Airpower in small wars

fighting insurgents and terrorists
Author: James S. Corum,Wray R. Johnson
Publisher: Univ Pr of Kansas
ISBN: N.A
Category: History
Page: 507
View: 1133
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The use of airpower in wartime calls to mind the massive bombings of World War II, but airplanes have long been instrumental in small wars as well. Ever since its use by the French to put down rebellious Moroccan tribes in 1913, airpower has been employed to fight in limited but often lengthy small conflicts around the globe. This is the first comprehensive history of airpower in small wars--conflicts pitting states against non-state groups such as insurgents, bandits, factions, and terrorists--tracing it from the early years of the twentieth century to the present day. It examines dozens of conflicts with strikingly different scenarios: the Greek Civil War, the Philippine Anti-Huk campaign, French and British colonial wars, the war in South Vietnam before the American escalation, counterinsurgency in southern Africa, Latin American counterguerrilla operations, and counterinsurgency and counterterrorist campaigns in the Middle East over the last four decades. For each war, the authors describe the strategies employed on both sides of the conflict, the air forces engaged, and the specific airpower tactics employed. They discuss the ground campaigns and provide the political background necessary to understand the air campaigns, and in each case they judge the utility of airpower in its broadest sense. In their historic sweep, they show how forms of airpower evolved from planes to police helicopters, aircraft of the civilian air reserve, and today's unmanned aircraft. They also disclose how small wars after World War II required new strategies, operational solutions, and tactics. By taking this broad view of small-war airpower, the authors are able to make assessments about the mosteffective and least effective means of employing airpower. They offer specific conclusions ranging from the importance of comprehensive strategy to the need for the United States and its allies to expand small-wars training progra

Biplanes at War

US Marine Corps Aviation in the Small Wars Era, 1915-1934
Author: Wray R. Johnson
Publisher: University Press of Kentucky
ISBN: 0813177065
Category: History
Page: 440
View: 9372
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Unlike the relative uniformity of conventional warfare, the peculiarities of small wars prevent a clear definition of rules and roles for military forces to follow. During the small wars era, aviation was still in its infancy, and the US military had only recently begun battling in the skies. The US Marine Corps recognized that flexibility and ingenuity would be critical to the successful conduct of small wars and thus employed the new technology of aviation. In Biplanes at War: US Marine Corps Aviation in the Small Wars Era, 1915--1934, author Wray R. Johnson provides a riveting history of the marines' use of aviation between the world wars, a time in which young soldiers were volunteering to fly in combat when flying itself was a dangerous feat. Starting with Haiti in 1915, Biplanes at War follows the marines' aviation experiences in Haiti, the Dominican Republic, China, and Nicaragua, chronicling how marines used aircraft to provide supporting fires (e.g., dive-bombing) to ground troops in close contact with irregular opponents, evacuate the sick and wounded, transport people and cargo (e.g., to assist humanitarian operations), and even support elections in furtherance of democracy. After years of expanding the capabilities of airplanes far beyond what was deemed possible, the small wars era ended, and the US Marines Corps transitioned into an amphibious assault force. The legacy of the marines' ability to adapt and innovate during the small wars era endures and provides a useful case study. Biplanes at War sheds light on how the marines pioneered roles and missions that have become commonplace for air forces today, an accomplishment that has largely gone unrecognized in mainstream histories of aviation and air power.

Colonial Violence

European Empires and the Use of Force
Author: Dierk Walter
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190840005
Category: History
Page: N.A
View: 7746
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Western interventions today have much in common with the countless violent conflicts that have occurred on Europe's periphery since the conquest of the Americas in the sixteenth century. Like their predecessors, modern imperial wars are shaped especially by spatial features and by pronounced asymmetries of military organisation, resources, modes of warfare and cultures of violence between the respective parties. Today's imperial wars are essentially civil wars, in which Western powers are only one player among many. As ever, the Western military machine is proving incapable of resolving political strife through force, or of engaging opponents with no reason to offer conventional combat, who instead rely on guerrilla warfare and terrorism. And, as they always have, local populations pay the price for these shortcomings. Colonial Violence aims to offer, for the first time, a coherent explanation of the logic of violent hostilities within the context of European expansion. Walter's analysis reveals parallels between different empires and continuities spanning historical epochs. He concludes that recent Western military interventions, from Afghanistan to Mali, are not new wars, but stand in the 500-year-old tradition of transcultural violent conflict, under the specific conditions of colonialism.

Power Over Peoples

Technology, Environments, and Western Imperialism, 1400 to the Present
Author: Daniel R. Headrick
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691139334
Category: History
Page: 400
View: 9263
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In this work, Daniel Headrick traces the evolution of Western technologies and sheds light on the environmental and social factors that have brought victory in some cases and unforeseen defeat in others.

Military Strategy, Joint Operations, and Airpower

An Introduction
Author: Ryan Burke,Michael Fowler,Kevin McCaskey
Publisher: Georgetown University Press
ISBN: 1626166234
Category: Political Science
Page: 344
View: 4294
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An ideal textbook for classes on modern airpower and joint operations.

Tense Future

Modernism, Total War, Encyclopedic Form
Author: Paul K. Saint-Amour
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190266295
Category: Literary Criticism
Page: 368
View: 6372
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We know that trauma can leave syndromes in its wake. But can the anticipation of violence be a form of violence as well? Tense Future argues that it can-that twentieth-century war technologies and practices, particularly the aerial bombing of population centers, introduced non-combatants to a coercive and traumatizing expectation. During wartime, civilians braced for the next raid; during peacetime they braced for the next war. The pre-traumatic stress they experienced permeates the century's public debates and cultural works. In a series of groundbreaking readings, Saint-Amour illustrates how air war prophets theorized the wounding power of anticipation, how archive theory changed course in war's shadow, and how speculative fiction conjured visions of a civilizational collapse that would end literacy itself. And in this book's central chapters, he shows us how Ford Madox Ford, Robert Musil, James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, and other interwar modernist writers faced the memory of one war and the prospect of another, some by pitting their fictions' encyclopedic scale and formal turbulence against total war, others by conceding war's inevitability while refusing to long for a politically regressive peace. Total war: a conflict that exempts no one, disregarding any difference between soldier and civilian. Tense Future forever alters our understanding of the concept of total war by tracing its emergence during the First World War, its incubation in air power theory between the wars, and above all its profound partiality. For total war, during most of the twentieth century, meant conflict between imperial nation states; it did not include the violence those states routinely visited on colonial subjects during peacetime. Tacking back and forth between metropole and colony, between world war and police action, Saint-Amour describes the interwar refashioning of a world system of violence-production, one that remains largely intact in our own moment of perpetual interwar.

The Air Force role in low-intensity conflict


Author: N.A
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
ISBN: 9781428928275
Category:
Page: N.A
View: 4667
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Clean Bombs and Dirty Wars

Air Power in Kosovo and Libya
Author: Robert H. Gregory, Jr.
Publisher: U of Nebraska Press
ISBN: 161234786X
Category: History
Page: 328
View: 6781
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After the United States, along with NATO allies, bombed the Serbian forces of Slobodan Milosevic for seventy-eight days in 1999, Milosevic withdrew his army from Kosovo. With no troops on the ground, political and military leaders congratulated themselves on the success of Operation Allied Force, considered to be the first military victory won through the use of strategic air power alone. This apparent triumph motivated military and political leaders to embrace a policy of using "clean bombs" (precision munitions and air strikes)--without a dirty ground war--as the preferred choice for answering military aggression. Ten years later it inspired a similar air campaign against Muammar Gaddafi's forces in Libya as a groundswell of protests erupted into revolution. Clean Bombs and Dirty Wars offers a fresh perspective on the role, relevance, and effectiveness of air power in contemporary warfare, including an exploration of the political motivations for its use as well as a candid examination of air-to-ground targeting processes. Using recently declassified materials from the William J. Clinton Presidential Library along with primary evidence culled from social media posted during the Arab Spring, Robert H. Gregory Jr. shows that the argument that air power eliminates the necessity for boots on the ground is an artificial and illusory claim.

Bombing to Win

Air Power and Coercion in War
Author: Robert A. Pape
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 0801471508
Category: Political Science
Page: 408
View: 8913
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From Iraq to Bosnia to North Korea, the first question in American foreign policy debates is increasingly: Can air power alone do the job? Robert A. Pape provides a systematic answer. Analyzing the results of over thirty air campaigns, including a detailed reconstruction of the Gulf War, he argues that the key to success is attacking the enemy's military strategy, not its economy, people, or leaders. Coercive air power can succeed, but not as cheaply as air enthusiasts would like to believe. Pape examines the air raids on Germany, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and Iraq as well as those of Israel versus Egypt, providing details of bombing and governmental decision making. His detailed narratives of the strategic effectiveness of bombing range from the classical cases of World War II to an extraordinary reconstruction of airpower use in the Gulf War, based on recently declassified documents. In the first major book since the Vietnam War on the theory and practice of airpower and its political effects, Robert A. Pape helps policy makers judge the purpose of various air strategies, and helps general readers understand the policy debates.

Air power in three wars


Author: N.A
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
ISBN: 9781428982109
Category:
Page: N.A
View: 5897
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A History of Air Warfare


Author: John Andreas Olsen
Publisher: Potomac Books, Inc.
ISBN: 1597974331
Category: History
Page: 488
View: 6794
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An overview of air power's history and effectiveness, by the top experts in the field

Resisting Rebellion

The History and Politics of Counterinsurgency
Author: Anthony James Joes
Publisher: University Press of Kentucky
ISBN: 081313806X
Category: History
Page: 360
View: 3324
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In Resisting Rebellion, Anthony James Joes's discussion of insurgencies ranges across five continents and spans more than two centuries. Analyzing examples from North and South America, Europe, Africa, and the Middle East, he identifies recurrent patterns and offers useful lessons for future policymakers. Insurgencies arise from many sources of discontent, including foreign occupation, fraudulent elections, and religious persecution, but they also stem from ethnic hostilities, the aspirations of would-be elites, and traditions of political violence. Because insurgency is as much a political phenomenon as a military one, effective counterinsurgency requires a thorough understanding of the insurgents' motives and sources of support. Clear political aims must guide military action if a counterinsurgency is to be successful and establish a lasting reconciliation within a deeply fragmented society.

Ethics and Airpower in World War II

The British Bombing of German Cities
Author: Stephen A. Garrett
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
ISBN: 9780312164539
Category: History
Page: 256
View: 650
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This book analyzes the attitudes that various people and groups in Britain took toward area bombing, giving particular attention to the small band of dissenters. At the same time the book offers its own moral critique of area bombing, not just on traditional ethical grounds but also in terms of its dubious military rationale.

Drugs and Contemporary Warfare


Author: Paul Rexton Kan
Publisher: Potomac Books, Inc.
ISBN: 1597972568
Category: History
Page: 193
View: 7997
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Broad coverage of the role of drugs in warfare and counterterrorism

The future of air power in the aftermath of the Gulf War


Author: N.A
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
ISBN: 9781428992818
Category:
Page: N.A
View: 4206
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Air Power in the Age of Total War


Author: John Buckley
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135362769
Category: History
Page: 269
View: 1096
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Warfare in the first half of the 20th century was fundamentally and irrovocably altered by the birth and subsequent development of air power. This work assesses the role of air power in changing the face of battle on land and sea. Utilizing late-1990s research, the author demonstrates that the phenomenon of air power was both a cause and a crucial accelerating factor contributing to the theory and practice of total war. For instance, the expansion of warfare to the homefront was a direct result of bombing and indirectly due to the extent of national economic mobilization required to support first rate air power status. In addition, the move away from the principle of total war with the onset of the Cold War and the replacement of air power by ICBMs is thoroughly examined. This work should provide students of international history, war studies, defence and strategic studies with an insight into 20th-century warfare.

The role of airpower in the Iran-Iraq War


Author: N.A
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
ISBN: 1428993304
Category:
Page: N.A
View: 943
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Explorations in Strategy


Author: Colin S. Gray
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
ISBN: 9780313295102
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 265
View: 5119
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Shows how the mechanics and underlying structure of military strategy works.

Middle East Air Power in the 21st Century


Author: Tim Ripley
Publisher: Casemate Publishers
ISBN: 1848840993
Category: History
Page: 459
View: 2213
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