World deforestation in the twentieth century


Author: John F. Richards,Richard P. Tucker,Duke University. Center for International Studies
Publisher: Duke Univ Pr
ISBN: N.A
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 321
View: 4954
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Something New Under the Sun: An Environmental History of the Twentieth-Century World (The Global Century Series)


Author: J. R. McNeill
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 0393321835
Category: History
Page: 421
View: 5292
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Assesses the impact of humanity on twentieth century Earth, exploring the indirect effects of politics, international relations, technological change, key scientists, and environmental disasters and policies.

Tropical Forests

Paths of Destruction and Regeneration
Author: Thomas Rudel
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 9780231506908
Category: Science
Page: 234
View: 2094
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In Tropical Forests, Rudel analyzes hundreds of local studies from the past twenty years to develop a much-needed, global perspective on deforestation. With separate chapters on individual regions, including South and Central America, the Caribbean, and Africa, Rudel's work offers an up-to-date assessment of the world's tropical forests. In the concluding chapter, Rudel considers the implications of these trends and describes policy directions for conserving biodiversity and promoting sustainable development in each region.

The World Hunt

An Environmental History of the Commodification of Animals
Author: John F. Richards
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520958470
Category: History
Page: 157
View: 6141
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Presented here is the final and most coherent section of a sweeping classic work in environmental history, The Unending Frontier. The World Hunt focuses on the commercial hunting of wildlife and its profound global impact on the environment and the early modern world economy. Tracing the massive expansion of the European quest for animal products, The World Hunt explores the fur trade in North America and Russia, cod fishing in the North Atlantic, and whaling and sealing on the world’s oceans and coastlands.

Americans and Their Forests

A Historical Geography
Author: Michael Williams
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521428378
Category: History
Page: 624
View: 4305
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Dr Williams begins by exploring the role of the forest in American culture: the symbols, themes, and concepts - for example, pioneer woodsman, lumberjack, wilderness - generated by contact with the vast land of trees. He considers the Indian use of the forest, describing the ways in which native tribes altered it, primarily through fire, to promote a subsistence economy.

Reframing Deforestation

Global Analyses and Local Realities: Studies in West Africa
Author: James Fairhead,Melissa Leach
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134665172
Category: Science
Page: 264
View: 3788
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This study reviews how West African deforestation is represented and the evidence which informs deforestation orthodoxy. On a country by country basis (covering Sierra Leone, Liberia, Cote D'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo and Benin), and using historical and social anthropological evidence the authors evaluate this orthodox critically. Reframing Deforestation suggests that the scale of deforestation wrought by West African farmers during the twentieth century has been vastly exaggerated. The authors argue that global analyses have unfairly stigmatised West Africa and obscured its more sustainable, even landscape-enriching practices. Stessing that dominant policy approaches in forestry and conservation require major rethinking worldwide, Reframing Deforestation illustrates that more realistic assessments of forest cover change, and more respectful attention to local knowledge and practices, are necessary bases for effective and appropriate environmental policies.

The Unending Frontier

An Environmental History of the Early Modern World
Author: John F. Richards
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520246780
Category: History
Page: 682
View: 5157
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Describes the effect of human action on the world's environment.

Global Deforestation and the Nineteenth Century World Economy


Author: Richard Philip Tucker,John F. Richards
Publisher: Durham, NC : Duke University Press
ISBN: N.A
Category: Nature
Page: 210
View: 4574
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Plantations and Protected Areas

A Global History of Forest Management
Author: Brett M. Bennett
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262029936
Category: Science
Page: 216
View: 1053
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How global forest management shifted from an integrated conservation model to a bifurcated system of timber plantations and protected areas.

The Woods of Ireland

A History, 700-1800
Author: Nigel Everett
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781846825910
Category: History
Page: 344
View: 2723
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The accepted view of Irish woodlands is that Ireland was covered in trees until the English came and chopped them down. While admirable in its brevity, this interpretation is inadequate regarding the actual management of Irish forests from the later Gaelic era to the close of the 18th century. This book focuses on the fundamentally pragmatic and commercial view of trees adopted by much of Gaelic civilization, as well as the attempts of the various Anglo-Irish administrations to introduce more conservative woodland practices. By the late 17th century, the re-afforestation of Ireland had become a paramount badge of respectability for Irish landowners and gave rise to a distinctive body of landscape design and painting, exemplified by the works of Thomas Roberts and William Ashford. *** "Everett's latest book...illuminates the culture, economy, and politics of a nation by examining the natural landscape and human interaction with it....exhaustively researched and lucidly written....a must for any academic library...Essential." - Choice, Vol. 52, No. 10, June 2015 [Subject: History, Irish Studies, Forest Management]

Forests Are Gold

Trees, People, and Environmental Rule in Vietnam
Author: Pamela D. McElwee
Publisher: University of Washington Press
ISBN: 029580646X
Category: History
Page: 312
View: 9413
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Forests Are Gold examines the management of Vietnam's forests in the tumultuous twentieth century�from French colonialism to the recent transition to market-oriented economics�as the country united, prospered, and transformed people and landscapes. Forest policy has rarely been about ecology or conservation for nature�s sake, but about managing citizens and society, a process Pamela McElwee terms �environmental rule.� Untangling and understanding these practices and networks of rule illuminates not just thorny issues of environmental change, but also the birth of Vietnam itself.

Nature Next Door

Cities and Trees in the American Northeast
Author: Ellen Stroud
Publisher: University of Washington Press
ISBN: 0295804459
Category: Nature
Page: 192
View: 5768
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The once denuded northeastern United States is now a region of trees. Nature Next Door argues that the growth of cities, the construction of parks, the transformation of farming, the boom in tourism, and changes in the timber industry have together brought about a return of northeastern forests. Although historians and historical actors alike have seen urban and rural areas as distinct, they are in fact intertwined, and the dichotomies of farm and forest, agriculture and industry, and nature and culture break down when the focus is on the history of Northeastern woods. Cities, trees, mills, rivers, houses, and farms are all part of a single transformed regional landscape. In an examination of the cities and forests of the northeastern United States-with particular attention to the woods of Maine, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, and Vermont-Ellen Stroud shows how urbanization processes there fostered a period of recovery for forests, with cities not merely consumers of nature but creators as well. Interactions between city and hinterland in the twentieth century Northeast created a new wildness of metropolitan nature: a reforested landscape intricately entangled with the region's cities and towns.

Private or Socialistic Forestry?

Forest Transition in Finland vs. Deforestation in the Tropics
Author: Matti Palo,Erkki Lehto
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9048138965
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 464
View: 6342
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While deforestation continues at an alarming rate around the world, discussions on the range of underlying causes continue. The premise is that studying successful transitions from deforestation to sustainable forestry ex post in Finland can provide novel insights into how deforestation in the tropics might be reduced in the future. Our fundamental question here is why Finland succeeded to stop deforestation for a century ago and why not the same is feasible in the contemporary tropical countries? This book presents a novel integrated theory within which this case study on Finland and contemporary modeling of underlying causes of tropical deforestation are developed. Finland remains the world’s second largest net exporter of forest products, while maintaining the highest forest cover in Europe. A transition from deforestation to sustainable industrial forestry took place in Finland during the first part of the 20th century. The underlying causes of this transition are compared via our theory with deforestation in 74 contemporary tropical countries. Both appear similar and support our theory. The interaction of public policies and market institutions has appeared to be critical during this transition. The study’s findings suggest that private forest ownership with a continuous increase in the real value of forests and alleviation of poverty under non-corruptive conditions has been a necessary, but not a sufficient, condition for this transition. In a parallel way public policies have also proved to be a necessary, but not sufficient, condition in this transition. The conclusion is that socialistic forestry along with corruption is artificially maintaining too low values in the tropical forests. The opportunity cost of sustainable forestry remains too high and deforestation by extensification of agriculture therefore continues. The prevailing socialistic forestry with dominating public forest ownership is by purpose maintaining administratively set low stumpage prices leading to low value of forests, wide corruption and continuous forest degradation and deforestation. An effective remedy – to raise the value of forests - is found to be within forestry.

Forest Recollections

Wandering Monks in Twentieth-Century Thailand
Author: Kamala Tiyavanich
Publisher: University of Hawaii Press
ISBN: 9780824817817
Category: Religion
Page: 410
View: 9025
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Combining interviews and biographies with archive materials and ephemeral popular literature, this text documents the monastic lives of three generations of forest-dwelling ascetics and challenges the stereotype of Thai Buddhism.

2016 STATE OF THE WORLD’S FORESTS

FORESTS AND AGRICULTURE: LAND-USE CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES
Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.
ISBN: 9251092087
Category: Nature
Page: 126
View: 8267
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Forests and trees support sustainable agriculture. They stabilize soils and climate, regulate water flows, give shade and shelter, and provide a habitat for pollinators and the natural predators of agricultural pests. They also contribute to the food security of hundreds of millions of people, for whom they are important sources of food, energy and income. Yet, agriculture remains the major driver of deforestation globally, and agricultural, forestry and land policies are often at odds. State of the World’s Forests (SOFO) 2016 shows that it is possible to increase agricultural productivity and food security while halting or even reversing deforestation, highlighting the successful efforts of Costa Rica, Chile, the Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Tunisia and Viet Nam. Integrated land-use planning is the key to balancing land uses, underpinned by the right policy instruments to promote both sustainable forests and agriculture.

The Oxford Handbook of Environmental History


Author: Andrew C. Isenberg
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199394474
Category: Science
Page: 640
View: 7895
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The field of environmental history emerged just decades ago but has established itself as one of the most innovative and important new approaches to history, one that bridges the human and natural world, the humanities and the sciences. With the current trend towards internationalizing history, environmental history is perhaps the quintessential approach to studying subjects outside the nation-state model, with pollution, global warming, and other issues affecting the earth not stopping at national borders. With 25 essays, this Handbook is global in scope and innovative in organization, looking at the field thematically through such categories as climate, disease, oceans, the body, energy, consumerism, and international relations.

State of the World's Forests 2012


Author: Food and Agriculture Organization
Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org
ISBN: 9789251072929
Category: Nature
Page: 46
View: 1982
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The 2012 edition of State of the Worlds Forests focuses on the critical role that forests play in sustainable production and consumption systems. In this milestone tenth edition of FAOs flagship forestry publication, it is appropriate to take a look back to understand the important role that forests and forestry have played in shaping the world as it is today. This publication has informed readers about the status and changes in the worlds forests, forest products and ecosystem services, and forest policies since the series was introduced in 1995.

Our Forest, Your Ecosystem, Their Timber

Communities, Conservation, and the State in Community-Based Forest Management
Author: Nicholas K. Menzies
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231510233
Category: Nature
Page: 280
View: 1668
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Community-based forest management (CBFM) is a model of forest management in which a community takes part in decision making and implementation, and monitoring of activities affecting the natural resources around them. CBFM provides a framework for a community members to secure access to the products and services that flow from the landscape in which they live and has become an essential component of any comprehensive approach to forest management. In this volume, Nicholas K. Menzies looks at communities in China, Zanzibar, Brazil, and India where, despite differences in landscape, climate, politics, and culture, common challenges and themes arise in making a transition from forest management by government agencies to CBFM. The stories of these four distinct places highlight the difficulties communities face when trying to manage their forests and negotiate partnerships with others interested in forest management, such as the commercial forest sector or conservation and environmental organizations. These issues are then considered against a growing body of research concerning what constitutes successful CBFM. Drawing on published and unpublished case studies, project reports, and his own rich experience, Menzies analyzes how CBFM fits into the broader picture of the management of natural resources, highlighting the conditions that bring about effective practices and the most just and equitable stewardship of resources. A critical companion for students, researchers, and practitioners, Our Forest, Your Ecosystem, Their Timber provides a singular resource on the emergence and evolution of CBFM.

Biological and Environmental Hazards, Risks, and Disasters


Author: Ramesh Sivanpillai
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0123964717
Category: Science
Page: 492
View: 4800
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Biological and Environmental Hazards, Risks, and Disasters provides an integrated look at major impacts to the Earth’s biosphere. Many of these are caused by diseases, algal blooms, insects, animals, species extinction, deforestation, land degradation, and comet and asteroid strikes that have important implications for humans. This volume, from Elsevier’s Hazards and Disasters Series, provides an in-depth view of threats, ranging from microscopic organisms to celestial objects. Perspectives from both natural and social sciences provide an in-depth understanding of potential impacts. Contributions from expert ecologists, environmental, biological, and agricultural scientists, and public health specialists selected by a world-renowned editorial board Presents the latest research on damages, causality, economic impacts, fatality rates, and preparedness and mitigation Contains tables, maps, diagrams, illustrations, and photographs of hazardous processes

Toxic Archipelago

A History of Industrial Disease in Japan
Author: Brett L. Walker
Publisher: University of Washington Press
ISBN: 0295803010
Category: History
Page: 352
View: 6117
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Every person on the planet is entangled in a web of ecological relationships that link farms and factories with human consumers. Our lives depend on these relationships -- and are imperiled by them as well. Nowhere is this truer than on the Japanese archipelago. During the nineteenth century, Japan saw the rise of Homo sapiens industrialis, a new breed of human transformed by an engineered, industrialized, and poisonous environment. Toxins moved freely from mines, factory sites, and rice paddies into human bodies. Toxic Archipelago explores how toxic pollution works its way into porous human bodies and brings unimaginable pain to some of them. Brett Walker examines startling case studies of industrial toxins that know no boundaries: deaths from insecticide contaminations; poisonings from copper, zinc, and lead mining; congenital deformities from methylmercury factory effluents; and lung diseases from sulfur dioxide and asbestos. This powerful, probing book demonstrates how the Japanese archipelago has become industrialized over the last two hundred years -- and how people and the environment have suffered as a consequence.