Who Owns the Arctic?

Understanding Sovereignty Disputes in the North
Author: Michael Byers
Publisher: D & M Publishers
ISBN: 9781926706962
Category: Political Science
Page: 192
View: 458

Who actually controls the Northwest Passage? Who owns the trillions of dollars of oil and gas beneath the Arctic Ocean? Which territorial claims will prevail, and why — those of the United States, Russia, Canada, or the Nordic nations? And, in an age of rapid climate change, how do we protect the fragile Arctic environment while seizing the economic opportunities presented by the rapidly melting sea-ice? Michael Byers, a leading Arctic expert and international lawyer clearly and concisely explains the sometimes contradictory rules governing the division and protection of the Arctic and the disputes over the region that still need to be resolved. What emerges is a vision for the Arctic in which cooperation, not conflict, prevails and where the sovereignty of individual nations is exercised for the benefit of all. This insightful little book is an informed primer for today's most pressing territorial issue.

Who Owns the Arctic?

Understanding Sovereignty Disputes in the North
Author: Michael Byers
Publisher: Douglas & McIntyre
ISBN: 1553654994
Category: Law
Page: 179
View: 534

Who actually controls the Northwest Passage? Who owns the trillions of dollars of oil and gas beneath the Arctic Ocean? Which territorial claims will prevail, and why -- those of the United States, Russia, Canada, or the Nordic nations? And, in an age of rapid climate change, how do we protect the fragile Arctic environment while seizing the economic opportunities presented by the rapidly melting sea-ice? Michael Byers, a leading Arctic expert and international lawyer clearly and concisely explains the sometimes contradictory rules governing the division and protection of the Arctic and the disputes over the region that still need to be resolved. What emerges is a vision for the Arctic in which cooperation, not conflict, prevails and where the sovereignty of individual nations is exercised for the benefit of all. This insightful little book is an informed primer for today's most pressing territorial issue.

International Law and the Arctic


Author: Michael Byers,James Baker
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107042755
Category: Law
Page: 337
View: 6124

Sets out the international law relevant to the Arctic, from indigenous peoples to environmental protection to oil and gas exploration.

The Future History of the Arctic


Author: Charles Emmerson
Publisher: Public Affairs
ISBN: 1586486365
Category: History
Page: 405
View: 895

"[The author] leads readers ... through the landscape, history, literature and politics of the North, from the wrongheaded theories of the ancients to diplomatic intrigues on the Arctic's borderlands, the brutality of the Soviet gulag archipelago, and the region's emergence as a strategically important source of energy."--Jacket p. [2].

Polar Imperative

A History of Arctic Sovereignty in North America
Author: Shelagh D. Grant
Publisher: D & M Publishers
ISBN: 9781553656180
Category: History
Page: 560
View: 8844

Based on Shelagh Grant’s groundbreaking archival research and drawing on her reputation as a leading historian in the field, Polar Imperative is a compelling overview of the historical claims of sovereignty over this continent’s polar regions. This engaging, timely history examines: the unfolding implications of major climate changes the impact of resource exploitation on the indigenous peoples the current high-stakes game for control over the adjacent waters of Alaska, Arctic Canada and Greenland the events, issues and strategies that have influenced claims to authority over the lands and waters of the North American Arctic, from the arrival of the first inhabitants around 3,000 BCE to the present sovereignty from a comparative point of view within North America and parallel situations in the European and Asian Arctic This book will become a standard reference on Arctic history and will redefine North Americans’ understanding of the sovereign rights and responsibilities of Canada’s northernmost region.

Arctic Front

Defending Canada in the Far North
Author: Ken S. Coates,P. Whitney Lackenbauer,William R. Morrion,Greg Poelzer
Publisher: Dundurn.com
ISBN: 0887628400
Category: History
Page: 280
View: 1289

An energetic and engaging collaboration by four of Canada's leading Northern specialists, Arctic Front is a clarion call to all Canadians about our endangered Arctic region.

A History of the Arctic

Nature, Exploration and Exploitation
Author: John McCannon
Publisher: Reaktion Books
ISBN: 1780230761
Category: History
Page: 349
View: 6746

Bitter cold and constant snow. Polar bears, seals, and killer whales. Victor Frankenstein chasing his monstrous creation across icy terrain in a dogsled. The arctic calls to mind a myriad different images. Consisting of the Arctic Ocean and parts of Canada, the United States, Russia, Greenland, Finland, Norway and Sweden, the arctic possesses a unique ecosystem—temperatures average negative 29 degrees Fahrenheit in winter and rarely rise above freezing in summer—and the indigenous peoples and cultures that live in the region have had to adapt to the harsh weather conditions. As global temperatures rise, the arctic is facing an environmental crisis, with melting glaciers causing grave concern around the world. But for all the renown of this frozen region, the arctic remains far from perfectly understood. In A History of the Arctic, award-winning polar historian John McCannon provides an engaging overview of the region that spans from the Stone Age to the present. McCannon discusses polar exploration and science, nation-building, diplomacy, environmental issues, and climate change, and the role indigenous populations have played in the arctic’s story. Chronicling the history of each arctic nation, he details the many failed searches for a Northwest Passage and the territorial claims that hamper use of these waterways. He also explores the resources found in the arctic—oil, natural gas, minerals, fresh water, and fish—and describes the importance they hold as these resources are depleted elsewhere, as well as the challenges we face in extracting them. A timely assessment of current diplomatic and environmental realities, as well as the dire risks the region now faces, A History of the Arctic is a thoroughly engrossing book on the past—and future—of the top of the world.

Russia and the Arctic

Environment, Identity and Foreign Policy
Author: Geir Hønneland
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857729497
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 224
View: 9812

The world is currently witnessing an ‘Arctic Scramble’ – as the major powers compete to demarcate and occupy Arctic territory. The region is known to be home to large gas and oil reserves, and its position at the top of the globe holds significant trading and military advantages. Yet the territorial boundaries of the region remain ill-defined and Russia, under the increasingly bold foreign policy of Vladimir Putin, has emerged as a forceful power in the region. Geir Hønneland investigates the political contexts and international tensions surrounding Russia’s actions, focusing especially on the disputes which have emerged in the Barents Sea – where European and Russian interests compete directly. Skillfully delineating Russian policy in the region, and analyzing the mineral and environmental consequences of the recent treaty agreements, Russia and the Arctic is a crucial addition to our understanding of contemporary International Relations concerning the Polar North

Protecting the Arctic

Indigenous Peoples and Cultural Survival
Author: Mark Nuttall
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113529738X
Category: Social Science
Page: 204
View: 8975

Protecting the Arctic explores some of the ways in which indigenous peoples have taken political action regarding Arctic environmental and sustainable development issues, and investigates the involvement of indigenous peoples in international environmental policy- making. Nuttall illustrates how indigenous peoples make claims that their own forms of resource management not only have relevance in an Arctic regional context, but provide models for the inclusion of indigenous values and environmental knowledge in the design, negotiation and implementation of global environmental policy.

Arctic Security in an Age of Climate Change


Author: James Kraska
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139499335
Category: Political Science
Page: N.A
View: 4061

This book examines Arctic defense policy and military security from the perspective of all eight Arctic states. In light of climate change and melting ice in the Arctic Ocean, Canada, Russia, Denmark (Greenland), Norway and the United States, as well as Iceland, Sweden and Finland, are grappling with an emerging Arctic security paradigm. This volume brings together the world's most seasoned Arctic political-military experts from Europe and North America to analyze how Arctic nations are adapting their security postures to accommodate increased shipping, expanding naval presence, and energy and mineral development in the polar region. The book analyzes the ascent of Russia as the first 'Arctic superpower', the growing importance of polar security for NATO and the Nordic states, and the increasing role of Canada and the United States in the region.

Intent For A Nation: What is Canada For

A Relentlessly Optimistic Manifesto for Canada's Role in the World
Author: Michael Byers
Publisher: D & M Publishers
ISBN: 9781926685694
Category: Political Science
Page: 256
View: 3123

In Intent for a Nation, Michael Byers argues that it is time for a clear-eyed appreciation of our strengths and weaknesses, of all we have and all we could be. A whole series of world events-the waning of US credibility; the increasing value of natural resources; the brain-gain; the ever-increasing interdependence of peoples, countries and continents-have combined to put Canada center stage in a new world order. Instead of emulating our increasingly isolated neighbor, we should be advancing the Canadian model, an idealistic, fiscally prudent, socially progressive vision that has never looked so good. Intent for a Nation is a fundamentally optimistic, informed and opinionated overview of where Canada stands in the world and what aggressive public policies are needed to carry the country forward in an ever more competitive and volatile world. Here is a book urging Canadians to rediscover their national self-confidence, to find the courage to dream great dreams-and make them happen.

Contesting the Arctic

Rethinking Politics in the Circumpolar North
Author: Philip E. Steinberg,Jeremy Tasch,Hannes Gerhardt
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 1780761481
Category: Political Science
Page: 356
View: 7067

As climate change makes the Arctic a region of key political interest, so questions of sovereignty are once more drawing international attention. The promise of new sources of mineral wealth and energy, and of new transportation routes, has seen countries expand their sovereignty claims. Increasingly, interested parties from both within and beyond the region, including states, indigenous groups, corporate organizations, and NGOs and are pursuing their visions for the Arctic. What form of political organization should prevail? Contesting the Arctic provides a map of potential governance options for the Arctic and addresses and evaluates the ways in which Arctic stakeholders throughout the region are seeking to pursue them.

Demon Fish


Author: Juliet Eilperin
Publisher: Gerald Duckworth & Co
ISBN: 0715643525
Category: Nature
Page: 320
View: 8125

From the Bahamas and South Africa to Shanghai, sharks are the object of an obsession: film stars go big-game fishing for them and shark's fin soup is a coveted status symbol in China. Elsewhere, people and sharks exist alongside each other: surfers tolerate their presence and eco-tourists swim with them. Yet, after millions of years of the shark s evolution and survival, the human fascination with these animals may eventually lead to their extinction. In this eye-opening adventure, which criss-crosses the globe, Juliet Eilperin examines why sharks remain nature's most awe-inspiring creatures. She also explores the fascinating ways in which humans relate to the ocean's top predator.

Ice and Water

Politics Peoples And The Artic Council
Author: John English
Publisher: Penguin Canada
ISBN: 0143190261
Category: History
Page: 304
View: 6070

As the Far North assumes an increasingly important role in international politics, so too does Canada’s role in its governance. In 1991, eight countries signed the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy: Canada, the United States, Russia, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Iceland, and Finland. This was the first step in the formation of the Arctic Council, which was formally established in 1996 to act as a high-level intergovernmental body to address social, political, and environmental issues in the Arctic. Indigenous peoples, who form a significant population in seven of the eight countries’ Arctic regions, are involved in the council as permanent participants if they represent a single indigenous people across borders. Acclaimed biographer John English explores the history and growing relevancy of the council as Canada becomes the chair of that body in 2013. English chronicles a remarkable shift in Canada’s stance. The Canadian embrace of co-operative multilateralism in the nineties and the jealous protection of sovereignty in 2010 reveal a difference in approach, interest, and values. Both approaches had antecedents in Canada’s past—there has been Liberal unilateralism and nationalist rhetoric too—but there are fundamental differences between Canadian policies in the 1990s and those adopted in the following decade. Ice and Water explores the origins, creation, and development of the Arctic Council as a means of understanding those differences.

Custom, Power and the Power of Rules

International Relations and Customary International Law
Author: Michael Byers
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521634083
Category: Law
Page: 250
View: 1913

This book explains the most foundational aspect of international law in international relations terms.

Polar Imperative

A History of Arctic Sovereignty in North America
Author: Shelagh D. Grant
Publisher: D & M Publishers
ISBN: 9781553656180
Category: History
Page: 560
View: 509

Based on Shelagh Grant’s groundbreaking archival research and drawing on her reputation as a leading historian in the field, Polar Imperative is a compelling overview of the historical claims of sovereignty over this continent’s polar regions. This engaging, timely history examines: the unfolding implications of major climate changes the impact of resource exploitation on the indigenous peoples the current high-stakes game for control over the adjacent waters of Alaska, Arctic Canada and Greenland the events, issues and strategies that have influenced claims to authority over the lands and waters of the North American Arctic, from the arrival of the first inhabitants around 3,000 BCE to the present sovereignty from a comparative point of view within North America and parallel situations in the European and Asian Arctic This book will become a standard reference on Arctic history and will redefine North Americans’ understanding of the sovereign rights and responsibilities of Canada’s northernmost region.

Lock, Stock, and Icebergs

A History of Canada’s Arctic Maritime Sovereignty
Author: Adam Lajeunesse
Publisher: UBC Press
ISBN: 0774831111
Category: History
Page: 336
View: 2978

In April 1988, after years of failed negotiations over the status of the Northwest Passage, Brian Mulroney gave Ronald Reagan a globe, pointed to the Arctic, and said “Ron that’s ours. We own it lock, stock, and icebergs.” A simple statement, it summed up Ottawa’s official policy: Canada owns the icy waters that wind their way through the Arctic Archipelago. Behind the scenes, however, successive governments have spent over a century trying to figure out how to enforce this claim. Drawing on recently declassified material, Lajeunesse guides readers through the evolution of Canada’s Arctic sovereignty, showing how the Northwest Passage and the surrounding waters became Canadian.

Asian Countries and the Arctic Future


Author: Leiv Lunde,Jian Yang,Iselin Stensdal
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814644196
Category: Political Science
Page: 312
View: 5635

Over the last few years Asian governments have taken a stronger approach to the Arctic, culminating with permanent-observer status to the Arctic Council for China, India, Japan, Singapore and South-Korea in May 2013. This groundbreaking book brings together the latest research in emerging Asian interests for the Arctic region, and the implications thereof this change has for the future. This book covers Arctic shipping, fisheries and mineral extraction. It analyzes key Asian countries' policies, positions and activities. The book also demonstrates that there are common aspects which attract Asian countries to the Arctic, such as a concern for climate change, but there are also important national differences. From the Arctic Council to UNCLOS, Arctic governance mechanisms are thoroughly presented and analyzed. Contributed by scholars from both Asia — China, India, Japan, Singapore and South-Korea — as well as Arctic countries — Norway and USA, this book is an essential source of reference for both academics and government professionals, as well for the readers keen on understanding the dynamic change in the Arctic region. Contents:Governance and Cooperation:Adaptive Governance for a Changing Arctic (Oran R Young)The Arctic Governance and the Interactions between Arctic and Non-Arctic Countries (YANG Jian)Can Asian Involvement Strengthen Arctic Governance? (Olav Schram Stokke)High North: High Politics or Low Tension? Cooperation and Conflict in the Arctic (Jo Inge Bekkevold)Analysis of International Arctic Cooperation Mechanisms among the Nordic Countries (CHENG Baozhi)Economic Development:International Use of the Northern Sea Route — Trends and Prospects (Arild Moe)A Comparative Study of the Administration of the Canadian Northwest Passage and the Russian Northern Sea Route (ZOU Leilei and HUANG Shuolin)Governance and Ownership of the Arctic Ocean: Living Resources and the Continental Shelf (Njord Wegge)Arctic Mining: Asian Interests and Opportunities (Iselin Stensdal)Asia in the Arctic:Japan's Arctic Policy Development: From Engagement to a Strategy (Fujio Ohnishi)India's Arctic Attention (Uttam Sinha)Asian Economic Interests in the Arctic — Singapore's Perspective (CHEN Gang)Changes in the Arctic and China's Participation in Arctic Governance (ZHANG Pei and YANG Jian)The Cooperation and Competition between China, Japan, and South Korea in the Arctic (GONG Keyu)Findings and Challenges of the North Pacific Arctic Conference (Jong-Deog Kim)The Future of the Arctic and the Asian Countries: Concluding Remarks (Iselin Stensdal) Readership: Academics, undergraduate and graduate students, professionals, and policy makers interested in major Asian countries' Arctic interests, Arctic governance, economic development in the Arctic regions, Northern Sea Route and Northwestern Passage. Key Features:Addresses a topic which has been previously little covered, but is of growing global interestRepresents one of the first efforts to bring all relevant Asian countries together to discuss Arctic issuesContributed by Scholars from Asia and Arctic CountriesKeywords:Arctic;Asia;China;India;Japan;Singapore;South Korea;Governance;Regional Politics;Cooperation;Conflict;Economy;Shipping;Mining;Fishery;Northern Sea Route;Northwestern Passage

Handbook of the Politics of the Arctic


Author: Leif Christian Jensen,Geir Hønneland
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 0857934740
Category: History
Page: 640
View: 4113

The Arctic has again become one of the leading issues on the international foreign policy agenda, in a manner unseen since the Cold War. Drawing on the perspectives of geo-politics and international law, this Handbook offers fresh insights and perspectives on the most pressing issues, grouped under the headings of political ascendancy, climate and environmental issues, resources and energy, and the response and policies of affected countries.

Far Off Metal River

Inuit Lands, Settler Stories, and the Making of the Contemporary Arctic
Author: Emilie Cameron
Publisher: UBC Press
ISBN: 0774828870
Category: Social Science
Page: 296
View: 3098

Drawing on Samuel Hearne’s gruesome account of an alleged massacre at Bloody Falls in 1771, Emilie Cameron reveals how Qablunaat (non-Inuit, non-Indigenous people) have used stories about the Arctic for over two centuries as a tool to justify ongoing colonization and economic exploitation of the North. Rather than expecting Inuit to counter these narratives with their own stories about their homeland, Cameron argues that it is the responsibility of Qablunaat to develop new relationships with northerners – ones grounded in the political, cultural, economic, environmental, and social landscapes of the contemporary Arctic.