosni Mubarak and the watershed elections of 2011-2012. Highlighting elements of movement continuity and change, Wickham demonstrates that shifts in Islamist worldviews, goals, and strategies are not the result of a single strand of cause and effect, and provides a systematic, fine-grained account of Islamist group evolution in Egypt and the wider Arab world. In a new afterword, Wickham discusses what has happened in Egypt since Muhammad Morsi was ousted and the Muslim Brotherhood fell from power.

The Muslim Brotherhood

From Opposition to Power
Author: Alison Pargeter
Publisher: Saqi
ISBN: 0863567460
Category: Political Science
Page: 304
View: 9018
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A new, fully updated edition of this critically acclaimed title featuring a new chapter covering the 'Arab Spring' and the Egyptian parliamentary and presidential elections. This is an authoritative analysis, in which Alison Pargeter follows the twists and turns of the Muslim Brotherhood as it battled through the years of oppression under authoritarian regimes to finally become a key and legitimate political actor. From Egypt and Syria to Tunisia and Libya, the Brotherhood and its affiliates are now faced with the complex task of transforming themselves from semi-clandestine opposition movements into legitimate political actors and, in some cases, into ruling powers. 'Authoritative, sober, perceptive ... A must read' Jason Burke. 'A tour de force' Alan George, University of Oxford. 'A highly lucid and approachable analysis of the Brotherhood' Richard Phelps, Perspectives on Terrorism. 'Highly recommended' New Statesman.

Rentier Islamism

The Influence of the Muslim Brotherhood in Gulf Monarchies
Author: Courtney Freer
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190861991
Category: Political Science
Page: 296
View: 1899
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While scholars have long looked at the role of political Islam in the Middle East, it has been assumed that domestic politics in the wealthy monarchical states of the Arabian Gulf, so-called "rentier states" where taxes are very low and oil wealth subsidizes the needs of citizens, are largely unaffected by such movements. However, the long accepted rentier theory has been shortsighted in overlooking the socio-political role played by Muslim Brotherhood affiliates in the super-rentiers of Kuwait, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. While rentier state theory assumes that citizens of such states will form opposition blocs only when their stake in rent income is threatened, this book demonstrates that ideology, rather than rent, have motivated the formation of independent Islamist movements in the wealthiest states of the region. In the monarchical systems of Qatar and the UAE, Islamist groups do not have the opportunity to compete for power and therefore cannot use the ballot box to gain popularity or influence political life, as they do elsewhere in the Middle East. But, as this book points out, the division between the social and political sectors is often blurred in the socially conservative states of the Gulf, as political actors operate through channels that are not institutionalized. Simply because politics is underinstitutionalized in such states does not mean that it is underdeveloped; the informal realm holds considerable political capital. As such, the book argues that Brotherhood movements have managed to use the links between the social (i.e. informal personal networks) and political (i.e. government institutions) to gain influence in policymaking in such states.Using contemporary history and original empirical research, Courtney Freer updates traditional rentier state theory and argues that political Islam serves as a prominent voice and tool to promote more strictly political, and often populist or reformist, views supported by many Gulf citizens.

The Orphan Scandal

Christian Missionaries and the Rise of the Muslim Brotherhood
Author: Beth Baron
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 0804792224
Category: History
Page: 272
View: 8530
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On a sweltering June morning in 1933 a fifteen-year-old Muslim orphan girl refused to rise in a show of respect for her elders at her Christian missionary school in Port Said. Her intransigence led to a beating—and to the end of most foreign missions in Egypt—and contributed to the rise of Islamist organizations. Turkiyya Hasan left the Swedish Salaam Mission with scratches on her legs and a suitcase of evidence of missionary misdeeds. Her story hit a nerve among Egyptians, and news of the beating quickly spread through the country. Suspicion of missionary schools, hospitals, and homes increased, and a vehement anti-missionary movement swept the country. That missionaries had won few converts was immaterial to Egyptian observers: stories such as Turkiyya's showed that the threat to Muslims and Islam was real. This is a great story of unintended consequences: Christian missionaries came to Egypt to convert and provide social services for children. Their actions ultimately inspired the development of the Muslim Brotherhood and similar Islamist groups. In The Orphan Scandal, Beth Baron provides a new lens through which to view the rise of Islamic groups in Egypt. This fresh perspective offers a starting point to uncover hidden links between Islamic activists and a broad cadre of Protestant evangelicals. Exploring the historical aims of the Christian missions and the early efforts of the Muslim Brotherhood, Baron shows how the Muslim Brotherhood and like-minded Islamist associations developed alongside and in reaction to the influx of missionaries. Patterning their organization and social welfare projects on the early success of the Christian missions, the Brotherhood launched their own efforts to "save" children and provide for the orphaned, abandoned, and poor. In battling for Egypt's children, Islamic activists created a network of social welfare institutions and a template for social action across the country—the effects of which, we now know, would only gain power and influence across the country in the decades to come.

Islamic Economics and the Final Jihad


Author: David Jonsson
Publisher: Xulon Press
ISBN: 1597819808
Category: Religion
Page: 620
View: 9165
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Jonsson presents the history and Islamist strategy for achieving world domination without terrorism through gradual Islamization of the West by controlling currency, oil resources, free trade zones, transportation, media, and financial markets. (Social Issues)

The Muslim Brotherhood

The Burden of Tradition
Author: Alison Pargeter
Publisher: Saqi Books
ISBN: 0865364893
Category: History
Page: 472
View: 5781
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The Muslim Brotherhood is one of the oldest and most controversial Islamist movements to have emerged out of the Middle East. Cloaked in secrecy since its inception in 1928, it has presented a conundrum to many in the Middle East and the West who are highly suspicious of the movement and its goals. Drawing on interviews with key members of the Brotherhood, Alison Pargeter sheds light on the evolution of the movement and assesses the aims and strategies it has employed both in the Middle East and in Europe. The Brotherhood’s relationship to violence and to the state, its attitudes towards democracy and the West, and the development of a more reformist discourse among some parts of the movement are also explored. Meticulously researched and authoritative, this study is the first to offer a perspective on the Brotherhood as a transnational movement and to analyse the evolving policy debates about the merits of engaging with the Brotherhood in the post 9/11 world. ‘Alison Pargeter has established a reputation as one of the best current analysts of Islamic radicalism. This book – detailed, authoritative, sober, perceptive and meticulously researched – shows why. It is an important contribution to our understanding both of the Muslim Brotherhood itself, to the controversies that surround the movement and to the broader phenomenon of political Islam. A must read for scholars, students and anyone interested in the Middle East.’ Jason Burke, author of Al-Qaeda: The True Story of Radical Islam ‘A tour de force … This well-written and much-needed book by a respected British scholar admirably traces the origins and development, internal debates and frictions, geographical spread – and abiding contradictions – of a movement that, despite its ambiguities and shortcomings, remains very much a force to be reckoned with.’ Alan George, University of Oxford ‘Alison Pargeter’s engaging and intelligent book makes a significant contribution to the existing literature on the Muslim Brotherhood. Her use of new sources, including interviews with key members of the Brotherhood, gives us a fresh perspective on this elusive movement, notably its shadowy international organization and the relations between its various branches. This is a welcome and highly readable addition to the growing body of work on the political Islamist movements that have shaped the contemporary Islamic world and beyond.’ Karin von Hippel, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington

The Brotherhood

America's Next Great Enemy
Author: Erick Stakelbeck
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1621570347
Category: Religion
Page: 256
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The Brotherhoods is the chilling chronicle of the alleged crimes and betrayals of NYPD Detectives Stephen Caracappa and Louis Eppolito, notorious rogue cops who stand charged with the ultimate form of police corruption-shielding their crimes behind their badges while they worked for the mob. These crimes included murder, kidnapping, torture, and the betrayal of an entire generation of New York City detectives and federal agents. This gripping real-life detective story reveals two brotherhoods, both with hierarchies, rituals, and codes of conduct. Chased for seven years by William Oldham, the brilliant and determined detective who didn't let the case die, Detectives Caracappa and Eppolito are at the centre of an investigation that moves from the mobbed-up streets of Brooklyn to Hollywood sets and the Las Vegas strip. Co-written with prize-winning investigative journalist Guy Lawson, the story spans three decades and showcases a cast of characters that runs the gamut from capo psychopaths to grieving mothers to a group of retired detectives and investigators working to see that justice is done.This quintessential American mob tale, both bizarre and compelling, ranks with such modern crime classics as Serpico, Donnie Brasco, and Wiseguy.

Inside the Muslim Brotherhood

Religion, Identity, and Politics
Author: Khalil al-Anani
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190632089
Category: Religion
Page: 224
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Over the past three decades, through rises and falls in power, regime repression and exclusion, the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood has endured, proving more resilient than any other Islamist movement in the world. In this book Khalil al-Anani explores the factors that have enabled the Brotherhood to survive so long within an ever-changing political landscape. Inside the Muslim Brotherhood unpacks the principal factors that shape the movement's identity, organization, and activism. Investigating the processes of socialization, indoctrination, recruitment, identification, networking, and mobilization that characterize the movement, al-Anani argues that the Brotherhood is not merely a political actor seeking power but an identity-maker that aims to change societal values, norms, and morals to line up with its ideology and worldview. The Brotherhood is involved in an intensive process of meaning construction and symbolic production that shapes individuals' identity and gives sense to their lives. The result is a distinctive code of identity that binds members together, maintains their activism, and guides their behavior in everyday life. Al-Anani attributes the Brotherhood's longevity to its tight-knit structure coupled with a complex membership system that has helped them resist regime penetration. The book also explores the divisions and differences within the movement and how these affect its strategy and decisions. The culmination of over a decade of research and interviews with leaders and members of the movement, this book challenges the dominant narratives about Islamists and Islamism as a whole.

Ashes of Hama

The Muslim Brotherhood in Syria
Author: Raphael Lefevre
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199365334
Category: Political Science
Page: 288
View: 5847
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When the convulsions of the Arab Spring first became manifest in Syria in March 2011, the Ba'athist regime was quick to blame the protests on the "Syrian Muslim Brotherhood" and its "al-Qaeda affiliates." But who are these Islamists so determined to rule a post-Assad Syria? Little has been published on militant Islam in Syria since Hafez Assad's regime destroyed the Islamist movement in its stronghold of Hama in February 1982. This book bridges that gap by providing readers with the first comprehensive account of the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood's history to date. In this ground-breaking account of Syria's most prominent, yet highly secretive, Islamist organisation, the author draws on previously untapped sources: the memoirs of former Syrian jihadists; British and American archives; and also a series of wide-ranging interviews with the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood's historical leaders as well as those who battled against them--many speaking on the record for the first time. Ashes of Hama uncovers the major aspects of the Islamist struggle: from the Brotherhood's radicalisation and its "jihad" against the Ba'athist regime and subsequent exile, to a spectacular comeback at the forefront of the Syrian revolution in 2011--a remarkable turnaround for an Islamist movement which all analysts had pronounced dead amid the ruins of Hama in 1982.

Inside the Brotherhood


Author: Hazem Kandil
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0745682936
Category: Social Science
Page: 240
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This is the first in-depth study of the relationship between the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood and its own members. Drawing on years of participant observation, extensive interviews, previously inaccessible organizational documents, and dozens of memoirs and writings, the book provides an intimate portrayal of the recruitment and socialization of Brothers, the evolution of their intricate social networks, and the construction of the peculiar ideology that shapes their everyday practices. Drawing on his original research, Kandil reinterprets the Brotherhood’s slow rise and rapid downfall from power in Egypt, and compares it to the Islamist subsidiaries it created and the varieties it inspired around the world. This timely book will be of great interest to students and scholars of the politics of the Middle East and to anyone who wants to understand the dramatic events unfolding in Egypt and elsewhere in the wake of the Arab uprisings.

Arab Fall

How the Muslim Brotherhood Won and Lost Egypt in 891 Days
Author: Eric Trager
Publisher: Georgetown University Press
ISBN: 1626163626
Category: History
Page: 296
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Despite playing a marginal role in the spectacular 2011 Arab Spring uprising that ended Hosni Mubarak's reign, how did the Muslim Brotherhood win power so quickly in Egypt? And why did the Brotherhood's Mohamed Morsi, the country's first democratically elected president, fall from power only 891 days after Mubarak in the face of widespread protests and then a bloody military coup? In Arab Fall, Eric Trager examines the decisionmaking of the Brotherhood and their political arm, the Freedom and Justice Party, throughout this critical period and answers why their time in power was so short. Based in part on interviews with dozens of Brotherhood leaders and cadres including Morsi, Trager argues that the very organizational characteristics that helped the Brotherhood win power also contributed to their rapid downfall. While the organization's hierarchical structure allowed them unparalleled mobilizing capabilities, their autocratic governing style alienated much of the population and united diverse groups against them. Their insularity also left them entirely unprepared for the military coup and crackdown in July and August 2013. Trager concludes the book with an assessment the current state of Egyptian politics and whether or not the Brotherhood will reemerge in the future.

Egypt After Mubarak

Liberalism, Islam, and Democracy in the Arab World
Author: Bruce K. Rutherford
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691158045
Category: Political Science
Page: 292
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Which way will Egypt go now that Husni Mubarak's authoritarian regime has been swept from power? Will it become an Islamic theocracy similar to Iran? Will it embrace Western-style liberalism and democracy? Egypt after Mubarak reveals that Egypt's secularists and Islamists may yet navigate a middle path that results in a uniquely Islamic form of liberalism and, perhaps, democracy. Bruce Rutherford draws on in-depth interviews with Egyptian judges, lawyers, Islamic activists, politicians, and businesspeople. He utilizes major court rulings, political documents of the Muslim Brotherhood, and the writings of Egypt's leading contemporary Islamic thinkers. Rutherford demonstrates that, in post-Mubarak Egypt, progress toward liberalism and democracy is likely to be slow. Essential reading on a subject of global importance, this edition includes a new introduction by Rutherford that takes stock of the Arab Spring and the Muslim Brotherhood's victories in the 2011-2012 elections.

The Muslim Brotherhood

The Organization and Policies of a Global Islamist Movement
Author: B. Rubin
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230106870
Category: Social Science
Page: 186
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The Muslim Brotherhood is the oldest and most important international Islamist group. Aside from strong organizations in Egypt, Jordan, Syria—where it provides the main opposition—and its Palestinian offshoot Hamas which rules the Gaza Strip, the Brotherhood has become active in Europe and North America.

Sayyid Qutb and the Origins of Radical Islamism


Author: John Calvert
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199365261
Category: Political Science
Page: 392
View: 6490
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Sayyid Qutb (1906-1966) was an influential Egyptian ideologue credited with establishing the theoretical basis for radical Islamism in the post colonial Sunni Muslim world. Lacking a pure understanding of the leader's life and work, the popular media has conflated Qutb's moral purpose with the aims of bin Laden and al-Qaeda. He is often portrayed as a terrorist, Islamo-Fascist, and advocate of murder. This book rescues Qutb from misrepresentation, tracing the evolution of his thought within the context of his time. An expert on social protest and political resistance in the modern Middle East, as well as Egyptian nationalism, John Calvert recounts Qutb's life from the small village in which he was raised to his execution at the behest of Abd al-Nasser's regime. His study remains sensitive to the cultural, political, social, and economic circumstances that shaped Qutb's thought-major developments that composed one of the most eventful periods in Egyptian history. These years witnessed the full flush of Britain's tutelary regime, the advent of Egyptian nationalism, and the political hegemony of the Free Officers. Qutb rubbed shoulders with Taha Husayn, Naguib Mahfouz, and Abd al-Nasser himself, though his Islamism originally had little to do with religion. Only in response to his harrowing experience in prison did Qutb come to regard Islam and kufr (infidelity) as oppositional, antithetical, and therefore mutually exclusive. Calvert shows how Qutb repackaged and reformulated the Islamic heritage to pose a challenge to authority, including those who claimed (falsely, he believed) to be Muslim.

Return to the Shadows

The Muslim Brotherhood and An-Nahda Since the Arab Spring
Author: Alison Pargeter
Publisher: Saqi Books
ISBN: 0863561543
Category: Political Science
Page: 300
View: 375
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The Arab Spring heralded a profound shift in the Middle East, bringing to power Islamist movements which had previously been operating in the shadows. The Muslim Brotherhood stormed to victory in Egypt and emerged as a key player in Libya’s nascent political arena. Meanwhile, An-Nahda found itself catapulted into power as the head of Tunisia’s coalition government. For a while, it looked as though the region was entering the dawn of a new Islamist age. But navigating their respective countries through difficult and painful transitions ultimately proved too challenging for these forces, and, just as suddenly, the Brotherhood was dramatically overthrown in Egypt and left severely weakened in Libya. In Tunisia, An-Nahda managed to pull itself through the crisis, but its failure to articulate and deliver the hopes and aspirations of a large section of Tunisian society damaged its credibility. In this authoritative account, Alison Pargeter expertly charts the Islamists’ ascent and subsequent fall from power. Based on extensive research and interviews with high ranking members of the Brotherhood and An-Nahda, Pargeter offers a comparative analysis of the movement in North Africa since the Arab Spring, and outlines the consequences of the Brotherhood’s decline on both the region and the wider Islamist political project.

A Mosque in Munich

Nazis, the CIA, and the Rise of the Muslim Brotherhood in the West
Author: Ian Johnson
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
ISBN: 0547488688
Category: History
Page: 336
View: 618
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In the wake of the news that the 9/11 hijackers had lived in Europe, journalist Ian Johnson wondered how such a radical group could sink roots into Western soil. Most accounts reached back twenty years, to U.S. support of Islamist fighters in Afghanistan. But Johnson dug deeper, to the start of the Cold War, uncovering the untold story of a group of ex-Soviet Muslims who had defected to Germany during World War II. There, they had been fashioned into a well-oiled anti-Soviet propaganda machine. As that war ended and the Cold War began, West German and U.S. intelligence agents vied for control of this influential group, and at the center of the covert tug of war was a quiet mosque in Munich—radical Islam’s first beachhead in the West. Culled from an array of sources, including newly declassified documents, A Mosque in Munich interweaves the stories of several key players: a Nazi scholar turned postwar spymaster; key Muslim leaders across the globe, including members of the Muslim Brotherhood; and naïve CIA men eager to fight communism with a new weapon, Islam. A rare ground-level look at Cold War spying and a revelatory account of the West’s first, disastrous encounter with radical Islam, A Mosque in Munich is as captivating as it is crucial to our understanding the mistakes we are still making in our relationship with Islamists today