A Circular Argument

Circular. Argument. new Martin Cathcart Fr ̈od ́en's book will surely accelerate criminology's slow awakening to the potency and importance of imagination and creativity in rethinking crime and punishment. It deserves to be widely read ...

Author: Martin Cathcart Frödén

Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing

ISBN: 9781800713826

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

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Uniquely combining two parts, one critical in the form of a research piece, and the other creative in the form of a fictional novel, A Circular Argument spans creative writing, criminology and architecture to look at the ways in which power and hierarchies are explored and exploited in space.
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The Elements of Arguments An Introduction to Critical Thinking and Logic

Informal Fallacy: Circular Reasoning (also called Begging the Question2) Like the fallacies we discussed in Chapter III, circular reasoning has the form of a valid argument. We reason fallaciously, however, when we merely assume that ...

Author: Philip Turetzky

Publisher: Broadview Press

ISBN: 9781770486904

Category: Philosophy


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The Elements of Arguments introduces such central critical thinking topics as informal fallacies, the difference between validity and truth, basic formal propositional logic, and how to extract arguments from texts. Turetzky aims to prevent common confusions by clearly explaining a number of important distinctions, including propositions vs. propositional attitudes, propositions vs. states of affairs, and logic vs. rhetoric vs. psychology. Exercises are provided throughout, including numerous informal arguments that can be assessed using the skills and strategies presented within the text.
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Reasoning and Public Health New Ways of Coping with Uncertainty

Thirdly, to the extent that circular argument is used at the outset of an inquiry when few other propositions rest on the conclusion of the argument, the scientist can conserve cognitive resources that might otherwise be expended in ...

Author: Louise Cummings

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319150130

Category: Medical

Page: 242

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This book argues that in order to be truly effective, public health must embrace a group of reasoning strategies that have traditionally been characterized as informal fallacies. It will be demonstrated that these strategies can facilitate judgements about complex public health issues in contexts of uncertainty. The book explains how scientists and lay people routinely resort to the use of these strategies during consideration of public health problems. Although these strategies are not deductively valid, they are nevertheless rationally warranted procedures. Public health professionals must have a sound understanding of these cognitive strategies in order to engage the public and achieve their public health goals. The book draws upon public health issues as wide ranging as infectious diseases, food safety and the potential impact on human health of new technologies. It examines reasoning in the context of these issues within a large-scale, questionnaire-based survey of nearly 900 members of the public in the UK. In addition, several philosophical themes run throughout the book, including the nature of uncertainty, scientific knowledge and inquiry. The complexity of many public health problems demands an approach to reasoning that cannot be accommodated satisfactorily within a general thinking skills framework. This book shows that by developing an awareness of these reasoning strategies, scientists and members of the public can have a more productive engagement with public health problems.
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The Winning Argument

Circular reasoning in a legal argument is rarely as obvious as this example . Usually , the fallacy occurs when a claim is sup- ported by a reason that uses different words but amounts to no more than a restatement of the claim .

Author: Ronald J. Waicukauski

Publisher: American Bar Association

ISBN: 1570739382

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 212

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Three experienced trial lawyers examine twelve characteristics of a winning argument and present the rudiments and sophisticated levels of persuasion based upon ancient and modern techniques. An understanding of these basic principles will help you develop and present an effective argument before a judge, jury, a colleague or in mediation.
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The Concept of Argument

But since logicistic thinking is still so strong—and since, logically speaking, an inference from a thesis to itself is of course valid (T logically entails T)—an adequate analysis of circular arguments is a tricky task that has already ...

Author: Harald R. Wohlrapp

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9789401787628

Category: Philosophy

Page: 443

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Arguing that our attachment to Aristotelian modes of discourse makes a revision of their conceptual foundations long overdue, the author proposes the consideration of unacknowledged factors that play a central role in argument itself. These are in particular the subjective imprint and the dynamics of argumentation. Their inclusion in a four-dimensional framework (subjective-objective, structural-procedural) and the focus on thesis validity allow for a more realistic view of our discourse practice. Exhaustive analyses of fascinating historical and contemporary arguments are provided. These range from Columbus’s advocacy of the Western Passage to India, over the trial of King Louis XVI during the French Revolution, to today’s highly charged controversies surrounding euthanasia and embryo research. Excavating foundational issues such as the purpose of argument itself (assent of an audience or critical examination of validity claims) and the contested role of argument as a generator of knowledge, the book culminates in a discussion of the relationship between rationality and reasonableness and criticizes the restrictions of ‘rational’ argument relying on fixed logical, economic or cultural criteria that in reality are mutable. Here, a true, open argument requires the infusion of Paul Lorenzen’s principle of ‘transsubjectivity’, which recognizes but transcends the partiality of the individual and which can be seen in the pragmatic and expanding consensus that humanity can control itself to safeguard the future of a fragile, damaged world.
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Autonomy Platonism and the Indispensability Argument

But, again, Quine sees such claims as circular in that they explain one intensional idiom (synonymy/analyticity) in terms of another (modality). “Our argument is not flatly circular, but something like it. It has the form, ...

Author: Russell Marcus

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 9780739173138

Category: Philosophy

Page: 259

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Mathematical platonism is the view that mathematical statements are true of real mathematical objects like numbers, shapes, and sets. One central problem with platonism is that numbers, shapes, sets, and the like are not perceivable by our senses. In contemporary philosophy, the most common defense of platonism uses what is known as the indispensability argument. According to the indispensabilist, we can know about mathematics because mathematics is essential to science. Platonism is among the most persistent philosophical views. Our mathematical beliefs are among our most entrenched. They have survived the demise of millennia of failed scientific theories. Once established, mathematical theories are rarely rejected, and never for reasons of their inapplicability to empirical science. Autonomy Platonism and the Indispensability Argument is a defense of an alternative to indispensability platonism. The autonomy platonist believes that mathematics is independent of empirical science: there is purely mathematical evidence for purely mathematical theories which are even more compelling to believe than empirical science. Russell Marcus begins by contrasting autonomy platonism and indispensability platonism. He then argues against a variety of indispensability arguments in the first half of the book. In the latter half, he defends a new approach to a traditional platonistic view, one which includes appeals to a priori but fallible methods of belief acquisition, including mathematical intuition, and a natural adoption of ordinary mathematical methods. In the end, Marcus defends his intuition-based autonomy platonism against charges that the autonomy of mathematics is viciously circular. This book will be useful to researchers, graduate students, and advanced undergraduates with interests in the philosophy of mathematics or in the connection between science and mathematics.
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The Complete Works of W R Bion

If the statement that the patient is a puff of flatus has as its approximating realization a fantasy that he is a puff of flatus, a logical construction that is a circular argument has come into being. It is similar to another argument ...

Author: W. R. Bion

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9780429920332

Category: Psychology

Page: 4352

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The Complete Works of W. R. Bion is now available in a coherent and corrected format. Comprising sixteen volumes bound in green cloth, this edition has been brought together and edited by Chris Mawson with the assistance of Francesca Bion. Incorporating many corrections to previously published works, it also features previously unpublished papers. Including a general index and editorial introductions to all the works, these volumes will be a useful and valuable aid to psychoanalytic scholars and clinicians, and all those interested in studying and making use of Bion's thinking.Bion's writings, including the previously unpublished papers and additions to his Cogitations, collected together in the Complete Works, show that the clinical thrust of Bion's work has clear lines of continuity with that of Melanie Klein, just as her work has an essential continuity with the later work of Freud. In Bion's clinical work and supervision the goal remains insightful understanding of psychic reality through a disciplined experiencing of the transference and countertransference; the setting and the method - however much Bion's terminology might suggest otherwise - remains rigorously psychoanalytic.
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Reasoning from the Scriptures with Muslims

Circular Reasoning Among Muslims Christian logicians have noted that Muslims sometimes propose circular arguments in setting forth their case for Muhammad, the Quran, and Allah. A circular argument involves assuming in one's basic ...

Author: Ron Rhodes

Publisher: Harvest House Publishers

ISBN: 9780736936446

Category: Religion

Page: 352

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Anyone interested in sharing the gospel with Muslim friends or understanding the doctrines and historical basis of Islam will appreciate this addition to the popular Reasoning from the Scriptures series. Using an easy-to-follow question-and-answer format, Reasoning from the Scriptures with Muslims covers issues, including... Muhammad and Jesus Christ—what are their roles? the Quran and the Bible—what kind of inspiration and authority do they have? Islam today—what different groups exist, and how can Muslims be reached with the good news? Each chapter examines a Muslim belief and compares it with biblical Christianity. Readers will find this an invaluable tool for discussing and sharing the words and life of Jesus Christ with Muslim friends and acquaintances.
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Critical Thinking

Argument 4: Circular argument: My city is the best place to live because it is better than other cities. It is better than other cities because . 1 2 3 4 Circular argument: I can't stay because I have to go. I have to go because .

Author: Gregory Hadley

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9780429594786

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 268

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Critical Thinking provides language teachers with a dynamic framework for encouraging critical thinking skills in explicit, systematic ways during their lessons. With the proliferation of fallacious arguments, "fake news," and untrustworthy sources in today's multimedia landscape, critical thinking skills are vital not only in one’s native language, but also when engaged in the task of language learning. Written with the language teacher in mind, this book provides a springboard for teaching critical thinking skills in multicultural, multilingual classrooms. Suitable for graduate students, in-training teachers, and language curriculum developers interested in purposeful applications of critical thinking pedagogy for the second-language classroom, this volume presents classroom activities, suggestions for lesson planning, and ideas for researching the impact of critical thinking activities with second-language learners. This book is ideal as an invaluable resource for teacher-directed classroom investigations as well as graduate dissertation projects.
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Logic A Complete Introduction Teach Yourself

A circular argument is an argument in which the premises do not only support, but are in turn supported by the conclusion. Circular arguments are very close to begging the question. Indeed, any argument that begs the question can be ...

Author: Siu-Fan Lee

Publisher: Hachette UK

ISBN: 9781473608443

Category: Philosophy

Page: 384

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Understand Logic is a comprehensive introduction to this fascinating though sometimes challenging subject. As well as looking at logic in theoretical terms the book considers its everyday uses and demonstrates how it has genuine practical applications. It will take you step by step through the most difficult concepts and is packed with exercises to help you consolidate your learning at every stage. Covering everything from syllogistic logic to logical paradoxes and even looking at logic in Alice in Wonderland, this is the only guide you will ever need.
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