World deforestation in the twentieth century


Author: John F. Richards,Richard P. Tucker,Duke University. Center for International Studies
Publisher: Duke Univ Pr
ISBN: N.A
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 321
View: 7524
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The Unending Frontier

An Environmental History of the Early Modern World
Author: John F. Richards
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520246780
Category: History
Page: 682
View: 5969
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Describes the effect of human action on the world's environment.

The Oxford Handbook of Environmental History


Author: Andrew C. Isenberg
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199394474
Category: Science
Page: 640
View: 608
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The field of environmental history emerged just decades ago but has established itself as one of the most innovative and important new approaches to history, one that bridges the human and natural world, the humanities and the sciences. With the current trend towards internationalizing history, environmental history is perhaps the quintessential approach to studying subjects outside the nation-state model, with pollution, global warming, and other issues affecting the earth not stopping at national borders. With 25 essays, this Handbook is global in scope and innovative in organization, looking at the field thematically through such categories as climate, disease, oceans, the body, energy, consumerism, and international relations.

Our Forest, Your Ecosystem, Their Timber

Communities, Conservation, and the State in Community-Based Forest Management
Author: Nicholas K. Menzies
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231510233
Category: Nature
Page: 280
View: 6060
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Community-based forest management (CBFM) is a model of forest management in which a community takes part in decision making and implementation, and monitoring of activities affecting the natural resources around them. CBFM provides a framework for a community members to secure access to the products and services that flow from the landscape in which they live and has become an essential component of any comprehensive approach to forest management. In this volume, Nicholas K. Menzies looks at communities in China, Zanzibar, Brazil, and India where, despite differences in landscape, climate, politics, and culture, common challenges and themes arise in making a transition from forest management by government agencies to CBFM. The stories of these four distinct places highlight the difficulties communities face when trying to manage their forests and negotiate partnerships with others interested in forest management, such as the commercial forest sector or conservation and environmental organizations. These issues are then considered against a growing body of research concerning what constitutes successful CBFM. Drawing on published and unpublished case studies, project reports, and his own rich experience, Menzies analyzes how CBFM fits into the broader picture of the management of natural resources, highlighting the conditions that bring about effective practices and the most just and equitable stewardship of resources. A critical companion for students, researchers, and practitioners, Our Forest, Your Ecosystem, Their Timber provides a singular resource on the emergence and evolution of CBFM.

Toxic Archipelago

A History of Industrial Disease in Japan
Author: Brett L. Walker
Publisher: University of Washington Press
ISBN: 0295803010
Category: History
Page: 352
View: 8082
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Every person on the planet is entangled in a web of ecological relationships that link farms and factories with human consumers. Our lives depend on these relationships -- and are imperiled by them as well. Nowhere is this truer than on the Japanese archipelago. During the nineteenth century, Japan saw the rise of Homo sapiens industrialis, a new breed of human transformed by an engineered, industrialized, and poisonous environment. Toxins moved freely from mines, factory sites, and rice paddies into human bodies. Toxic Archipelago explores how toxic pollution works its way into porous human bodies and brings unimaginable pain to some of them. Brett Walker examines startling case studies of industrial toxins that know no boundaries: deaths from insecticide contaminations; poisonings from copper, zinc, and lead mining; congenital deformities from methylmercury factory effluents; and lung diseases from sulfur dioxide and asbestos. This powerful, probing book demonstrates how the Japanese archipelago has become industrialized over the last two hundred years -- and how people and the environment have suffered as a consequence.

The World Hunt

An Environmental History of the Commodification of Animals
Author: John F. Richards
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520958470
Category: History
Page: 157
View: 6513
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Presented here is the final and most coherent section of a sweeping classic work in environmental history, The Unending Frontier. The World Hunt focuses on the commercial hunting of wildlife and its profound global impact on the environment and the early modern world economy. Tracing the massive expansion of the European quest for animal products, The World Hunt explores the fur trade in North America and Russia, cod fishing in the North Atlantic, and whaling and sealing on the world’s oceans and coastlands.

Assigning Economic Value to Natural Resources


Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309051436
Category: Science
Page: 196
View: 1679
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There has been a lot of discussion among policymakers, particularly within the Clinton Administration, about how to make U.S. economic indicators, such as GNP, more accurately reflect the state of the environment. This book explores the major issues and controversies involved in incorporating natural resources and the environment into economic accounts. The first section of the volume, based largely on a three-day workshop of experts in the field, explains the possibilities and pitfalls in so-called "green" accounting. This is followed by a selection of nine individually authored papers, including one by Nobel prize winner Robert Solow, that probe scientific aspects of this issues in greater depth.

Africa's Development in the Twenty-first Century

Pertinent Socio-economic and Development Issues
Author: Kwadwo Konadu-Agyemang,Martin Kwamina Panford
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 9780754644781
Category: Social Science
Page: 409
View: 4053
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Having been under colonial rule for the first half of the century, by 1965 all but a handful of African countries had regained their independence and were poised to take off into an era of development. However, Africa now suffers from the most acute form of underdevelopment anywhere in the world. Bringing together a broad selection of case studies covering a wide range of key issues, this volume provides a multidisciplinary exploration of Africa's development opportunities and challenges into the twenty-first century.

Something New Under the Sun: An Environmental History of the Twentieth-Century World (The Global Century Series)


Author: J. R. McNeill
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 9780393075892
Category: Science
Page: 416
View: 6398
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"Refreshingly unpolemical and at times even witty, McNeill's book brims with carefully sifted statistics and brilliant details."—Washington Post Book World The history of the twentieth century is most often told through its world wars, the rise and fall of communism, or its economic upheavals. In his startling new book, J. R. McNeill gives us our first general account of what may prove to be the most significant dimension of the twentieth century: its environmental history. To a degree unprecedented in human history, we have refashioned the earth's air, water, and soil, and the biosphere of which we are a part. Based on exhaustive research, McNeill's story—a compelling blend of anecdotes, data, and shrewd analysis—never preaches: it is our definitive account. This is a volume in The Global Century Series (general editor, Paul Kennedy).

Insatiable Appetite

The United States and the Ecological Degradation of the Tropical World
Author: Richard P. Tucker
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520923812
Category: History
Page: 564
View: 9051
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In the late 1800s American entrepreneurs became participants in the 400-year history of European economic and ecological hegemony in the tropics. Beginning as buyers in the tropical ports of the Atlantic and Pacific, they evolved into land speculators, controlling and managing the areas where tropical crops were grown for carefully fostered consumer markets at home. As corporate agro-industry emerged, the speculators took direct control of the ecological destinies of many tropical lands. Supported by the U.S. government's diplomatic and military protection, they migrated and built private empires in the Caribbean, Central and South America, the Pacific, Southeast Asia, and West Africa. Yankee investors and plantation managers mobilized engineers, agronomists, and loggers to undertake what they called the "Conquest of the Tropics," claiming to bring civilization to benighted peoples and cultivation to unproductive nature. In competitive cooperation with local landed and political elites, they not only cleared natural forests but also displaced multicrop tribal and peasant lands with monocrop export plantations rooted in private property regimes. This book is a rich history of the transformation of the tropics in modern times, pointing ultimately to the declining biodiversity that has resulted from the domestication of widely varied natural systems. Richard P. Tucker graphically illustrates his study with six major crops, each a virtual empire in itself—sugar, bananas, coffee, rubber, beef, and timber. He concludes that as long as corporate-dominated free trade is ascendant, paying little heed to its long-term ecological consequences, the health of the tropical world is gravely endangered.

Big History

From the Big Bang to the Present
Author: Cynthia Stokes Brown
Publisher: New Press/ORIM
ISBN: 1595588450
Category: History
Page: 320
View: 4197
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Extend the human story backward for the five thousand years of recorded history and it covers no more than a millionth of a lifetime of the Earth. Yet how do we humans take stock of the history of our planet, and our own place within it? A “vast historical mosaic” (Publishers Weekly) rendered engaging and accessible, Big History interweaves different disciplines of knowledge to offer an all-encompassing account of history on Earth. Since its publication, Cynthia Brown’s “world history on a grand scale” (Kirkus) has been translated into nine languages and has helped propel the “big history” concept to viral status. This new edition of Brown’s seminal work is more relevant today than ever before, as we increasingly must grapple with accelerating rates of change and, ultimately, the legacy we will bequeath to future generations. Here is a pathbreaking portrait of our world, from the birth of the universe from a single point the size of an atom to life on a twenty-first-century planet inhabited by 7 billion people.

AS Level Geography


Author: Ann Bowen,John Pallister
Publisher: Heinemann
ISBN: 9780435352837
Category: Geography
Page: 296
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This work aims to combine comprehensive coverage of the full range of topics with a flexible approach to learning. It covers basic geographical skills and offers help with revision and exam techniques.

Laudato si

Die Umwelt-Enzyklika des Papstes
Author: Franziskus (Papst),
Publisher: Verlag Herder GmbH
ISBN: 345180736X
Category: Religion
Page: 288
View: 4821
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Mit großer Spannung wurde sie erwartet, auch von Nicht-Katholiken: Die Umwelt-Enzyklika von Papst Franziskus nimmt die heute entscheidenden Themen in den Blick; es geht um die geht um soziale, ökologische und politische Zusammenhänge. Wohl selten war ein päpstliches Schreiben so aktuell und brisant und vor allem relevant für alle Gesellschaftsschichten und Menschen weltweit. Mit "Laudato si" beweist Franziskus, dass die Kirche nach wie vor eine unverzichtbare Stimme im Diskurs zur Gestaltung der modernen Welt ist. Wer verstehen will, wie Papst und Kirche die großen Herausforderungen unserer Zeit bestehen wollen, kommt an diesem Werk nicht vorbei. Ein Muss für jeden, der an den drängenden Fragen unserer Zeit interessiert ist.

China’s Grain for Green Program

A Review of the Largest Ecological Restoration and Rural Development Program in the World
Author: Claudio O. Delang,Zhen Yuan
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319115057
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 230
View: 6075
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This book provides a comprehensive review of Grain for Green, China’s nationwide program which pays farmers to revert sloping or marginal farm land to trees or grass. The program aims to improve the ecological conditions of much of China, and the socioeconomic circumstances of hundreds of millions of people. GfG is the largest reforestation, ecological restoration, and rural development initiative in history, combining the biggest investment, the greatest involvement, and the broadest degree of public participation ever. The book is organised in three sections. Part One reviews the history of land management in China from 1949 to 1998, exploring the conditions that led to the introduction of GfG, and comparing it to other reforestation programs. Part Two offers an overview of GfG, describing the timeline of the program, compensation paid to farmers, the rules concerning land and plant selection, the extent to which these rules were followed, the attitudes of farmers towards the program, and the way in which the program is organized and implemented by various state actors. Part Three discusses the impact of the GfG, from both ecological and socio-economic standpoints, looking at the economic benefits that result from participating in the GfG, the impact of the GfG across local economies, the redistribution of the labor force and the sustainability of the program, in particular the question of what will happen to the converted land when payments to farmers end.

Tourism and World Trade Organisation


Author: M.L. Narasaiah
Publisher: Discovery Publishing House
ISBN: 9788183560801
Category: Ecotourism
Page: 212
View: 4049
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Contents: Sustainable Tourism Development, Sustainable Tourism Illusion or Realistic Alternative?, Sustainable Tourism and the Environment, The Tourism Juggernaut, Ecotourism or Ecocide?, The Biggest Industry the World Has Ever Seen, Pro-poor Tourism, Tourism and the Environment, Biodiversity, Population Growth and Natural Recreation Areas, Economics and Sustainable Development, Living with Diversity, Fresh Water and the Environment, Ecosystems, Our Unknown Protectors, Forests, Forests: The Earth s Lungs, International Trade with the Consumer s Money, World Trade, Free Trade as Peacemaker, Export Subsidies, Add Value, Go Global, Revisiting Bretton Woods, Give Developing Countries A More Favourable Deal, The Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (Trips) Agreement and the Developing Countries, New Agenda of the WTO, Beyond the Uruguay Round, Developing Countries and the Uruguay Round, Developing Countries and the WTO Agricultural Negotiations, Trading Towards Peace, The Role of Financial Markets and the IMF, Richer of Poorer? Achievements and Challenges of Ethical Trade, What s Driving Migration?, Solving the Unemployment Problem by Looking Beyond the Job, The Population Challenge, Aid Effectiveness as a Multilevel Process, Crisis and New Orientation of Development Policy, Technological Entrepreneurship, The Truth About Global Competition.

The Changing Carbon Cycle

A Global Analysis
Author: John R. Trabalka,David E. Reichle
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475719159
Category: Science
Page: 592
View: 9929
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The United States Government, cognizant of its responsibilities to future generations, has been sponsoring research for nine years into the causes, effects, and potential impacts of increased concentrations of carbon dioxide (C0 ) in the atmosphere. Agencies such as the National Science Foun 2 dation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cooperatively spent about $100 million from FY 1978 through FY 1984 directly on the study of CO • The DOE, as the 2 lead government agency for coordinating the government' s research ef forts, has been responsible for about 60% of these research efforts. William James succinctly defined our purpose when he stated science must be based upon " ... irreducible and stubborn facts." Scientific knowledge can and will reduce the present significant uncertainty sur rounding our understanding of the causes, effects, and potential impacts of increasing atmospheric CO2• We have come far during the past seven years in resolving some underlyinig doubts and in narrowing the ranges of disagreement. Basic concepts have become less murky. Yet, much more must be accomplished; more irreducible and stubborn facts are needed to reduce the uncertainties so that we can improve our knowledge base. Uncertainty can never be reduced to zero. However, with a much improved knowledge base, we will be able to learn, under stand, and be in a position to make decisions.

State of the World 2001


Author: The Worldwatch Institute
Publisher: Island Press
ISBN: 1610916387
Category: Nature
Page: 155
View: 7327
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From the thinning of the Arctic sea ice to the invasion of the mosquito-borne West Nile virus, State of the World 2001 shows how the economic boom of the last decade has damaged natural systems. The increasingly visible evidence of environmental deterioration is only the tip of a much more dangerous problem: the growing inequities in wealth and income between countries and within countries, inequities that will generate enormous social unrest and pressure for change.

Reframing Deforestation

Global Analyses and Local Realities: Studies in West Africa
Author: James Fairhead,Melissa Leach
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134665172
Category: Science
Page: 264
View: 8955
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This study reviews how West African deforestation is represented and the evidence which informs deforestation orthodoxy. On a country by country basis (covering Sierra Leone, Liberia, Cote D'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo and Benin), and using historical and social anthropological evidence the authors evaluate this orthodox critically. Reframing Deforestation suggests that the scale of deforestation wrought by West African farmers during the twentieth century has been vastly exaggerated. The authors argue that global analyses have unfairly stigmatised West Africa and obscured its more sustainable, even landscape-enriching practices. Stessing that dominant policy approaches in forestry and conservation require major rethinking worldwide, Reframing Deforestation illustrates that more realistic assessments of forest cover change, and more respectful attention to local knowledge and practices, are necessary bases for effective and appropriate environmental policies.

State of the World 2000


Author: The Worldwatch Institute
Publisher: Island Press
ISBN: 1610916395
Category: Nature
Page: 268
View: 8536
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State of the World 2000 shines a sharp light on the great challenge our civilization faces: how to use our political systems to manage the difficult and complex relationships between the global economy and the Earth's ecosystems. If we cannot build an environmentally sustainable global economy, then we have no future that anyone would desire.

Biodiversity and Irrigation


Author: M.L. Narasaiah
Publisher: Discovery Publishing House
ISBN: 9788171419258
Category: Biodiversity
Page: 162
View: 2643
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Contents: Irrigation Management: Facing the Challenge, Strategies for Improved Water Management, Big- Dam Construction is on the Rise, A Breakthrough in the Evolution of Large Dams? End of Controversy on Large Dams? Water Facts and Findings on Large Dams?, Water Facts and Findings on Large Dams?, Population Growth and Cropland, Population Growth and Grain Production, Developing Countries and the WTO Agricultural Negotiations, Food for the Billions, Food First, Biodiversity, Ecosystems, Our Unknown Protectors, Employment and Promoting Ecology, Saving the Planet, Living with Diversity, An Agenda for Change, Forests, Climate Change and Human Health, Economics and Sustainable Development, Population Growth and Climate Change, Sustainable Cities, Heating up Environmental Education and Communication, Urbanisation and the Environment, Fresh Water and the Environment, Forests, Energy and Sustainability, The Environment, The Economy and Public Health, Watershed Development Programme, Population Growth and Natural Recreation Areas, The Dynamics of Rural Poverty in India, The Indian Economy and the Cattle Wealth, Safety First, Genetic Diversity and Food Security, Global Warming, Can Genetically Modified Organisms Feed the World?, Energy.