George Washington on Coins and Currency

See “A Generation of Numismatic Cooperation: Findings on the Notes and Coins of the Confederation through the Papers of Robert Morris,” American Journal of Numismatics Second Series 9 (1997), 55–87, here 65. On the Justice motif on the ...

Author: Heinz Tschachler

Publisher: McFarland

ISBN: 9781476681108

Category: History

Page: 246

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George Washington is the most popular subject on coins, medals, tokens, paper money and postage stamps in America. Attempts to eliminate one-dollar bills from circulation, replacing them with coins, have been unsuccessful. Americans' reluctance to part with their "Georges" are beyond rational considerations but tap into deep-felt emotions. To discard one-dollar bills means discarding the metaphorical Father of His Country. Alexander Hamilton, the nation's first Secretary of the Treasury, said that monetary tokens were "vehicles of useful impressions." This numismatic history of George Washington traces the persistence of his image on American currency. These images are mostly from the late 18th-century. This book also offers a close look at the pictorial tradition in which these images are rooted.
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Numismatics and Greek Lexicography

Kevin Butcher, Roman Provincial Coins: An Introduction to the 'Greek Imperials' (London: Seaby, 1988). ... T. Buttrey and S. Buttrey, 'Calculating Ancient Coin Production Again', American Journal of Numismatics 9 (1997): 113–135.

Author: Michael P. Theophilos

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9780567690227

Category: Religion

Page: 296

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Michael P. Theophilos explores the fascinating variety of numismatic contributions to Greek lexicography, pertaining to lexicographic studies of the Second Temple period in general, and the New Testament in particular. Theophilos considers previous scholarly attempts to grapple with, and incorporate, critical numismatic material into the emerging discipline of Greek lexicography - including foundational work by F. Preisigke and E. Kiessling - before outlining his own methodological approach. Theophilos' then examines the resources available for engaging with the numismatic material, and presents a series of specific case studies throughout the New Testament material. His carefully annotated images of coins draw readers in to a greater understanding of the material culture of the Greco-Roman world, and how this impacted upon the Greek language and the New Testament.
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The Monetary System of the Romans

A description of the Roman coinage from early times to the reform of Anastasius Ian J. Sellars ... 1996, Duncan-Jones “A Study of the Chemical Composition of Roman Silver Coinage 196-197AD”, American Journal of Numismatics 9, 1997, ...

Author: Ian J. Sellars

Publisher: Ian J. Sellars

ISBN:

Category: Art

Page: 820

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"The Monetary System of the Romans" provides a comprehensive and visual portrayal of the evolution of the Roman monetary system from its inception in the late fifth century BC to the bronze reform of Anastasius in 498AD. It chronologically traces the key developments in the coinage of the Roman world, covering topics such as denominations, metrology, alloys, mints, monetary edicts and more. For every issuing authority, whether it be the Senate, imperator, usurper or emperor, exemplary specimens of each denomination are discussed and clearly illustrated. With 820 pages and over 2000 full colour high resolution photographs from the world's most esteemed auction houses, this novel format provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject of Roman numismatics and will be useful to both students of history and collectors alike.
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Abia South Southeast Asian Art

American Journal of Numismatics : Second Series 9 (1997): 37-40. North India; A.D. 420-455; gold coins; legends; Guptas; Kumaragupta I Offers a new reading for the obverse legend on the rare Elephant-rider gold coins of Kumaragupta I.

Author: Van

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781136176418

Category: Social Science

Page: 632

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First Published in 1998. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
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A History of Social Justice and Political Power in the Middle East

... II,” American Journal of Numismatics 9, 1997: 46. Darius at Susa E, in Kent, Old Persian, 142. Darius at Naqsh-i Rustam B, in Kent, Old Persian, 110; CANE 1: 522. F. Regourd, “Le rôle de l'élite perse dans la formation de l'armée et ...

Author: Linda T. Darling

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9780415503617

Category: History

Page: 399

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From ancient Mesopotamia into the 20thcentury, "the Circle of Justice" as a concept has pervaded Middle Eastern political thought and underpinned the exercise of power in the Middle East. The Circle of Justice depicts graphically how a government’s justice toward the population generates political power, military strength, prosperity, and good administration. This book traces this set of relationships from its earliest appearance in the political writings of the Sumerians through four millennia of Middle Eastern culture. It explores how people conceptualized and acted upon this powerful insight, how they portrayed it in symbol, painting, and story, and how they transmitted it from one regime to the next. Moving towards the modern day, the author shows how, although the Circle of Justice was largely dropped from political discourse, it did not disappear from people’s political culture and expectations of government. The book demonstrates the Circle’s relevance to the Iranian Revolution and the rise of Islamist movements all over the Middle East, and suggests how the concept remains relevant in an age of capitalism. A "must read" for students, policymakers, and ordinary citizens, this book will be an important contribution to the areas of political history, political theory, Middle East studies and Orientalism.
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Neither Separate Nor Equal

150–60, 189–93; and Elizabeth M. Nuxoll, ''A Generation of Numismatic CoOperation: Findings on the Notes and Coins of the Confederation through the Papers of Robert Morris,'' American Journal of Numismatics, 2d ser. 9 (1997):60–73.

Author: Kenneth R. Bowling

Publisher: Ohio University Press

ISBN: 9780821413272

Category: History

Page: 344

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Scholars today take for granted the existence of a "wall of separation" dividing the three branches of the federal government. Neither Separate nor Equal: Congress in the 1790s demonstrates that such lines of separation among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, however, were neither so clearly delineated nor observed in the first decade of the federal government's history. The first two essays describe the social and cultural milieu attending the movement of the republican court from New York to Philadelphia and the physical and social environment of Philadelphia in the 1790s. The following section examines the congressional career of New York's Egbert Benson, the senatorial career of Robert Morris as an expression of his economic interests, the vigorous opposition of Rep. William Branch Giles to the Federalist policies of the Washington administration, and finally the underappreciated role of congressional spouses. The last five essays concentrate on areas of interbranch cooperation and conflict. In particular, they discuss the meaning of separation of powers in the 1790s, Washington as an active president with Congress, the contrast between Hamilton's and Jefferson's exercise of political influence with Congress, and John Adams's relationship with Congress during the Quasi-War crisis. The essays in this collection, the second volume of the series Perspectives on the History of Congress, 1789-1801, originated in two conferences held in 1995 and 1996 by the United States Capitol Historical Society.
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The Chronicle of Seert

J. Baker (London, 1967). ... Choksy, J., 'Sacred kingship in Sasanian Iran', BAI 2 (1988), 35–53. ... Daryaee, T., 'Religio-political propaganda on the coinage of Xusro II', American Journal of Numismatics 9 (1997), ...

Author: Philip Wood

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199670673

Category: History

Page: 305

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This book examines the cultural and political history of the Church of the East, the main Christian church in Iraq and Iran. Philip Wood uses medieval Arabic sources to examine history-writing by Christians in the fifth to ninth centuries AD.
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The Roman Monetary System

Bursche, A. (1996) Later Roman–Barbarian Contacts in Central Europe: Numismatic Evidence. ... S. E. and Buttrey, T. V. (1997) 'Review Article: Calculating ancient coin production again', American Journal of Numismatics 9: 113–35.

Author: Constantina Katsari

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139496643

Category: History

Page:

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The Roman monetary system was highly complex. It involved official Roman coins in both silver and bronze, which some provinces produced while others imported them from mints in Rome and elsewhere, as well as, in the East, a range of civic coinages. This is a comprehensive study of the workings of the system in the Eastern provinces from the Augustan period to the third century AD, when the Roman Empire suffered a monetary and economic crisis. The Eastern provinces exemplify the full complexity of the system, but comparisons are made with evidence from the Western provinces as well as with appropriate case studies from other historical times and places. The book will be essential for all Roman historians and numismatists and of interest to a broader range of historians of economics and finance.
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American Journal of Numismatics

A catalogue of standard Byzantine and Dark Age gold coins , December 3. London . Boutin , S. Collection N.K. ... 1997. Calculating ancient coin production , again . American Journal of Numismatics 9 : 113-135 . de Callataj , F. 1995.

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ISBN: STANFORD:36105211725416

Category: Electronic journals

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A Cultural History of Money in Antiquity

Beirut: American University. ... Royal Numismatic Society Special Publication 34. ... Buttrey, Theodore V. and Samuel E. Buttrey (1997), “Review Article: Calculating Ancient Coin Production, Again,” American Journal of Numismatics 9, ...

Author: Bloomsbury Publishing

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9781350253469

Category: History

Page: 216

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The origins of the modern, Western concept of money can be traced back to the earliest electrum coins that were produced in Asia Minor in the seventh century BCE. While other forms of currency (shells, jewelry, silver ingots) were in widespread use long before this, the introduction of coinage aided and accelerated momentous economic, political, and social developments such as long-distance trade, wealth creation (and the social differentiation that followed from that), and the financing of military and political power. Coinage, though adopted inconsistently across different ancient societies, became a significant marker of identity and became embedded in practices of religion and superstition. And this period also witnessed the emergence of the problems of money - inflation, monetary instability, and the breakup of monetary unions - which have surfaced repeatedly in succeeding centuries. Drawing upon a wealth of visual and textual sources, A Cultural History of Money in Antiquity presents essays that examine key cultural case studies of the period on the themes of technologies, ideas, ritual and religion, the everyday, art and representation, interpretation, and the issues of the age.
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The Image of Political Power in the Reign of Nerva AD 96 98

1997. “Calculating Ancient Coin Production Again.” American Journal of Numismatics, 2nd Series, 9: 113–135. Buttrey, T. V. 1972. “Vespasian as Moneyer.” Numismatic Chronicle, 7th Series, 12: 89–109. Buttrey, T. V. 1993.

Author: Nathan T. Elkins

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190648053

Category: Art

Page: 288

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At age 65, Nerva assumed the role of emperor of Rome; just sixteen months later, his reign ended with his death. Nerva's short reign robbed his regime of the opportunity for the emperor's imperial image to be defined in building or monumental art, leaving seemingly little for the art historian or archaeologist to consider. In view of this paucity, studies of Nerva primarily focus on the historical circumstances governing his reign with respect to the few relevant literary sources. The Image of Political Power in the Reign of Nerva, AD 96-98, by contrast, takes the entire imperial coinage program issued by the mint of Rome to examine the "self-representation," and, by extension, the policies and ideals of Nerva's regime. The brevity of Nerva's reign and the problems of retrospection caused by privileging posthumous literary sources make coinage one of the only ways of reconstructing anything of his image and ideology as it was disseminated and developed at the end of the first century during the emperor's lifetime. The iconography of this coinage, and the popularity and spread of different iconographic types-as determined by study of hoards and finds, and as targeted towards different ancient constituencies-offers a more positive take on a little-studied emperor. Across three chapters, Elkins traces the different reverse types and how they would have resonated with their intended audiences, concluding with an examination of the parallels between text and coin iconography with previous and subsequent emperors. The Image of Political Power in the Reign of Nerva, AD 96-98 thus offers significant new perspectives on the agents behind the selection and formulation of iconography in the late first and early second century, showing how coinage can act as a visual panegyric similar to contemporary laudatory texts by tapping into how the inner circle of Nerva's regime wished the emperor to be seen.
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Money in the Late Roman Republic

“Calculating Ancient Coin Production II: Why it Cannot be Done,” Numismatic Chronicle 154, 341–352. Buttrey, T. V., and S. E. Buttrey, 1997. “Calculating Ancient Coin Production, Again,” American Journal of Numismatics 9, 113–135.

Author: David B. Hollander

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9789047419129

Category: History

Page: 208

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Like coinage, bullion, financial instruments and a variety of commodities played an important role in Rome's monetary system. This book examines how the availability of such assets affected the demand for coinage and the development of the late Republican economy.
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The Last Great War of Antiquity

For khwarrah and its representation , see T. Daryaee , “ The Use of Religio - Political Propaganda on the Coinage of Xusro II ' , American Journal of Numismatics , ser.2 , 9 ( 1997 ) , 41-53 , at 46-9 . Gyselen , ' Un Dieu nimbé de ...

Author: James Howard-Johnston

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198830191

Category: History

Page: 480

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The last great war of antiquity was fought on an unprecedented scale along the full length of the Persian-Roman frontier. James Howard-Johnston pieces together the fragmentary evidence of this period to form, for the first time, a coherent story of the dramatic events, key players, and vast lands over which the conflict spread.
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The Nature and Function of Water Baths Bathing and Hygiene from Antiquity through the Renaissance

Comparative Studies in Society and History 36 (1994), 447–462; Heinz Gaube, “Mazdak: Historical Reality or Invention? ... of Religio-Political Propaganda on the Coinage of Xusro II,” American Journal of Numismatics 9, 2nd Series (1997), ...

Author: Cynthia Kosso

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9789047427032

Category: History

Page: 548

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Examining historical water use and ideology diachronically and cross regionally, this book reveals how religion, politics, science and social relationships transformed and were transformed by the manipulation of, uses of, and disputes over water in daily life, ceremonies, and literature.
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Patterns in the Economy of Roman Asia Minor

1966 'an eastern hoard of roman imperial silver', Numismatic Chronicle, 7th series, 6, 167–70. Bland, r. ... 1997 'a study of the chemical composition of roman silver coinage, ad 196–197', American Journal of Numismatics 9, 17–36.

Author: Constantina Katsari

Publisher: ISD LLC

ISBN: 9781914535130

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 350

View: 955

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Asia Minor under Rome was one of the wealthiest and most developed parts of the Empire, but there have been few modern studies of its economics. The twelve papers in this book, by an international team of scholars, work from literary texts, inscriptions, coinage and archaeology. They study the direct impact of Roman rule; the organisation of large agricultural estates; changing patterns of olive production; threats to rural prosperity from pests and the animal world; inter-regional trade in the Black Sea; the significance of civic market buildings; the economic role of temples and sanctuaries; the contribution of private benefactors to civic finances; monetization in the third century AD, and the effect of transitory populations on local economic activity.
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Language

Africa and übersee 80 : 2 ( 1997 ) . Altmann , Gerry T. M. The ascent of Babel : An exploration of language , mind , and understanding . Oxford : Oxford University Press , 1997. Pp . 257 . American Journal of numismatics 9 ( 1997 ) .

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ISBN: UOM:39015067436983

Category: Comparative linguistics

Page:

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Armenian numismatic journal

2 L. A. Saryan , “ An Unpublished Silver Drachm Attributed to Artaxias III ( A.D. 18-34 ) of Armenia , " American Journal of Numismatics , Second Series , Vol . 9 ( 1997 ) , pp . 7-16 . 3 An earlier version of this note was addressed as ...

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ISBN: UOM:39076002923329

Category: Coins, Ancient

Page:

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When Money Talks

Sylvester Sage Crosby, “The United States Cents of 1793,” American Journal of Numismatics 3 (1869): 93–97; Stanley Lane Poole, ... Edward Bunbury, “On Some Unpublished Coins of Lysimachus,” Numismatic Chronicle 9 (1869): 1–18. 29.

Author: Frank L. Holt

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780197517673

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 869

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Coinage - it is one of the most successful and consistent technologies ever invented. Nothing else we still use in everyday life has a history quite like it. Look around at all the things that would bewilder a Greek, Roman, or Renaissance ancestor; then, dig into your purse or pocket for that one artifact that they would immediately recognize as part of their world. Historian Frank L. Holt takes us on a lively journey through the history of numismatics, the study of coins - one of the oldest and most important contributions to the arts and humanities. For 2600 years, poets, economists, philosophers, historians, and theologians have pondered the mysteries of money. Who invented coins, and why? Does coinage function beyond our control as if it had a mind of its own? How has it changed world history and culture? What does numismatics reveal about our past that could never be discovered from any other source? How has numismatics advanced using modern science? Does it still suffer from racist ideas about physiognomy and phrenology? What does its future hold? The approach taken in this richly illustrated book is as multi-faceted as coined money itself. Coins are integral to our economic, social, political, religious, and cultural history. When Money Talks: The History of Coins explores each aspect of coinage, and takes a special interest in how coins have appeared in literature and pop culture, ranging in its analysis from Greek drama and the New Testament to T.V. sitcoms and meme theory.
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Mat riaux Pour L histoire conomique Du Monde Iranien

Daryee , T. , “ The Use of Religio - Political Propaganda on the Coinage of Xusro II , ” American Journal of Numismatics Second series : 9 ( 1997 ) , pp . 41-53 . Frye , R. , “ The Political History of Iran under the Sasanians ...

Author: Rika Gyselen

Publisher: Peeters Pub & Booksellers

ISBN: UOM:39015051998345

Category: History

Page: 366

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Ce volume comporte dix-neuf contributions qui ont trait a l'histoire economique du monde iranien, une aire geographique qui comprend outre le plateau iranien, des regions allant du Proche-Orient a l'Asie Centrale. Certains articles presentent des sources inedites, d'autres des interpretations nouvelles sur des aspects economiques divers. Les auteurs, specialistes de domaines differents, mettent en oeuvre des sources aussi variees que des documents ecrits, des monnaies et des vestiges archeologiques. Quelques articles se sont regroupes autour du theme des modes de production et de distribution. D'autres ont utilise les donnees numismatiques comme source principale pour aborder l'histoire de la monnaie, la production monetaire ou encore l'administration fiscale. Un autre pole d'interet est constitue par des etudes effectuees a partir de documents juridiques et commerciaux et d'autres sources textuelles concernant les fondations pieuses musulmanes, important element de la vie economique, de grande portee sociale et politique. Un quatrieme volet met l'accent sur le commerce urbain et international, et les infrastructures socio-economiques qui le soutiennent.
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