Einheit der Muslime? Die Einheitsidee von Ayatollah Khomeini vor dem Hintergrund der Sunna-Shia-Differenzen und die Folgen für die Außenpolitik des Iran


Author: Jan Oswald
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 3640844858
Category:
Page: 68
View: 8614
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Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2005 im Fachbereich Politik - Internationale Politik - Region: Naher Osten, Vorderer Orient, Note: 2.0, Freie Universitat Berlin, 19 Quellen im Literaturverzeichnis, Sprache: Deutsch, Anmerkungen: ca. 7000 Worter, Abstract: 1. Einleitung Um auch heute noch die aussenpolitische Stellung des Iran im Gefuge der muslimischen Welt verstehen zu konnen, kommt man nicht umhin, sich mit einer seiner wichtigsten theoretischen Grundlagen zu beschaftigen: der Einheitsidee Khomeinis und dem Revolutionsexport. In dieser Arbeit sollen dementsprechend Erklarungsmuster gesucht werden, um die Isolation Irans gegenuber seinen muslimischen Nachbarlandern des Nahen und Mittleren Ostens verstehen zu konnen. Dabei spielen die Differenzen zwischen Sunniten und Schiiten eine zentrale Rolle, da in der historischen und religiosen Entwicklung der muslimischen Welt die immanenten Grunde fur die Spaltung und bisherige Nichtuberwindung dieses latenten" Konfliktes liegen. Wohl kam es nie zu einem Konflikt, der dem christlichen Aquivalent des 30-jahrigen Krieges nahe kame, dennoch handelt es sich um ein disparates Verhaltnis, welches sich heute in den Lebenswirklichkeiten von Muslimen meist in Nichtbeachten und Ignorieren ausdruckt, in jungerer Vergangenheit aber auch in Unterdruckung, z.B. in Irak und Saudi-Arabien. Dieses Verhaltnis ist von daher interessant, als dass man nicht von einem offenen Konflikt zwischen Sunniten und Schiiten ausgehen kann, der z.B. in eine Form des Burgerkrieges gefuhrt hatte, sondern von einem Nebenher der beiden Religionsgruppen, welches sich zwischen den Polen der gegenseitigen Nichtbeachtung und gewalttatigen Auseinandersetzungen und zwischen okumenischen Tendenzen und theologischer Verscharfung der Graben bewegt. Es wird hier die These vertreten, dass ein tieferes Verstandnis der Spaltung zwischen den beiden Gruppen notwendig ist, um die Bedeutung der Einheitsidee bei Khomeini genauso wie die Folgen fur die aussenpolitischen Bezieh

Die Herrschaft des Ayatollah Khomeini als eine charismatische nach Max Weber?


Author: Christopher Rerrer
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 366845552X
Category: Social Science
Page: 17
View: 8329
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Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2017 im Fachbereich Soziologie - Individuum, Gruppe, Gesellschaft, Note: 1,0, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Veranstaltung: Grundprobleme der Soziologie: Macht & Herrschaft, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: In dem ersten theoretischen Teil dieser Arbeit wird auf die Grundbegriffe der Herrschaftssoziologie nach Max Weber eingegangen, wobei der Schwerpunkt insbesondere auf die charismatische Herrschaft und die Veralltäglichung des Charismas gelegt wird. Nach einem kurzen Exkurs in die religiös-historischen Hintergründe der Herrschaft im Schiismus, der für das grundlegende Verständnis der Debatte um Herrschaft im Iran notwendig ist, wird anhand der Lepsius Interpretation eine Analyse und Einordnung des Falls Ayatollah Khomeini durchgeführt. Der Anspruch dieser Arbeit ist es, herauszufinden, inwiefern die Herrschaft des Ayatollah Khomeinis eine charismatische gemäß der Kriterien nach Max Weber ist. Ziel ist es, die Weber'sche Theorie mit weiteren Fallbeispielen zu unterfüttern, um somit ein besseres Bewusstsein über die soziale Beziehung zwischen „Beherrschten“ und „Herrschenden zu erlangen. Besonders in Zeiten, in denen die „(..)Staatskunst großer Männer“ unter dem Deckmantel der Religion wieder auf dem Vormarsch zu sein scheint, ist diesem Bewusstsein eine hohe Bedeutung zu zumessen. „Politik ist die Staatskunst großer Männer.“, mit dieser heutzutage recht eigenartig anmutenden Definition von Politik zeigt der im 19. Jahrhundert lebende Historiker Heinrich von Treitschke auf, in welchem Maße es Einzelpersonen waren, die bereits die vorhergehenden Jahrhunderte der Menschheitsgeschichte wesentlich geprägt hatten. Die Ereignisse des 20. Jahrhunderts und insbesondere die beiden Weltkriege, in denen es einzelne Männer waren, die für den Auf- und Abstieg ganzer „Nationen“ verantwortlich waren, sollen ihm in seiner Feststellung recht geben. Auch Hume stellt in seinem Zitat „Nothing apperas more suprising to those who consider human affairs with a philosophic eye than the easiness with which the many are governed by a few.“, mit philosophischem Blick verwundert fest, wie das zahlenmäßige Verhältnis zwischen Herrschern und Beherrschten festgelegt ist und mit welcher Selbstverständlichkeit eben dieses passiert. Man mag meinen, dass all dies Tatbestände der Vergangenheit sind, doch autoritäre Charismaträger wie Jaroslav Kaczynski oder sogar Abu Bakhr-al Baghdadi zeigen, dass trotz der der universellen Gleichheit aller Menschen, es doch wenige sind, die unsere Welt zu formen scheinen und hierfür zunehmend religiöse Motive eine Rolle spielen.

Ayatollah Khomeini


Author: Edward Willett
Publisher: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc
ISBN: 9780823944651
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
Page: 112
View: 887
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Examines the life and leadership skills of Ayatollah Khomeini, who established the "ideal Islamic state" in Iran and encouraged Muslims worldwide to demonstrate against non-Islamic nations.

Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini


Author: Daniel E. Harmon,Anne M. Todd
Publisher: Infobase Publishing
ISBN: 1438106564
Category: JUVENILE NONFICTION
Page: 123
View: 9868
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An Iranian cleric who criticized the modernization efforts of the Shah of Iran (Mohammed Reza Pahlavi), Khomeini called for a fundamentalist Islamic state in Iran.

Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini


Author: EPUB 2-3
Publisher: Infobase Learning
ISBN: 1438147929
Category:
Page: N.A
View: 3665
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CHBiographies

Khomeini

Life of the Ayatollah
Author: Baqer Moin
Publisher: Macmillan
ISBN: 1466893060
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 368
View: 6350
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The Ayatollah Khomeini was the most radical Muslim leader of this age. In transforming himself from a traditional Muslim theologian into the charismatic Iranian ruler who took on the world, Khomeini launched an Islamic revival movement that, with the collapse of communism, quickly evolved for some as the centre-piece in the pantheon of western demonology, and for others as the inspiration for spiritual and political rebirth. Whether viewed as a hero by his supporters or as a villain by his enemies, Khomeini was undoubtedly one of the seminal figures of the twentieth century, whose influence will extend some way into the new millennium. Baqer Moin here explores how and why this frail octogenarian, dressed in the traditional robes of a Muslim cleric, overthrew the secular Shah of Iran and became the spiritual leader of a new and militant Islamic regime. Still an enigma in the West, Khomeini transformed the Middle East and the world. But where did the man come from? What was his childhood and family background? What lay behind his implacable opposition to the Shah? What role did the turbulent events in Iran during his youth play in shaping Khomeini's political perceptions? What changed him from an obscure traditional theologian with mystical and poetic inclinations into a combative and highly vengeful radical? How will his vision of an international community of Muslims, a kind of Islamic Internationale, affect the Middle East? Drawing on many exclusive personal interviews with Khomeini's associates, on unpublished new materials and on the author's firsthand experience in Islamic seminaries, this biography provides a fascinating, well-documented and highly accessible analysis of the life and thought of one of the most controversial leaders of the late twentieth century.

Khomeini's the Little Green Book


Author: Ayatollah Khomeini
Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
ISBN: 9781541241541
Category:
Page: 76
View: 7882
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The Little Green Book is a collection of fatawah handed down by the most prominent and arguably one of the most influential Muslim clerics in modern history; the Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Mosavi Khomeini, commonly known as the Ayatollah Khomeini. Fatawah (the plural of fatwah) are Islamic religious decrees sent down by Muslim religious leaders. Since Islam demands that Muslims abide by Sharia - Islamic law as individuals and as a society, these fatawah are not simply religious insights or advice. They are legal pronouncements, and define the law of the land in an Islamic country. In his unrivaled role as Iran's Supreme Leader and the highest-ranking cleric for Shi'a Muslims, the Ayatollah Khomeini's fatawah guided the lives of more Shi'a Muslims than did any other Islamic leader throughout history

Reinventing Khomeini

The Struggle for Reform in Iran
Author: Daniel Brumberg
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226077581
Category: History
Page: 306
View: 2099
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Reinventing Khomeini offers a new interpretation of the political battles that paved the way for reform in Iran. Brumberg argues that these conflicts did not result from a sudden ideological shift; nor did the election of President Mohammad Khatami in 1997 really defy the core principles of the Islamic Revolution. To the contrary, the struggle for a more democratic Iran can be traced to the revolution itself, and to the contradictory agendas of the revolution's founding father, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. A complex figure, Khomeini was a fervent champion of Islam, but while he sought a Shi'ite vision of clerical rule under one Supreme Leader, he also strove to mesh that vision with an implicitly Western view of mass participatory politics. The intense magnetism and charisma of the ayatollah obscured this paradox. But reformers in Iran today, while rejecting his autocratic vision, are reviving the constitutional notions of government that he considered, and even casting themselves as the bearers of his legacy. In Reinventing Khomeini, Brumberg proves that the ayatollah is as much the author of modern Iran as he is the symbol of its fundamentalist past.

The Final Word!

An American Refutes the Sayings of Ayatollah Khomeini
Author: James Lee
Publisher: Allied Books Limited
ISBN: N.A
Category: History
Page: 108
View: 967
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Examines the writings of the Ayatollah Khomeini, current ruler of Iran, discusses the meaning of his sayings, and offers rebuttals to the Ayatollah's philosophy

The Political Ideology of Ayatollah Khamenei

Out of the Mouth of the Supreme Leader of Iran
Author: Yvette Hovsepian-Bearce
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317605829
Category: Political Science
Page: 382
View: 9730
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Ayatollah ʿAli Hosseini Khamenei, Supreme Leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran, is one of the most controversial and influential Muslim leaders in the world today. As Iran’s main decision-maker, his theocratic ideology and decisions carry global consequences. The Political Ideology of Ayatollah Khamenei is the first book to identify and analyze the development and evolution of the theocratic ideology of the Supreme Leader from 1962 to 2014, using his own writings, speeches, and biographies, as well as literature published in the Islamic Republic of Iran. This work provides new insights into Khamenei’s political thought and behavior and their impact on Iran’s domestic, regional, and international policies. Correlating the development of Khamenei’s personality, character, and political behavior with Iran’s internal and external challenges, this study explores key issues of the Middle East region, in particular Iran’s political posture toward Israel, the United States, and the Muslim world, and the diplomatic crises unfolding over Iran’s nuclear development program. This work provides a comprehensive chronological and thematic survey of Khamenei’s life. This book will be of interest to students, scholars, researchers, diplomats, and policymakers focusing on Middle Eastern politics, Iranian affairs, Islamic studies, and international relations; and could serve as an essential resource for those striving to understand Iran’s policies toward Israel, the United States, and the Muslim world, as shaped by its supreme autocrat.

Ayatollah Khomeini and the Anatomy of the Islamic Revolution in Iran

Toward a Theory of Prophetic Charisma
Author: Dustin Byrd
Publisher: University Press of Amer
ISBN: 9780761854852
Category: Social Science
Page: 117
View: 3081
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This book explains why Khomeini was able to lead the Iranian people in their revolution against the Shah. Combining the sociological study of charisma by Max Weber and the critical psychology of Erich Fromm, Byrd develops a theory of "prophetic charisma" to explain Khomeini's unique qualifications for leading the revolution.

Ruhollah Khomeini

Political Thought and Legacy of Khomeini, Islamic Government
Author: Source Wikipedia
Publisher: University-Press.org
ISBN: 9781230531540
Category:
Page: 28
View: 3316
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Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 26. Chapters: Political thought and legacy of Khomeini, Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist, British-Ruhollah Khomeini conspiracy theory, Islamic Movement of Iran, Council of Islamic Revolution, Khadijeh Saqafi, Islam and Revolution. Excerpt: Grand Ayatollah Sayyed Ruhollah Mostafavi Moosavi Khomeini (Persian: , Persian pronunciation: , 24 September 1902 - 3 June 1989) was an Iranian religious leader and politician, and leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran. Following the revolution and a national referendum, Khomeini became the country's Supreme Leader-a position created in the constitution as the highest ranking political and religious authority of the nation-until his death. Khomeini was a marja ("source of emulation," also known as a Grand Ayatollah) in Twelver Shi'a Islam, but is most famous for his political role. In his writings and preachings he expanded the Shi'a Usuli theory of velayat-e faqih, the "guardianship of the jurisconsult (clerical authority)" to include theocratic political rule by the Islamic jurists. In the Muslim world abroad he was described as the "virtual face in Western popular culture of Islam," known for his support of the hostage takers during the Iranian hostage crisis and his fatwa calling for the death of British citizen Salman Rushdie. Khomeini has been referred to as a "charismatic leader of immense popularity," considered a "champion of Islamic revival" by Shia scholars. Khomeini is officially known as Imam Khomeini inside Iran and amongst his followers internationally, and Ayatollah Khomeini amongst others. Khomeini in youth (Second from right and fourth from left ) The origin of Khomeini family is from Nishapur, Iran. Towards the end of the 18th century, the ancestors of Ruhollah Khomeini had migrated from...

The Position of Women from the Viewpoint of Imam Khomeini


Author: Ruhollah Khomeini
Publisher: Alhoda UK
ISBN: 9789643355043
Category: Muslim women
Page: 299
View: 9890
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Ayatollah Khomeini


Author: Matthew Gordon
Publisher: Chelsea House Pub
ISBN: 9780877545590
Category: History
Page: 116
View: 6013
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An illustrated biography of the Islamic religious leader who became the chief political figure in Iran after the overthrow of the shah in 1979.

Islamic Government

Governance of the Jurist
Author: N.A
Publisher: Alhoda UK
ISBN: 9789643354992
Category: Iran
Page: 139
View: 5678
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A Critical Introduction to Khomeini


Author: Arshin Adib-Moghaddam
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107729068
Category: History
Page: 344
View: 6722
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As the architect of the Iranian Revolution of 1979, Ayatollah Khomeini remains one of the most inspirational and enigmatic figures of the twentieth century. The revolution placed Iran at the forefront of Middle East politics and the Islamic revival. Twenty years after his death, Khomeini is revered as a spiritual and political figurehead in Iran and in large swathes of the Islamic world, while in the West he is remembered by many as a dictator and the instigator of Islamist confrontation. Arshin Adib-Moghaddam brings together distinguished and emerging scholars in this comprehensive volume, which covers all aspects of Khomeini's life and critically examines Khomeini the politician, the philosopher, and the spiritual leader, while considering his legacy in Iran and further afield in other parts of the Islamic world and the West. Written by scholars from varying disciplines, the book will prove invaluable to students and general readers interested in the life and times of Khomeini and the politics that he inspired.

Islamic Extremism

Causes, Diversity, and Challenges
Author: Monte Palmer,Princess Palmer
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 9780742555181
Category: Political Science
Page: 291
View: 9427
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This accessible and deeply informed book examines the threat that Islamic extremists pose to America and provides a balanced discussion of the link between Iraq and the war on terror. Explaining the basics of Islam and guiding the reader through the intricacies of each significant fundamentalist group, the Palmers answer key questions: Who are the Muslim extremists and how do they fit within the broader context of the Islamic religion? What is their war plan and how do they operate? Who are their allies and what are their weaknesses? What is the experience of Israel, the Islamic world, and the United States in fighting extremists? How can they be defeated? Now in a thoroughly revised and updated edition, the book includes new chapters on Hamas, the Iraqi clones of Hizbullah—including Sadr—and the Islamic government in Turkey.