Uniquely combining two parts, one critical in the form of a research piece, and the other creative in the form of a fictional novel, A Circular Argument spans creative writing, criminology and architecture to look at the ways in which power and hierarchies are explored and exploited in space.
Circular. Argument. new Martin Cathcart Fr ̈od ́en's book will surely accelerate criminology's slow awakening to the potency and importance of imagination and creativity in rethinking crime and punishment. It deserves to be widely read ...
Author: Martin Cathcart Frödén
Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing
Category: Social Science
The Elements of Arguments introduces such central critical thinking topics as informal fallacies, the difference between validity and truth, basic formal propositional logic, and how to extract arguments from texts. Turetzky aims to prevent common confusions by clearly explaining a number of important distinctions, including propositions vs. propositional attitudes, propositions vs. states of affairs, and logic vs. rhetoric vs. psychology. Exercises are provided throughout, including numerous informal arguments that can be assessed using the skills and strategies presented within the text.
Informal Fallacy: Circular Reasoning (also called Begging the Question2) Like the fallacies we discussed in Chapter III, circular reasoning has the form of a valid argument. We reason fallaciously, however, when we merely assume that ...
Author: Philip Turetzky
Publisher: Broadview Press
This book argues that in order to be truly effective, public health must embrace a group of reasoning strategies that have traditionally been characterized as informal fallacies. It will be demonstrated that these strategies can facilitate judgements about complex public health issues in contexts of uncertainty. The book explains how scientists and lay people routinely resort to the use of these strategies during consideration of public health problems. Although these strategies are not deductively valid, they are nevertheless rationally warranted procedures. Public health professionals must have a sound understanding of these cognitive strategies in order to engage the public and achieve their public health goals. The book draws upon public health issues as wide ranging as infectious diseases, food safety and the potential impact on human health of new technologies. It examines reasoning in the context of these issues within a large-scale, questionnaire-based survey of nearly 900 members of the public in the UK. In addition, several philosophical themes run throughout the book, including the nature of uncertainty, scientific knowledge and inquiry. The complexity of many public health problems demands an approach to reasoning that cannot be accommodated satisfactorily within a general thinking skills framework. This book shows that by developing an awareness of these reasoning strategies, scientists and members of the public can have a more productive engagement with public health problems.
Thirdly, to the extent that circular argument is used at the outset of an inquiry when few other propositions rest on the conclusion of the argument, the scientist can conserve cognitive resources that might otherwise be expended in ...
Author: Louise Cummings
Three experienced trial lawyers examine twelve characteristics of a winning argument and present the rudiments and sophisticated levels of persuasion based upon ancient and modern techniques. An understanding of these basic principles will help you develop and present an effective argument before a judge, jury, a colleague or in mediation.
Circular reasoning in a legal argument is rarely as obvious as this example . Usually , the fallacy occurs when a claim is supported by a reason that uses different words but amounts to no more than a restatement of the claim .
Author: Ronald J. Waicukauski
Publisher: American Bar Association
Category: Business & Economics
Arguing that our attachment to Aristotelian modes of discourse makes a revision of their conceptual foundations long overdue, the author proposes the consideration of unacknowledged factors that play a central role in argument itself. These are in particular the subjective imprint and the dynamics of argumentation. Their inclusion in a four-dimensional framework (subjective-objective, structural-procedural) and the focus on thesis validity allow for a more realistic view of our discourse practice. Exhaustive analyses of fascinating historical and contemporary arguments are provided. These range from Columbus’s advocacy of the Western Passage to India, over the trial of King Louis XVI during the French Revolution, to today’s highly charged controversies surrounding euthanasia and embryo research. Excavating foundational issues such as the purpose of argument itself (assent of an audience or critical examination of validity claims) and the contested role of argument as a generator of knowledge, the book culminates in a discussion of the relationship between rationality and reasonableness and criticizes the restrictions of ‘rational’ argument relying on fixed logical, economic or cultural criteria that in reality are mutable. Here, a true, open argument requires the infusion of Paul Lorenzen’s principle of ‘transsubjectivity’, which recognizes but transcends the partiality of the individual and which can be seen in the pragmatic and expanding consensus that humanity can control itself to safeguard the future of a fragile, damaged world.
But since logicistic thinking is still so strong—and since, logically speaking, an inference from a thesis to itself is of course valid (T logically entails T)—an adequate analysis of circular arguments is a tricky task that has already ...
Author: Harald R. Wohlrapp
The Complete Works of W. R. Bion is now available in a coherent and corrected format. Comprising sixteen volumes bound in green cloth, this edition has been brought together and edited by Chris Mawson with the assistance of Francesca Bion. Incorporating many corrections to previously published works, it also features previously unpublished papers. Including a general index and editorial introductions to all the works, these volumes will be a useful and valuable aid to psychoanalytic scholars and clinicians, and all those interested in studying and making use of Bion's thinking.Bion's writings, including the previously unpublished papers and additions to his Cogitations, collected together in the Complete Works, show that the clinical thrust of Bion's work has clear lines of continuity with that of Melanie Klein, just as her work has an essential continuity with the later work of Freud. In Bion's clinical work and supervision the goal remains insightful understanding of psychic reality through a disciplined experiencing of the transference and countertransference; the setting and the method - however much Bion's terminology might suggest otherwise - remains rigorously psychoanalytic.
If the statement that the patient is a puff of flatus has as its approximating realization a fantasy that he is a puff of flatus, a logical construction that is a circular argument has come into being. It is similar to another argument ...
Author: W. R. Bion
Anyone interested in sharing the gospel with Muslim friends or understanding the doctrines and historical basis of Islam will appreciate this addition to the popular Reasoning from the Scriptures series. Using an easy-to-follow question-and-answer format, Reasoning from the Scriptures with Muslims covers issues, including... Muhammad and Jesus Christ—what are their roles? the Quran and the Bible—what kind of inspiration and authority do they have? Islam today—what different groups exist, and how can Muslims be reached with the good news? Each chapter examines a Muslim belief and compares it with biblical Christianity. Readers will find this an invaluable tool for discussing and sharing the words and life of Jesus Christ with Muslim friends and acquaintances.
Circular Reasoning Among Muslims Christian logicians have noted that Muslims sometimes propose circular arguments in setting forth their case for Muhammad, the Quran, and Allah. A circular argument involves assuming in one's basic ...
Author: Ron Rhodes
Publisher: Harvest House Publishers
Understand Logic is a comprehensive introduction to this fascinating though sometimes challenging subject. As well as looking at logic in theoretical terms the book considers its everyday uses and demonstrates how it has genuine practical applications. It will take you step by step through the most difficult concepts and is packed with exercises to help you consolidate your learning at every stage. Covering everything from syllogistic logic to logical paradoxes and even looking at logic in Alice in Wonderland, this is the only guide you will ever need.
A circular argument is an argument in which the premises do not only support, but are in turn supported by the conclusion. Circular arguments are very close to begging the question. Indeed, any argument that begs the question can be ...
Author: Siu-Fan Lee
Publisher: Hachette UK
Presenting a historical analysis of the evolution of systematics during the last one hundred years, Milestones in Systematics reviews many of the major issues in systematic theory and practice that have driven the working methods of systematics during the 20th century and looks at the issues most likely to preoccupy systematists in the immediate fu
Such an analysis would lead to a circular argument. For example, Schram (1991), after a cladistic analysis of the Metazoa, obtained a sister group relationship between Tracheata and Ony- chophora. The only character supporting this ...
Author: David M. Williams
Publisher: CRC Press
George Berkeley (1685-1753) was one of the most important and influential philosophers in the history of Western thought. He is most famous for his controversial denial of the existence of matter, and for his 'idealism' - the claim that everyday objects are simply collections of ideas in the mind. Starting with Berkeley provides a detailed overview of Berkeley's philosophy, a user-friendly guide to the interpretation of his arguments, and the opportunity for the reader to critically engage with Berkeley's philosophical moves via an examination of some of the common objections which have been raised against them. The book also introduces the major philosophical figures and theories that influenced and inspired Berkeley's thinking and gives a clear sense of the controversy that surrounds the interpretation and evaluation of his ideas.
Even if an argument's premises (on the hypothetical assumption that they are true) do by themselves guarantee 100% that ... A circular argument is one whose conclusion itself appears (perhaps implicitly) as part of the very reasoning ...
Author: Nick Jones
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing