Automatic Learning Techniques in Power Systems

This book presents a representative subset of automatic learning methods - basic and more sophisticated ones - available from statistics (both classical and modern), and from artificial intelligence (both hard and soft computing).

Author: Louis A. Wehenkel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461554516

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 280

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Automatic learning is a complex, multidisciplinary field of research and development, involving theoretical and applied methods from statistics, computer science, artificial intelligence, biology and psychology. Its applications to engineering problems, such as those encountered in electrical power systems, are therefore challenging, while extremely promising. More and more data have become available, collected from the field by systematic archiving, or generated through computer-based simulation. To handle this explosion of data, automatic learning can be used to provide systematic approaches, without which the increasing data amounts and computer power would be of little use. Automatic Learning Techniques in Power Systems is dedicated to the practical application of automatic learning to power systems. Power systems to which automatic learning can be applied are screened and the complementary aspects of automatic learning, with respect to analytical methods and numerical simulation, are investigated. This book presents a representative subset of automatic learning methods - basic and more sophisticated ones - available from statistics (both classical and modern), and from artificial intelligence (both hard and soft computing). The text also discusses appropriate methodologies for combining these methods to make the best use of available data in the context of real-life problems. Automatic Learning Techniques in Power Systems is a useful reference source for professionals and researchers developing automatic learning systems in the electrical power field.
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Machine Learning and Its Applications

IGRE TF38-06-06, “Artificial Neural Networks for Power Systems: A Literature Survey”, Engineering Intelligent Systems, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. ... L. Wehenkel, “Automatic Learning Techniques in Power Systems”, Kluwer Academic Publ., 1998.

Author: Georgios Paliouras

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783540446736

Category: Computers

Page: 324

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In recent years machine learning has made its way from artificial intelligence into areas of administration, commerce, and industry. Data mining is perhaps the most widely known demonstration of this migration, complemented by less publicized applications of machine learning like adaptive systems in industry, financial prediction, medical diagnosis and the construction of user profiles for Web browsers. This book presents the capabilities of machine learning methods and ideas on how these methods could be used to solve real-world problems. The first ten chapters assess the current state of the art of machine learning, from symbolic concept learning and conceptual clustering to case-based reasoning, neural networks, and genetic algorithms. The second part introduces the reader to innovative applications of ML techniques in fields such as data mining, knowledge discovery, human language technology, user modeling, data analysis, discovery science, agent technology, finance, etc.
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Advanced Solutions in Power Systems

AI techniques have been extensively applied to power system problems, such as genetic algorithms, artificial neural ... and machine learning, 1989. r Dillon, T. S., and Laughton, M.A., Expert systems applications in power systems, ...

Author: Mircea Eremia

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119175339

Category: Science

Page: 1072

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Provides insight on both classical means and new trends in the application of power electronic and artificial intelligence techniques in power system operation and control This book presents advanced solutions for power system controllability improvement, transmission capability enhancement and operation planning. The book is organized into three parts. The first part describes the CSC-HVDC and VSC-HVDC technologies, the second part presents the FACTS devices, and the third part refers to the artificial intelligence techniques. All technologies and tools approached in this book are essential for power system development to comply with the smart grid requirements. Discusses detailed operating principles and diagrams, theory of modeling, control strategies and physical installations around the world of HVDC and FACTS systems Covers a wide range of Artificial Intelligence techniques that are successfully applied for many power system problems, from planning and monitoring to operation and control Each chapter is carefully edited, with drawings and illustrations that helps the reader to easily understand the principles of operation or application Advanced Solutions in Power Systems: HVDC, FACTS, and Artificial Intelligence is written for graduate students, researchers in transmission and distribution networks, and power system operation. This book also serves as a reference for professional software developers and practicing engineers.
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Application of Modern Heuristic Optimization Methods in Power and Energy Systems

Excitation models for power system stability studies. ... Recommended models for overexcitation limiting devices. ... Special Issue on Automatic Learning Application to Power Systems of the Revue-E, SRBE, Belgium (December 1996). 153.

Author: Kwang Y. Lee

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119602293

Category: Science

Page: 864

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Reviews state-of-the-art technologies in modern heuristic optimization techniques and presents case studies showing how they have been applied in complex power and energy systems problems Written by a team of international experts, this book describes the use of metaheuristic applications in the analysis and design of electric power systems. This includes a discussion of optimum energy and commitment of generation (nonrenewable & renewable) and load resources during day-to-day operations and control activities in regulated and competitive market structures, along with transmission and distribution systems. Applications of Modern Heuristic Optimization Methods in Power and Energy Systems begins with an introduction and overview of applications in power and energy systems before moving on to planning and operation, control, and distribution. Further chapters cover the integration of renewable energy and the smart grid and electricity markets. The book finishes with final conclusions drawn by the editors. Applications of Modern Heuristic Optimization Methods in Power and Energy Systems: Explains the application of differential evolution in electric power systems' active power multi-objective optimal dispatch Includes studies of optimization and stability in load frequency control in modern power systems Describes optimal compliance of reactive power requirements in near-shore wind power plants Features contributions from noted experts in the field Ideal for power and energy systems designers, planners, operators, and consultants, Applications of Modern Heuristic Optimization Methods in Power and Energy Systems will also benefit engineers, software developers, researchers, academics, and students.
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Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations

Wehenkel L.A., "Automatic Learning Techniques in Power Systems", Kluwer Academic Publ, 1998 2. Cholley P., C. Lebrevelec, S. Vitet, M. de Pasquale, "A Statistical Approach to Assess Voltage Stability Limits", Bulk Power System Dynamics, ...

Author: Ilias Maglogiannis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387342238

Category: Computers

Page: 744

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Artificial Intelligence applications build on a rich and proven theoretical background to provide solutions to a wide range of real life problems. The ever expanding abundance of information and computing power enables researchers and users to tackle higly interesting issues for the first time, such as applications providing personalized access and interactivity to multimodal information based on preferences and semantic concepts or human-machine interface systems utilizing information on the affective state of the user. The purpose of the 3rd IFIP Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations (AIAI) is to bring together researchers, engineers, and practitioners interested in the technical advances and business and industrial applications of intelligent systems. AIAI 2006 is focused on providing insights on how AI can be implemented in real world applications.
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Computational Methods for Large Sparse Power Systems Analysis

THE KLUWER INTERNATIONAL SERIES IN ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER SCIENCE Power Electronics and Power Systems Series ... OF ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS Thierry Van Cutsem and Costas Vournas , ISBN : 0-7923-8139-4 AUTOMATIC LEARNING TECHNIQUES IN ...

Author: S. A. Soman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0792375912

Category: Computers

Page: 333

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Computational methods in Power Systems require significant inputs from diverse disciplines, such as data base structures, numerical analysis etc. Strategic decisions in sparsity exploitation and algorithm design influence large-scale simulation and high-speed computations. Selection of programming paradigm shapes the design, its modularity and reusability. This has a far reaching effect on software maintenance. Computational Methods for Large Sparse Power Systems Analysis: An Object Oriented Approach provides a unified object oriented (OO) treatment for power system analysis. Sparsity exploitation techniques in OO paradigm are emphasized to facilitate large scale and fast computing. Specific applications like large-scale load flow, short circuit analysis, state estimation and optimal power flow are discussed within this framework. A chapter on modeling and computational issues in power system dynamics is also included. Motivational examples and illustrations are included throughout the book. A library of C++ classes provided along with this book has classes for transmission lines, transformers, substation etc. A CD-ROM with C++ programs is also included. It contains load flow, short circuit analysis and network topology processor applications. Power system data is provided and systems up to 150 buses can be studied. Other Special Features: This book is the first of its kind, covering power system applications designed with an OO perspective. Chapters on object orientation for modeling of power system computations, data structure, large sparse linear system solver, sparse QR decomposition in an OO framework are special features of this book.
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Autonomous Systems and Intelligent Agents in Power System Control and Operation

[ 2 ] Hauser AJ , Verstege JF ( 1999 ) Seeing global power system states with compact visualisation techniques . ... VDI Verlag , Düsseldorf [ 20 ] Wehenkel LA ( 1998 ) Automatic Learning Techniques in Power Systems .

Author: Christian Rehtanz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540402020

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 305

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Autonomous systems are one of the most important trends for the next generation of control systems. This book is the first to transfer autonomous systems concepts and intelligent agents theory into the control and operation environment of power systems. The focus of this book is to design a future control system architecture for electrical power systems, which copes with the changed requirements concerning complexity and flexibility and includes several applications for power systems. This book draws the whole circle from the theoretical and IT-concept of autonomous systems for power system control over the required knowledge-based methods and their capabilities to concrete applications within this field.
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Computational Techniques for Voltage Stability Assessment and Control

Other books in the series: REAL-TIME STABILITY IN POWER SYSTEMS: Techniques for Early Detection of the Risk of Blackout ... ISBN 0-7923-8139-4 AUTOMATIC LEARNING TECHNIQUES IN POWER SYSTEMS Louis A. Wehenkel, ISBN 0-7923-8068-1 ENERGY ...

Author: Venkataramana Ajjarapu

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387329352

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 250

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This book provides comprehensive details on continuation power flow, and reviews concepts in bifurcation theory and continuation methods for assessing power system voltage stability. The author proposes a uniform framework that provides computational approaches for both short-term and long-term voltage stability phenomena. Readers can access the author’s web-based simulation tools, which are based on the advice in this book, to simulate tests of systems up to the size of 200 busses.
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Voltage Stability of Electric Power Systems

John Wiley & Sons., 3rd edition, 1979. [Weh97] L.A. Wehenkel. Automatic learning techniques in power systems. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. [Wig90] S. Wiggins. Introduction to Applied Nonlinear Dynamical Systems and Chaos.

Author: Thierry van Cutsem

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387755359

Category: Science

Page: 378

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Voltage Stability is a challenging problem in Power Systems Engineering. This book presents a description of voltage instability and collapse phenomena. It intends to propose a uniform and coherent theoretical framework for analysis. It describes practical methods that can be used for voltage security assessment and offers a variety of examples.
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Real Time Stability in Power Systems

Other books in the series: ROBUST CONTROL IN POWER SYSTEMS Bikash Pal, Balarko Chaudhuri, ISBN 0-387-25949-X APPLIED ... ISBN 0-7923-8139-4 AUTOMATIC LEARNING TECHNIQUES IN POWER SYSTEMS Louis A. Wehenkel, ISBN 0-7923-8068-1 ENERGY ...

Author: Savu C. Savulescu

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387256261

Category: Technology

Page: 319

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In the aftermath of the wave of blackouts that affected US, UK and mainland Europe utilities in 2003 and 2004, renewed attention has been focused on maintaining the highest level of reliability and security in the operation of power systems. The lack of adequate transmission infrastructure as well as real-time tools aimed at detecting and alarming system conditions have also been highlighted. In this context, the need to assess stability and predict the risk of blackout in real-time has become particularly relevant. Early work in this field documented in technical papers published throughout the 1990s and early 2000s underlined the importance of performing stability assessment in real-time. While static security assessment is conceptually straightforward, innovative approaches are needed to combine it with dynamic security assessment to develop an overall scheme so that results can be used for on-line decision-making. On October 13, 2004, the IEEE Power Systems Conference and Exposition 2004 hosted the ‘Real-Time Stability Challenge’ panel session. Organized by the Power System Dynamic Performance Committee, the panel was a forum for presenting progress achieved in this field, discussing new ideas, and identifying the challenges to be met in the course of future research. Real-Time Stability in Power Systems: Techniques for Early Detection of the Risk of Blackout is built around most of the panel papers, updated and expanded by the authors with the new material relevant to the panel theme. The chapters are contributed by well known experts in the field, thus providing an authoritative reference on the theory and implementation of real-time stability assessment -- one of the critical topics of the day. Some of the issues discussed in the book include, but are not limited to: *Stability limits and how to objectively define them, *Techniques for defining and measuring the distance to instability, *The characterization of the risk of blackout, *Discussion of quick, approximate methods to filter out non-critical contingencies and do a detailed simulation only of those that result in limit violations, *Theoretical description and practical experience with real-time and/or near real-time stability applications available today in the SCADA/EMS industry.
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Complex System Modelling and Control Through Intelligent Soft Computations

Wehenkel, L. (1997). Machine learning approaches to power-system security assessment. IEEE Expert, IEEE Intelligent Systems and Their Applications, 12(5), 60–72. Wehenkel, L. (1998). Automatic learning techniques in power systems.

Author: Quanmin Zhu

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319128832

Category: Computers

Page: 863

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The book offers a snapshot of the theories and applications of soft computing in the area of complex systems modeling and control. It presents the most important findings discussed during the 5th International Conference on Modelling, Identification and Control, held in Cairo, from August 31-September 2, 2013. The book consists of twenty-nine selected contributions, which have been thoroughly reviewed and extended before their inclusion in the volume. The different chapters, written by active researchers in the field, report on both current theories and important applications of soft-computing. Besides providing the readers with soft-computing fundamentals, and soft-computing based inductive methodologies/algorithms, the book also discusses key industrial soft-computing applications, as well as multidisciplinary solutions developed for a variety of purposes, like windup control, waste management, security issues, biomedical applications and many others. It is a perfect reference guide for graduate students, researchers and practitioners in the area of soft computing, systems modeling and control.
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Robust Control in Power Systems

POWER ELECTRONICS AND POWER SYSTEMS Series Editors M. A. Pai and Alex Stankovic Other books in the series: APPLIED ... ISBN: 0-7923-8139-4 AUTOMATIC LEARNING TECHNIQUES IN POWER SYSTEMS, Louis A. Wehenkel, ISBN: 0-7923-8068-1 ENERGY ...

Author: Bikash Pal

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387259505

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 190

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Robust Control in Power Systems deals with the applications of new techniques in linear system theory to control low frequency oscillations in power systems. The book specifically focuses on the analysis and damping of inter-area oscillations in the systems which are in the range of 0.2-1 Hz. The damping control action is injected through high power electronic devices known as flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) controllers. Three commonly used FACTS controllers: controllable series capacitors (CSCs) controllable phase shifters (CPSs) and static var compensators (SVCs) have been used in this book to control the inter-area oscillations. The overview of linear system theory from the perspective of power system control is explained through examples. The damping control design is formulated as norm optimization problem. The H_infinity, H2 norm of properly defined transfer functions are minimized in linear matrix inequalities (LMI) framework to obtain desired performance and stability robustness. Both centralized and decentralized control structures are used. Usually the transmission of feedback signal from a remote location encounters delays making it difficult to control the system. Smith predictor based approach has been successfully explored in this book as a solution to such a problem. Robust Control in Power Systems will be valuable to academicians in the areas of power, control and system theory, as well as professionals in the power industry.
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Applied Mathematics for Restructured Electric Power Systems

POWER ELECTRONICS AND POWER SYSTEMS Series Editors M. A. Pai and Alex Stankovic Other books in the series: HVDC and ... ISBN: 0-7923-8139-4 AUTOMATIC LEARNING TECHNIQUES IN POWER SYSTEMS, Louis A. Wehenkel, ISBN: 0-7923-8068-1 ENERGY ...

Author: Joe H. Chow

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387234717

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 324

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Applied Mathematics for Restructured Electric Power Systems: Optimization, Control, and Computational Intelligence consists of chapters based on work presented at a National Science Foundation workshop organized in November 2003. The theme of the workshop was the use of applied mathematics to solve challenging power system problems. The areas included control, optimization, and computational intelligence. In addition to the introductory chapter, this book includes 12 chapters written by renowned experts in their respected fields. Each chapter follows a three-part format: (1) a description of an important power system problem or problems, (2) the current practice and/or particular research approaches, and (3) future research directions. Collectively, the technical areas discussed are voltage and oscillatory stability, power system security margins, hierarchical and decentralized control, stability monitoring, embedded optimization, neural network control with adaptive critic architecture, control tuning using genetic algorithms, and load forecasting and component prediction. This volume is intended for power systems researchers and professionals charged with solving electric and power system problems.
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Intelligent Systems and Signal Processing in Power Engineering

Novak B (1995) Superfast autoconfiguring artificial neural networks and their application to power systems. ... Electric Power Systems Research 28:67–79 Wehenkel L (1998), Automatic learning techniques in power systems.

Author: Abhisek Ukil

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540731702

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 372

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This highly experienced author sets out to build a bridge between two inter-disciplinary power engineering practices. The book looks into two major fields used in modern power systems: intelligent systems and the signal processing. The intelligent systems section comprises fuzzy logic, neural network and support vector machine. The author looks at relevant theories on the topics without assuming much particular background. Following the theoretical basics, he studies their applications in various problems in power engineering, like, load forecasting, phase balancing, or disturbance analysis.
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Transient Stability of Power Systems

In Proc. of IFAC/CIGRE Symp. on Control of Power Systems and Power Plants, Beijing, China: 506–51 1, 1997. [Wehenkel, 1998] L. Wehenkel. Automatic Learning Techniques in Power Systems. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998.

Author: Mania Pavella

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461543190

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 238

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The market liberalization is expected to affect drastically the operation of power systems, which under economical pressure and increasing amount of transactions are being operated much closer to their limits than previously. These changes put the system operators faced with rather different and much more problematic scenarios than in the past. They have now to calculate available transfer capabilities and manage congestion problems in a near on line environment, while operating the transmission system under extremely stressed conditions. This requires highly reliable and efficient software aids, which today are non-existent, or not yet in use. One of the most problematic issues, very much needed but not yet en countered today, is on-line dynamic security assessment and control, enabling the power system to withstand unexpected contingencies without experienc ing voltage or transient instabilities. This monograph is devoted to a unified approach to transient stability assessment and control, called SIngle Machine Equivalent (S1ME).
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Power System Engineering 3e

Kothari, D.P. and Nagrath I.J., Basic Electrical Engineering, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2nd edn, 2002. (Ch. 15). Wehenkel, L.A., Automatic Learning Techniques in Power Systems, Kluwer, Norwell, MA: 1997. Philipson, L. and Lee Willis ...

Author: D P Kothari

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education

ISBN: 9789353165123

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1201

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This hallmark text on Power System Engineering provides the readers a comprehensive account of all key concepts in the field. The book includes latest technology developments and talks about some crucial areas of Power system, such as Transmission & Distribution, Analysis & Stability, and Protection & Switchgear. With its rich content, it caters to the requirements of students, instructors, and professionals.
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Power Systems Restructuring

... OF SILICON POWER DEVICES, Ranbir Singh and B. Jayant Baliga, ISBN: 0-7923-8157-2 VOLTAGE STABILITY OF ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS, Thierry Van Cutsem and Costas Vournas, ISBN: 0-7923-8139-4 AUTOMATIC LEARNING TECHNIQUES IN POWER SYSTEMS, ...

Author: Marija Ilic

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781475728835

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 560

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The writing of this book was largely motivated by the ongoing unprecedented world-wide restructuring of the power industry. This move away from the traditional monopolies and toward greater competition, in the form of increased numbers of independent power producers and an unbundling of the main services that were until now provided by the utilities, has been building up for over a decade. This change was driven by the large disparities in electricity tariffs across regions, by technological developments that make it possible for small producers to compete with large ones, and by a widely held belief that competition will be beneficial in a broad sense. All of this together with the political will to push through the necessary legislative reforms has created a climate conducive to restructuring in the electric power industry. Consequently, since the beginning of this decade dramatic changes have taken place in an ever-increasing list of nations, from the pioneering moves in the United Kingdom, Chile and Scandinavia, to today's highly fluid power industry throughout North and South America, as well as in the European Community. The drive to restructure and take advantage of the potential economic benefits has, in our view, forced the industry to take actions and make choices at a hurried pace, without the usual deliberation and thorough analysis of possible implications. We must admit that to speak of "the industry" at this juncture is perhaps disingenuous, even misleading.
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Inter area Oscillations in Power Systems

Power. Electronics. and. Power. Systems. Series Editors: Series Editors: M. A. Pai University of Illinois at ... of Electric Power Systems Thierry Van Cutsem and Costas Vournas ISBN 978-0-7923-8139-6 Automatic Learning Techniques in ...

Author: Arturo Roman Messina

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387895302

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 275

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The study of complex dynamic processes governed by nonlinear and nonstationary characteristics is a problem of great importance in the analysis and control of power system oscillatory behavior. Power system dynamic processes are highly random, nonlinear to some extent, and intrinsically nonstationary even over short time intervals as in the case of severe transient oscillations in which switching events and control actions interact in a complex manner. Phenomena observed in power system oscillatory dynamics are diverse and complex. Measured ambient data are known to exhibit noisy, nonstationary fluctuations resulting primarily from small magnitude, random changes in load, driven by low-scale motions or nonlinear trends originating from slow control actions or changes in operating conditions. Forced oscillations resulting from major cascading events, on the other hand, may contain motions with a broad range of scales and can be highly nonlinear and time-varying. Prediction of temporal dynamics, with the ultimate application to real-time system monitoring, protection and control, remains a major research challenge due to the complexity of the driving dynamic and control processes operating on various temporal scales that can become dynamically involved. An understanding of system dynamics is critical for reliable inference of the underlying mechanisms in the observed oscillations and is needed for the development of effective wide-area measurement and control systems, and for improved operational reliability.
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Machine Learning ECML 2000

11th European Conference on Machine Learning Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain May, 31 - June 2, 2000 Proceedings Ramon Lopez de Mantaras, ... C4.5: Programs for machine learning. ... Automatic learning techniques in power systems.

Author: Ramon Lopez de Mantaras

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783540451648

Category: Computers

Page: 472

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The biennial European Conference on Machine Learning (ECML) series is intended to provide an international forum for the discussion of the latest high quality research results in machine learning and is the major European scienti?c event in the ?eld. The eleventh conference (ECML 2000) held in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain from May 31 to June 2, 2000, has continued this tradition by attracting high quality papers from around the world. Scientists from 21 countries submitted 100 papers to ECML 2000, from which 20 were selected for long oral presentations and 23 for short oral presentations. This selection was based on the recommendations of at least two reviewers for each submitted paper. It is worth noticing that the number of papers reporting applications of machine learning has increased in comparison to past ECML conferences. We believe this fact shows the growing maturity of the ?eld. This volume contains the 43 accepted papers as well as the invited talks by Katharina Morik from the University of Dortmund and Pedro Domingos from the University of Washington at Seattle. In addition, three workshops were jointly organized by ECML 2000 and the European Network of Excellence - net: “Dealing with Structured Data in Machine Learning and Statistics W- stites”, “Machine Learning in the New Information Age” , and “Meta-Learning: Building Automatic Advice Strategies for Model Selection and Method Com- nation”.
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Robust Power System Frequency Control

Power. Electronics. and. Power. Systems. Series Editors: M.A. Pai Alex Stankovic University of Illinois at ... of Electric Power Systems Thierry Van Cutsem and Costas Vournas ISBN 978-0-7923-8139-6 Automatic Learning Techniques in Power ...

Author: Hassan Bevrani

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387848785

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 226

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Frequency control as a major function of automatic generation control is one of the important control problems in electric power system design and operation, and is becoming more signi?cant today because of the increasing size, changing structure, emerging new uncertainties, environmental constraints and the complexity of power systems. In the last two decades, many studies have focused on damping control and vo- age stability and the related issues, but there has been much less work on the power system frequency control analysis and synthesis. While some aspects of frequency control have been illustrated along with individual chapters, many conferences and technical papers, a comprehensive and sensible practical explanation of robust f- quency control in a book form is necessary. This book provides a thorough understanding of the basic principles of power system frequency behaviour in wide range of operating conditions. It uses simple frequency response models, control structures and mathematical algorithms to adapt modern robust control theorems with frequency control issue and conceptual exp- nations. Most developed control strategies are examined by real-time simulations. Practical methods for computer analysis and design are emphasized. This book emphasizes the physical and engineering aspects of the power s- tem frequency control design problem, providing a conceptual understanding of frequency regulation, and application of robust control techniques. The main aim is to develop an appropriate intuition relative to the robust load frequency regulation problem in real-world power systems, rather than to describe sophisticated mat- matical analytical methods.
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